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Technical Paper

Integrated Powertrain Control

This paper presents a newly developed integrated powertrain control system. The system coordinates the controls between engine and transmission to optimize powertrain operation for drive quality and fuel economy. This new control system uses the desired engine power as the common load variable for both engine and transmission control instead of throttle as is used in conventional powertrain controls. The main advantages to this control system are improved fuel economy and drive quality. Other advantages and a brief description of the control system will be described in more detail in the following discussion.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Distillation Effect on Vehicle Cold Start Driveability

Cold start vehicle driveability performance depends on many parameters, one of which is the distillation character of the fuel. In the late 90's, a gasoline driveability index (DI) was developed for spark ignited combustion vehicles by a consortium of automotive and petroleum industry scientists based on correlation studies between controlled fuel quality matrices and vehicle performance under specific ambient conditions. The DI equation uses a weighted sum of gasoline distillation temperatures at the 10, 50 and 90 percent evaporation volumes, commonly called T10, T50 and T90. These three distillation volatility points are specified by the ASTM International D 4814 fuel specification and are seasonally adjusted. This paper studies the cold start driveability performance of Federal EPA Bin 5 and Bin 8 vehicles with respect to fuel distillation characteristics at temperatures other than T10, T50 and T90.
Technical Paper

Controlling Induction System Deposits in Flexible Fuel Vehicles Operating on E85

With the wider use of biofuels in the marketplace, a program was conducted to study the deposit forming tendencies and performance of E85 (85% denatured ethanol and 15% gasoline) in a modern Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV). The test vehicle for this program was a 2006 General Motors Chevrolet Impala FFV equipped with a 3.5 liter V-6 powertrain. A series of 5,000 mile Chassis Dynamometer (CD) Intake Valve Deposits (IVD) and performance tests were conducted while operating the FFV on conventional (E0) regular unleaded gasoline and E85 to determine the deposit forming tendencies of both fuels. E85 test fuels were found to generate significantly higher levels of IVD than would have been predicted from the base gasoline component alone. The effects on the weight and composition of IVD due to a corrosion inhibitor and sulfates that were indigenous to one of the ethanols were also studied.
Technical Paper

Clutch-to-Clutch Transmission Control Strategy

An automatic transmission control system for clutch-to-clutch shifting systems has been developed. This enables the new General Motors Powertrain families of rear- and front-wheel drive transmissions to meet stringent cost, mass, and packaging reqiurements, while providing driveability and fuel economy improvements over the four- and five-speed transmissions that they replace. The design team utilized several new technologies and methods to robustly engineer a control system that allowed excellent first time capability and reduced calibration intensity. Innovative technical approaches were developed in several key mechatronics areas.
Technical Paper

General Motors Hydra-Matic & Ford New FWD Six-Speed Automatic Transmission Family

The Hydra-Matic 6T70 is General Motors first model of a new, two-variant front wheel drive (FWD) six speed automatic transmission family. The second variant is a higher capacity model, the 6T75. The transmission was co-developed with Ford Motor Company. The 6F50 is the Ford variant that aligns with the GM 6T70 transmission. Approximately eighty five percent of the hardware is shared or common between the GM and Ford transmission variants. Ford will also have a higher capacity variant the 6F55 to align with the GM 6T75. The first GM application is the Saturn Aura for the 2007 Model Year. The Ford Edge and Lincoln MKX in MY 2007 will be the first applications for the 6F50. While the Hydra-Matic and Ford FWD six-speed family was designed with two variants in mind, the designed in modularity requires only changes to the second and third axis and case housings depending on specific torque requirements. This modular design enables a tremendous amount of part sharing.
Technical Paper

Two-Mode Urban Transit Hybrid Bus In-Use Fuel Economy Results from 20 Million Fleet Miles

The General Motors Allison Two-Mode compound split parallel hybrid EP system for transit buses has been in production for over three years, accumulating over 20 million fleet miles. During this period of operation, extensive fuel economy analysis has been performed over multiple use cycles in multiple locations. This paper describes the in-use fuel economy results, as well as the hybrid system mode operations, the component utilization, and the controls improvements to maximize the hybrid fuel economy. Actual in-use data will be presented from individual vehicles, as well as the fleet averages encompassing a broad range of duty cycles. A chassis dynamometer testing results are discussed as an alternative evaluation method.
Technical Paper

