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Technical Paper

Visualization of Turbulence Anisotropy in the In-cylinder Flow of Internal Combustion Engines

2020-04-14
2020-01-1105
Anisotropy is one of the most important characteristics of turbulent flows. In internal combustion engines, anisotropy significantly influences processes such as mixture formation and flame propagation. There are many different visualization strategies in the literature that make the impact of anisotropy on specific parameters more accessible for analysis. However, traditional methods are unable to display anisotropy directly in the physical domain. Instead, they use invariant maps, leading to the loss of important information. Thus, interpretation of the results becomes difficult especially when a large number of data points exist. This paper overcomes this shortcoming by visualizing turbulence anisotropy directly in the physical domain. Through the application of componentality contours, the anisotropic properties of turbulence in the three-dimensional engine geometry are directly visualized; the focus is on non-reactive flows.
Technical Paper

Impact of Rim Orientation on Road Vehicles Aerodynamics Simulations

2020-04-14
2020-01-0674
Aerodynamic CFD simulations in the automotive industry based on the steady-state RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes) approach typically utilize approximate numerical methods to account for rotating wheels. In these methods, the computational mesh representing the rim geometry remains stationary, and the influence of the wheel rotation on the air flow is modelled. As the rims are considered only in one fixed rotational position (chosen arbitrarily in most cases), the effects of the rim orientation on the aerodynamic simulation results are disregarded and remain unquantified. This paper presents a numerical sensitivity study to examine the impact of the rim orientation position on the aerodynamic parameters of a detailed production vehicle. The simulations are based on the steady-state RANS approach.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Methods for Identification of Driving Styles and Simulation-Based Analysis of their Influence on Energy Consumption on the Example of a Hybrid Drive Train

2020-04-14
2020-01-0443
Due to current progresses in the field of driver assistance systems and the continuously growing electrification of vehicle drive trains, the evaluation of driver behavior has become an important part in the development process of modern vehicles. Findings from driver analyses are used for the creation of individual profiles, which can be permanently adapted due to ongoing data processing. A benefit of data-based, dynamic control systems lies in the possibility to individually configure the vehicle behavior for a specific driver, which can contribute to increasing customer acceptance and satisfaction. In this way, an optimization of the control behavior between driver and vehicle and the resulting mutual learning and adjustment holds great potential for improvements in driving behavior, safety and energy consumption.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Ignition System Parameters on Combustion in a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine

2020-04-14
2020-01-1122
Lean burn combustion concepts with high mean effective pressures are being developed for large gas engines so that future stringent emission limits are met while high engine efficiencies are maintained. Since these combustion concepts induce severe boundary conditions for ignition, applied research is focusing on the process of spark ignition and flame initiation in order to avoid misfiring and keep cycle-to-cycle combustion variability within reasonable limits. This paper conducts a fundamental investigation of early flame kernel development under different ignition system settings. The investigations are carried out on a rapid compression-expansion machine in which the spark ignition process can be observed under engine-like pressure and excess air ratio conditions while low flow velocities are maintained. The schlieren setup for high-speed optical investigations of the area of the spark plug electrodes is described and a suitable post-processing routine is introduced.
Technical Paper

An Integrated View on Automotive SPICE, Functional Safety and Cyber-Security

2020-04-14
2020-01-0145
Automotive domain has seen safety engineering at the forefront of the industry’s priorities for the last decade. Therefore, additional safety engineering efforts, design approaches and well-established safety processes have been stipulated. Today many connected and automated vehicles are available and connectivity features and information sharing is increasingly used. This increases the attractiveness of an attack on vehicles and thus introduces new risks for vehicle cyber-security. Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cyber-security as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. Aware of this fact, the automotive industry has therefore recently taken multiple efforts in designing and producing safe and secure connected and automated vehicles.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effect of Tire Deformation on Open-Wheel Aerodynamics

