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Technical Paper

Benefits and Application Bandwidth of Phenolic Piston Material in Opposed Piston Calipers

2019-09-15
2019-01-2123
The use of reinforced phenolic composite material in application to hydraulic pistons for brake calipers has been well established in the industry - for sliding calipers (and certain fixed calipers with high piston length to diameter ratios). For decades, customers have enjoyed lower brake fluid temperatures, mass savings, improved corrosion resistance, and smoother brake operation (less judder). However, some persistent concerns remain about the use of phenolic materials for opposed piston calipers. The present work explores two key questions about phenolic piston application in opposed piston calipers. Firstly, do opposed piston calipers see similar benefits? Do high performance aluminum bodied calipers, where the piston may no longer be a dominant heat flow path into the fluid (due to a large amount of conduction and cooling enabled by the housing), still enjoy fluid temperature reductions?
Technical Paper

Strain Rate Effect on Martensitic Transformation in a TRIP Steel Containing Carbide-Free Bainite

2019-04-02
2019-01-0521
Adiabatic heating during plastic straining can slow the diffusionless shear transformation of austenite to martensite in steels that exhibit transformation induced plasticity (TRIP). However, the extent to which the transformation is affected over a strain rate range of relevance to automotive stamping and vehicle impact events is unclear for most third-generation advanced high strength TRIP steels. In this study, an 1180MPa minimum tensile strength TRIP steel with carbide-free bainite is evaluated by measuring the variation of retained austenite volume fraction (RAVF) in fractured tensile specimens with position and strain. This requires a combination of servo-hydraulic load frame instrumented with high speed stereo digital image correlation for measurement of strains and ex-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction for determination of RAVF in fractured tensile specimens.
Technical Paper

A Mechanism-Based Thermomechanical Fatigue Life Assessment Method for High Temperature Engine Components with Gradient Effect Approximation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0536
High temperature components in internal combustion engines and exhaust systems must withstand severe mechanical and thermal cyclic loads throughout their lifetime. The combination of thermal transients and mechanical load cycling results in a complex evolution of damage, leading to thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) of the material. Analytical tools are increasingly employed by designers and engineers for component durability assessment well before any hardware testing. The DTMF model for TMF life prediction, which assumes that micro-crack growth is the dominant damage mechanism, is capable of providing reliable predictions for a wide range of high-temperature components and materials in internal combustion engines. Thus far, the DTMF model has employed a local approach where surface stresses, strains, and temperatures are used to compute damage for estimating the number of cycles for a small initial defect or micro-crack to reach a critical length.
Technical Paper

Constitutive Modeling and Thermomechanical Fatigue Life Predictions of A356-T6 Aluminum Cylinder Heads Considering Ageing Effects

2019-04-02
2019-01-0534
Cast aluminum alloys are frequently used as materials for cylinder head applications in internal combustion gasoline engines. These components must withstand severe cyclic mechanical and thermal loads throughout their lifetime. Reliable computational methods allow for accurate estimation of stresses, strains, and temperature fields and lead to more realistic Thermomechanical Fatigue (TMF) lifetime predictions. With accurate numerical methods, the components could be optimized via computer simulations and the number of required bench tests could be reduced significantly. These types of alloys are normally optimized for peak hardness from a quenched state that maximizes the strength of the material. However due to high temperature exposure, in service or under test conditions, the material would experience an over-ageing effect that leads to a significant reduction in the strength of the material.
Technical Paper

Tooling Effects on Edge Stretchability of AHSS in Mechanical Punching

2019-04-02
2019-01-1086
Edge stretchability reduction induced by mechanical trimming is a critical issue in advanced high strength steel applications. In this study, the tooling effects on the trimmed edge damage were evaluated by the specially designed in-plane hole expansion test with the consideration of three punch geometries (flat, conical, and rooftop), three cutting clearances (6%, 14%, and 20%) and two materials grades (DP980 and DP1180). Two distinct fracture initiation modes were identified with different testing configurations, and the occurrence of each fracture mode depends on the tooling configurations and materials grades. Digital Image Correlations (DIC) measurements indicate the materials are subject to different deformation modes and the various stress conditions, which result in different fracture initiation locations.
Technical Paper

Development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel Standard

2019-04-02
2019-01-0264
The TOP TIERTM Diesel fuel standard was first established in 2017 to promote better fuel quality in marketplace to address the needs of diesel engines. It provides an automotive recommended fuel specification to be used in tandem with regional diesel fuel specifications or regulations. This fuel standard was developed by TOP TIERTM Diesel Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) sponsors made up of representatives of diesel auto and engine manufacturers. This performance specification developed after two years of discussions with various stakeholders such as individual OEMs, members of Truck and Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA), fuel additive companies, as well as fuel producers and marketers. This paper reviews the major aspects of the development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel program including implementation and market adoption challenges.
Technical Paper