General Motors New Hydra-Matic RWD Six-Speed Automatic Transmission Family

The Hydra-Matic 6L80 is General Motors first model of a new, four-variant, rear wheel drive (RWD) six speed automatic transmission family. The four variants are the 6L45, 6L50, 6L80 and 6L90. The new, high performance 6L80 will debut in 2006 model year performance vehicles, including the Chevrolet Corvette C6 and new Cadillac STS-V and XLR-V. By 2007, GM expects to use the RWD six speed family in as many as 25 different car, truck and SUV models in RWD, 4WD and all-wheel drive configurations. While the Hydra-Matic RWD six-speed family was designed with four variants, the built in modularity requires only two different basic diameters of parts and “flexing” on part width (length) depending on specific torque requirements. This built in modular design enables a tremendous amount of part sharing and part scaling. Modularity minimizes engineering resources, improves investment and piece cost, speed to market and allows for a wide bandwidth of vehicle and engine applications.
Technical Paper

Low-Speed Carbon Fiber Torque Capacity and Frictional Properties Test for ATFs

Since the mid-1990's, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of automobiles have been implementing torque converter clutches in automatic transmissions with a continuous, controlled slip mode, in order to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles. These Continuously Slipping Torque Converter Clutches (CSTCCs) are prone to an undesirable phenomenon commonly called shudder. This phenomenon has been attributed to specific shapes or slopes in the friction coefficient versus sliding speed curve of the fluid/clutch interface. Here, a method is explained that was developed to be able to screen fluids for shudder tendency, both in fresh and used states. Also included is a description of the reason for implementing CSTCCs, some background on shudder, and supporting data showing how the test method can distinguish between fluids that have different shudder tendencies.
Technical Paper

Combustion Assisted Belt-Cranking of a V-8 Engine at 12-Volts

Implementation of engine turnoff at idle is desirable to gain improvements in vehicle fuel economy. There are a number of alternatives for implementation of the restarting function, including the existing cranking motor, a 12V or 36V belt-starter, a crankshaft integrated-starter-generator (ISG), and other, more complex hybrid powertrain architectures. Of these options, the 12V belt-alternator-starter (BAS) offers strong potential for fast, quiet starting at a lower system cost and complexity than higher-power 36V alternatives. Two challenges are 1) the need to accelerate a large engine to idle speed quickly, and 2) dynamic torque control during the start for smoothness. In the absence of a higher power electrical machine to accomplish these tasks, combustion-assisted starting has been studied as a potential method of aiding a 12V accessory drive belt-alternator-starter in the starting process on larger engines.
Technical Paper

Electric Machine Powertrain Integration for GM's Hybrid Full-Size Pickup Truck

General Motors plans to introduce a hybrid version of its popular light-duty full-size (Silverado/Sierra) pickup truck. The program imperative of minimal vehicle architecture change drove a highly integrated powertrain solution. The hybrid powertrain features a novel, compact method of integrating an electric motor/generator between the largely unchanged engine and transmission, preserving their locations. From the targeted hybrid functions, power and energy specifications are derived. Specific design aspects and performance examples relating to the motor/generator packaging, torque converter, and overall vehicle driveabiltiy are discussed.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Architecture and Controls Integration for GM's Hybrid Full-Size Pickup Truck

General Motors plans to introduce a hybrid version of its popular light-duty full-size (Silverado/Sierra) pickup truck. Primary emphasis of the hybrid propulsion system for this truck is on maximizing fuel savings at minimum cost and without sacrificing performance or driveability. The hybrid powertrain features a novel, compact method of integrating an electric motor/generator between the largely unchanged engine and transmission. Extensive energy analysis and several unique control strategies are being used to meet the vehicle's performance, driveability, and emissions objectives. This paper will focus mainly on the powertrain integration and on powertrain controls for the hybrid propulsion system.
Technical Paper

Running Loss Emissions from In-Use Vehicles

The E-35 “Running Loss” program was planned in the fall of 1996, and conducted in the summer of 1997, as the third part of a series of Coordinating Research Council (CRC) sponsored evaporative emission test programs. One hundred and fifty vehicles (half cars - half light duty trucks) were recruited at a local I/M lane, and tested for running loss emissions at the ATL Facility in Mesa, AZ. The previous CRC programs had studied hot soak, and then diurnal emissions. Running loss emissions were measured in a Running Loss SHED (RL-SHED) for a 25 minute, 7.5 mile trip on a hot summer day (95°F). Vehicles from model years 1971 through 1991 were tested. A wide range in emission levels was observed - from a low of 0.13 g/mile to 43 g/mile. The test results were not able to establish whether car emissions are different, or the same, as light duty trucks. The major causes of the high emissions were liquid leaks on carburetor equipped models.