2020-04-14
2020-01-0546
This paper introduces a finite element (FE) approach to determine tire deformation and its effect on open-wheeled racecar aerodynamics. In recent literature the tire deformation was measured optically using cameras during wind tunnel testing. Combined loads like accelerat-ing at corner exit are difficult to reproduce in wind tunnels and would require several camer-as to measure the tire deformation. In contrast, an FE approach is capable of determining the tire deformation in combined load states accurately and additionally provides the possibility to vary further parameters, for example, the coefficient of friction. The FE tire model was validated using stiffness measurements, contact patch measurements and steady-state cornering measurements on a flat belt tire test rig. The deformed shape of the FE model was used in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation.
Technical Paper

A Smart Icing Detection System for Any Location on the Outer Aircraft Surface

2019-06-10
2019-01-1931
Given approximately one million small and light aircraft in operation worldwide, icing detection and icing quantification of in-flight icing are still an open research topic. Despite technical means are available to de-ice on ground, there is a lack of a suitable control system based on sensor data to de-ice while the aircraft is airborne. Most often, it is still task of the pilot to visually inspect the icing status of the airfoil and/or other critical parts of the aircraft such as engine air intakes, which distracts the flight crew from flying the aircraft especially in IMC conditions. Based on preliminary simulation and tests in 2014 in a collaborative research project lasting from 2015 until 2018, the technology of energy self-sustaining, wireless, self-adhesive smart sensors for industrial sensing in an aerodynamically critical environment (i.e. wind turbines) was further investigated to fulfil general aviation requirements.
Technical Paper

Highly Dynamic Intake and Exhaust Back Pressure Control

2019-01-09
2019-26-0147
Measuring emissions of internal combustion engines-not only at steady-state conditions, but also with highly dynamic test cycles-is an important issue in modern engine development. Due to the fact that ambient conditions have an essential influence on power and emissions of internal combustion engines, test beds used for such measurements typically incorporate intake air and exhaust back pressure control for reasons of repeatability, accuracy and comparability. As test cycle dynamics get faster and legal pressure tolerances get narrower, pressure control becomes more demanding and simple PI control schemes are pushed to their limits; therefore, more sophisticated control schemes are necessary. In this paper, a linearised model is first derived and then used to both simplify and optimise PI controller tuning. This is done by means of frequency domain methods. Limitations to such controllers and possible approaches to overcome them are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Patch-Transfer-Function (PTF) Method Applied to Numerical Models of Trim Materials Including Poro-Elastic Layers

2018-06-13
2018-01-1569
In automotive industry, acoustic trim materials are widely used in order to reach passenger comfort targets. The dynamic behavior of the poro-elastic materials is typically modelled by the Biot theory, which however leads to expensive numerical finite element calculations. One way to deal with it is to use the Patch-Transfer-Function (PTF) sub-structuring method, which couples subdomains at their interfaces through impedance relations. This was done already for systems including locally reacting poro-elastic materials. In this paper, a methodology is presented allowing to numerically assess the PTF impedance matrices of non-locally reacting trim materials using the Biot based poro-elastic model solved by the finite element method (FEM). Simplifications of the trim impedance matrices are introduced resulting in considerable calculation cost reductions. The associated prediction errors are discussed by means of a numerical case study.
Technical Paper

Fast Full Wave Simulation of Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Testing by Iterative Coupling of Analytical and Numerical Methods

2018-06-13
2018-01-1470
The pulse-echo method of non-destructive ultrasonic material testing is modeled by an iterative coupling scheme combining analytical and numerical methods in different domains. The approach offers significant advantages in terms of computational efficiency compared to volumetric mesh-based numerical models if the distance between transducer and specimen is large compared to the wavelength in the coupling medium. Excitation and results are given in the time domain while computations are performed in the frequency domain and are compatible with usual FEM solvers for linear elasticity. Due to the use of interpolated phase-shifted transfer functions only a small number of frequency lines is required in comparison to a direct Fourier transform of signals. The method is illustrated alongside a typical application on a steel structure embedded in water.
Technical Paper