Modeling Articulated Brake Component Wear to Assist with Routing Decisions

2018-10-05
2018-01-1890
Very few activities the brake engineer engages in can induce as much vexation as trying to find a satisfying routing for the flexible brake components such as hoses, wheel speed sensors, and electric parking brake cables. Ever increasing wheel end content, ever decreasing space, more complex suspensions, and bulkier (but lighter weight) suspension components provide quite the morass through which the components must be routed through. When routing is finalized - and free of any major issues - there frequently remains some combinations of articulation position and component tolerances that allow a light “friendly” touch between components (such as a sensor wire and a surface of a bracket or strut tube), or near misses where clearance exists but raises “what if” questions around what would happen if the tolerances would stack up slightly differently on another vehicle.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Factors Controlling the Attainable Equivalent Plastic Strain in the Gauge Region of Cruciform Specimens

2018-04-03
2018-01-0809
The maximum equivalent plastic strain (EPSmax), which can be achieved in the gauge region of a cruciform specimen during in-plane biaxial tensile tests, is limited due to early fracture on the cruciform specimen arm. In this paper, a theoretical model was proposed to determine the factors related to the EPSmax of a cruciform specimen following ISO 16842: 2014. Biaxial tensile tests were carried out to verify the theoretical analyses. Results show that the material strength coefficient (k) has no effect on the EPSmax, and EPSmax increases with the increase of the material hardening exponent (n) and the cross-sectional-area ratio (c) of the arm region to the gauge region. It is found that the applied load ratio (α) has an effect on EPSmax, which decreases as the load ratio increases from 0:1 (i.e. uniaxial tension) to 1:2 (i.e. plane strain state) and then increases as the load ratio increases to 1:1 (i.e. balanced biaxial tension).
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Twist Spring-back Control with an Unbalanced Post-stretching Approach for Advanced High Strength Steel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0806
Twist spring-back would interfere with stamping or assembling procedures for advanced high strength steel. A “homeopathic” resolution for controlling the twist spring-back is proposed using unbalanced post-stretching configuration. Finite element forming simulation is applied to evaluate and compare the performance for each set of unbalanced post-stretching setup. The post-stretching is effectuated by stake bead application. The beads are separated into multiple independent segments, the height and radii of which can be adjusted individually and asymmetrically. Simulation results indicate that the twist spring-back can be effectively controlled by reducing the post-stretching proximate to the asymmetric part area. Its mechanism is qualitatively revealed by stress analyses, that an additional but acceptable cross-sectional spring-back re-balances the sprung asymmetrical geometry to counter the twist effect.
Technical Paper

Modified Experimental Approach to Investigate Coefficient of Friction and Wear under Lubricated Fretting Condition by Utilizing SRV Test Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0835
Fretting is an important phenomenon that happens in many mechanical parts. It is the main reason in deadly failures in automobiles, airliners, and turbine engines. The damage is noticed between two surfaces clamped together by bolts or rivets that are nominally at rest, but have a small amplitude oscillation because of vibration or local cyclic loading. Fretting damage can be divided into two types. The first type is the fretting fatigue damage where a crack would initiate and propagate at specific location at the interface of the mating surfaces. Cracks usually initiate in the material with lower strength because of the local cyclic loading conditions which eventually lead to full failure. The second type is the fretting wear damage because of external vibration. Researchers have investigated this phenomenon by theoretical modeling and experimental approaches. Although a lot of research has been done on fretting damage, some of the parameters have not been well studied.
Technical Paper

Initial Comparisons of Friction Stir Spot Welding and Self Piercing Riveting of Ultra-Thin Steel Sheet

2018-04-03
2018-01-1236
Due to the limitations on resistance spot welding of ultra-thin steel sheet (thicknesses below 0.5 mm) in high-volume automotive manufacturing, a comparison of friction stir spot welding and self-piercing riveting was performed to determine which process may be more amenable to enabling assembly of ultra-thin steel sheet. Statistical comparisons between mechanical properties of lap-shear tensile and T-peel were made in sheet thickness below 0.5 mm and for dissimilar thickness combinations. An evaluation of energy to fracture, fracture mechanisms, and joint consistency is presented.
Technical Paper

A Non-contact and Non-destructive Method to Determine Process Induced Fiber Orientation of Compression Molded SMC

2018-04-03
2018-01-1176
Understanding process induced fiber orientation distribution of composite body panels using nondestructive techniques is of prime interest. A compression molded sheet molding compound (SMC) panel is a good example of composite panels which are heavily affected by the molding process. Determination of the directionally dependent local coefficient of linear thermal expansion by digital image correlation yields information that is utilized to determine the local fiber misorientation and calculate the local SMC tensile modulus. In our current study, this methodology is utilized to determine the directional CLTE, permitting evaluation of the SMC properties in a multitude of directions not possible in destructive testing techniques. After obtaining the directionally dependent CLTE, a micromechanical approach is utilized to calculate the local SMC tensile modulus and glass fiber misorientation angle.
Journal Article