“Pedestrian in the Loop”: An Approach Using Augmented Reality

2018-04-03
2018-01-1053
A large number of testing procedures have been developed to ensure vehicle safety in common and extreme driving situations. However, these conventional testing procedures are insufficient for testing autonomous vehicles. They have to handle unexpected scenarios with the same or less risk a human driver would take. Currently, safety related systems are not adequately tested, e.g. in collision avoidance scenarios with pedestrians. Examples are the change of pedestrian behaviour caused by interaction, environmental influences and personal aspects, which cannot be tested in real environments. It is proposed to use augmented reality techniques. This method can be seen as a new (Augmented) Pedestrian in the Loop testing procedure.
Technical Paper

Multimethod Concept for Continuous Wear-Analysis of the Piston Group

2018-04-03
2018-01-0839
Friction losses as well as lube oil consumption at the piston group are key factors for future engine downsizing concepts regarding to emissions and consumption. This means an early identification of friction losses and wear is essential within development. The main problem is that the wear assessment is based on long durability tests which are typically performed in a later phase. This may lead to the fact that an early optimized configuration with respect to friction can cause a potential wear problem later in the durability test program. Still ongoing trends in combustion engine engineering lead to both the minimized oil supply in the tribocontact piston bore interface and improved wear resistance. One is forced to the conclusion that understanding and quantifying wear will be a key driver for the future engine development process. The aim is a holistic concept that combines different methods to investigate wear and furthermore its combination with friction loss studies.
Technical Paper

Big Data-Based Driving Pattern Clustering and Evaluation in Combination with Driving Circumstances

2018-04-03
2018-01-1087
Car driver’s behavior and its influence on driving characteristics play an increasing role in the development of modern vehicles, e.g. in view of efficient powertrain control and implementation of driving assistance functions. In addition, knowledge about actual driving style can provide feedback to the driver and support efficient driving or even safety-related measures. Driving patterns are caused not only by the driver, but also influenced by road characteristics, environmental boundary conditions and other traffic participants. Thus, it is necessary to take the driving circumstances into account, when driving patterns are studied. This work proposes a methodology to cluster and evaluate driving patterns under consideration of vehicle-related parameters (e.g. acceleration and jerk) in combination with additional influencing factors, e.g. road style and inclination. Firstly, segmentation of the trip in distance series is performed to generate micro cycles.
Technical Paper

System Design Model for Parallel Hybrid Powertrains using Design of Experiments

2018-04-03
2018-01-0417
The paper focuses on an optimization methodology, which uses Design of Experiments (DoE) methods to define component parameters of parallel hybrid powertrains such as number of gears, transmission spread, gear ratios, progression factor, electric motor power, electric motor nominal speed, battery voltage and cell capacity. Target is to find the optimal configuration based on specific customer targets (e.g. fuel consumption, performance targets). In the method developed here, the hybrid drive train configuration and the combustion engine are considered as fixed components. The introduced methodology is able to reduce development time and to increase output quality of the early system definition phase. The output parameters are used as a first hint for subsequently performed detailed component development. The methodology integrates existing software tools like AVL CRUISE [5] and AVL CAMEO [1].
Technical Paper

Current Findings in Measurement Technology and Measurement Methodology for RDE and Fuel Consumption for Two-Wheeler-Applications

2017-11-05
2017-32-0041
Real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and fuel consumption. To reduce climate-relevant and environmentally harmful gaseous emissions and the exploitation of fossil resources, deep understanding concerning the real drive behavior of mobile sources is needed because emissions and fuel consumption of e.g. passenger cars, operated in real world conditions, considerably differ from the officially published values which are valid for specific test cycles only [1]. Due to legislative regulations by the European Commission a methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is well approved for heavy duty vehicles and automotive applications but may not be adapted similar to two-wheeler-applications. This is due to several issues when using the state of the art portable emission measurement system PEMS that will be discussed.
Journal Article

Advanced Heat Transfer and Underhood Airflow Investigation with Focus on Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) of Snowmobiles

2017-06-28
2017-01-9180
The presented paper focuses on the computation of heat transfer related to continuously variable transmissions (CVTs). High temperatures are critical for the highly loaded rubber belts and reduce their lifetime significantly. Hence, a sufficient cooling system is inevitable. A numerical tool which is capable of predicting surface heat transfer and maximum temperatures is of high importance for concept design studies. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a suitable method to carry out this task. In this work, a time efficient and accurate simulation strategy is developed to model the complexity of a CVT. The validity of the technique used is underlined by field measurements. Tests have been carried out on a snowmobile CVT, where component temperatures, air temperatures in the CVT vicinity and engine data have been monitored. A corresponding CAD model has been created and the boundary conditions were set according to the testing conditions.
Technical Paper

Parameterization Process of the Maxwell Model to Describe the Transient Force Behavior of a Tire

2017-03-28
2017-01-1505
The present technical article deals with the modeling of dynamic tire forces, which are relevant during interactions of safety relevant Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Special attention has been paid on simple but effective tire modeling of semi-physical type. In previous investigations, experimental validation showed that the well-known first-order Kelvin-Voigt model, described by a spring and damper element, describes good suitability around fixed operation points, but is limited for a wide working range. When aiming to run vehicle dynamics models within a frequency band of excitation up to 8 Hz, these models deliver remarkable deviations from measured tire characteristics. To overcome this limitation, a nonlinear Maxwell spring-damper element was introduced which is qualified to model the dynamic hardening of the elastomer materials of the tire.
Journal Article

Modular Fault Diagnosis System for Engine Test Bed Measurements

2017-03-28
2017-01-0386
To achieve high power output and good efficiency and to comply with increasingly stricter emission standards, modern combustion engines require a more complex engine design, which results in a higher number of control parameters. As the measurement effort and the number of sensors for engine development at the test bed continue to increase, it is becoming nearly impossible for the test bed engineer to manually check measurement data quality. As a result, automated methods for analysis and plausibility checks of measurement data are necessary in order to find faults as soon as they occur and to obtain test results of the highest possible quality. This paper presents a methodology for automated fault diagnosis on engine test beds. The methodology allows reliable detection of measurement faults as well as the identification of the root cause of faults.
Journal Article

Improved Modeling of Near-Wall Heat Transport for Cooling of Electric and Hybrid Powertrain Components by High Prandtl Number Flow

2017-03-28
2017-01-0621
Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations of heat transfer involving wall bounded flows at elevated Prandtl numbers typically suffer from a lack of accuracy and/or increased mesh dependency. This can be often attributed to an improper near-wall turbulence modeling and the deficiency of the wall heat transfer models (based on the so called P-functions) that do not properly account for the variation of the turbulent Prandtl number in the wall proximity (y+< 5). As the conductive sub-layer gets significantly thinner than the viscous velocity sub-layer (for Pr >1), treatment of the thermal buffer layer gains importance as well. Various hybrid strategies utilize blending functions dependent on the molecular Prandtl number, which do not necessarily provide a smooth transition from the viscous/conductive sub-layer to the logarithmic region.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Automated Fault Diagnosis at Engine Test Beds

2017-01-10
2017-26-0326
Experimental investigations on engine test beds represent a significant cost in engine development. To reduce development time and related costs, it is necessary to check the quality of measurements automatically whenever possible directly on the test bed to allow early detection of faults. A fault diagnosis system should provide information about the presence, cause and magnitude of an inconsistency in measurement. The main challenge in developing such a system is to detect the fault quickly and reliably. However, only faults that have actually occurred should be detected because the user will only adopt a system that provides accurate results. This paper presents a methodology for automated fault diagnosis at engine test beds, starting with an explanation of the general procedure. Next, the methods applied for fault detection are introduced.
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