Application of Transient Magnetic Fields to a Magnetosensitive Device

2018-04-03
2018-01-1349
EMC Component Validation Responsibilities encompass many realms. One of these realms is the effect of magnetic fields on silicon-based devices. This article describes a method for exposing these devices to magnetic fields with waveforms other than the traditional sinusoidal excitation. The method commonly used to explore the sensitivity of active silicon devices is exposure of the device to a representative sinusoidal field and observation of its reaction or lack thereof. The challenge is to characterize the representative field and be able to verify its effectiveness. Recent vehicle level testing of new designs has brought our attention to time-varying or transient magnetic field shapes that create deviations not previously detected with Military Standard 461 (MIL-STD-461) type sinusoidal magnetic field exposure.
Journal Article

Modeling Forming Limit in Low Stress Triaxiality and Predicting Stretching Failure in Draw Simulation by an Improved Ductile Failure Criterion

2018-04-03
2018-01-0801
A ductile failure criterion (DFC), which defines the stretching failure at localized necking (LN) and treats the critical damage as a function of strain path and initial sheet thickness, was proposed in a previous study. In this study, the DFC is revisited to extend the model to the low stress triaxiality domain and demonstrates on modeling forming limit curve (FLC) of TRIP 690. Then, the model is used to predict stretching failure in a finite element method (FEM) simulation on a TRIP 690 steel rectangular cup draw process at room temperature. Comparison shows that the results from this criterion match quite well with experimental observations.
Journal Article

Development of a Lightweight Third-Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel (3GAHSS) Vehicle Body Structure

2018-04-03
2018-01-1026
This article covers an application of third-generation advanced high-strength steel (3GAHSS) grades to vehicle lightweight body structure development. Design optimization of a vehicle body structure using a multi-scale material model is discussed. The steps in the design optimization and results are presented. Results show a 30% mass reduction potential over a baseline mid-size sedan body side structure with the use of 3GAHSS.
Journal Article

Sizing Next Generation High Performance Brake Systems with Copper Free Linings

2017-09-17
2017-01-2532
The high performance brake systems of today are usually in a delicate balance - walking the fine line between being overpowered by some of the most potent powertrains, some of the grippiest tires, and some of the most demanding race tracks that the automotive world has ever seen - and saddling the vehicle with excess kilograms of unsprung mass with oversized brakes, forcing significant compromises in drivability with oversized tires and wheels. Brake system design for high performance vehicles has often relied on a very deep understanding of friction material performance (friction, wear, and compressibility) in race track conditions, with sufficient knowledge to enable this razor’s edge design.
Journal Article

Brake System Performance at Higher Mileage

2017-09-17
2017-01-2502
The purchase of a new automobile is unquestionably a significant investment for most customers, and with this recognition, comes a correspondingly significant expectation for quality and reliability. Amongst automotive systems -when it comes to considerations of reliability - the brakes (perhaps along with the tires) occupy a rarified position of being located in a harsh environment, subjected to continuous wear throughout their use, and are critical to the safe performance of the vehicle. Maintenance of the brake system is therefore a fact of life for most drivers - something that almost everyone must do, yet given the potentially considerable expense, it is something that of great benefit to minimize.
Technical Paper

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) Multi-Scale Model Development for Advanced High Strength Steels

2017-03-28
2017-01-0226
This paper presents development of a multi-scale material model for a 980 MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning heat treatment (QP980), based on integrated computational materials engineering principles (ICME Model). The model combines micro-scale material properties defined by the crystal plasticity theory with the macro-scale mechanical properties, such as flow curves under different loading paths. For an initial microstructure the flow curves of each of the constituent phases (ferrite, austenite, martensite) are computed based on the crystal plasticity theory and the crystal orientation distribution function. Phase properties are then used as an input to a state variable model that computes macro-scale flow curves while accounting for hardening caused by austenite transformation into martensite under different straining paths.
Technical Paper

Self-Tuning PID Design for Slip Control of Wedge Clutches

2017-03-28
2017-01-1112
The wedge clutch takes advantages of small actuation force/torque, space-saving and energy-saving. However, big challenge arises from the varying self-reinforced ratio due to the varying friction coefficient inevitably affected by temperature and wear. In order to improve the smoothness and synchronization time of the slipping process of the wedge clutch, this paper proposes a self-tuning PID controller based on Lyapunov principle. A new Lyapunov function is developed for the wedge clutch system. Simulation results show that the self-tuning PID obtains much less error than the conventional PID with fixed gains. Moreover, the self-tuning PID is more adaptable to the variation of the friction coefficient for the error is about 1/5 of the conventional PID.
Technical Paper

Latest Advances in Aluminum Shape Casting

2017-03-28
2017-01-1665
With the increasing use of aluminum shape castings in structural applications in automobiles, assurance of cast product integrity and performance has become critical in both design and manufacturing. In this paper, the latest understanding of the relationship between casting quality and mechanical properties of aluminum castings is summarized. Examples of newly developed technologies for alloy design, melting and melt treatment, casting and heat treatment processes in aluminum casting are reviewed. Robust design and development of high integrity aluminum castings through an Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) approach is also discussed.
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