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Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Low-Frequency Vibration Patterns in Automotive Disk Brake Systems: Utilization Study for Modal Simulation Methods

2018-06-13
2018-01-1513
Increasing demands on automotive comfort as well as diminishing vehicle noise levels draw new attention towards low-frequency vibration and noise issues of disk brake systems such as creep groan and moan. In view of this problem, the experimental investigation of relevant phenomena is within the scope of this article. The related experiments concerning two different setups have been performed at a drum driven suspension and brake test rig. Both assemblies consisted of a front axle corner including all parts of the integrated brake system. In order to gain understanding of characteristic triggering mechanisms and fundamental subsystem interactions, and moreover, to verify the suitability of modal methods for simulative evaluations of creep groan or moan, specifically elaborated Operating Deflection Shape (ODS) techniques have been applied. Via analyses of four different creep groan emergences, global stick-slip cycles between disk and pads are revealed.
Technical Paper

Application Limits of the Complex Eigenvalue Analysis for Low-Frequency Vibrations of Disk Brake Systems

2017-09-17
2017-01-2494
Complex Eigenvalue Analysis (CEA) is widely established as a mid- to high-frequency squeal simulation tool for automobile brake development. As low-frequency phenomena like creep groan or moan become increasingly important and appropriate time-domain methods are presently immature and expensive, some related questions arise: Is it reasonable to apply a CEA method for low-frequency brake vibrations? Which conditions in general have to be fulfilled to evaluate a disk brake system’s noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) behavior by the use of CEA simulation methods? Therefore, a breakdown of the mathematical CEA basis is performed and its linear, quasi-static approach is analyzed. The mode coupling type of instability, a common explanation model for squeal, is compared with the expected real world behavior of creep groan and moan phenomena.
Technical Paper

Systematic Experimental Creep Groan Characterization Using a Suspension and Brake Test Rig

2017-09-17
2017-01-2488
Vehicle road tests are meaningful for investigations of creep groan noise. However, problems in reproducing experiments and partly subjective evaluations may lead to imprecise conclusions. This work proposes an experimental test and evaluation procedure which provides a precise and objective assessment of creep groan. It is based on systematic corner test rig experiments and an innovative characterization method. The exemplary setup under investigation consisted of a complete front wheel suspension and brake system including all relevant components. The wheel has been driven by the test rig’s drum against a brake torque. The main parameters within a test matrix were brake pressure and drum velocity. Both have been varied stepwise to scan the relevant operating range of the automobile corner system for potential creep groan noise. Additionally, the experiments were extended to high brake pressures, where creep groan cannot be observed under road test conditions.
Journal Article

A New Approach for the Reduction of Aerodynamic Drag of Long-Distance Transportation Vehicles

2013-09-24
2013-01-2414
The optimization of aerodynamic drag represents an important research area for the fuel consumption reduction of heavy duty commercial vehicles. Today's design of tractor-trailers is significantly influenced by legal conditions regarding the vehicle dimensions and the provision of a maximum transportation volume. These boundary conditions lead to brick-shaped trailer outer geometries, especially at the rear ends. That is the reason why the investigations of aerodynamic optimization of commercial vehicle trailers are predominantly restricted to detail measures up to now. The present publication treats the aerodynamic characteristics of general modifications on the outer contour of long-distance haulage trailers in regard of reducing the drag resistance and, thus, potentially also the fuel consumption in highway traffic. A new approach for the realization of a variable outer contour of trailers provides the possibility to adjust the rear end to an aerodynamically optimized shape.
Journal Article

Elaborate Measuring System for Sensitivity Analyses and In-Depth Investigations of a Squealing Brake System

2012-06-13
2012-01-1541
Brake squeal is an elusive problem which has been the subject of investigation for many decades, but there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the excitation mechanisms. New vehicle solutions, for instance the electrical vehicle, will have a lower general noise level. Thus, silent brake systems will gain in importance. To obtain such systems, in-depth investigations of the brake disc/pad contact are required. For these investigations a new sensor has been developed. The guide pins of the caliper are replaced by modified ones which measure the friction force. Additionally, eddy current sensors are installed for contact-free measurement of the pad movement. Furthermore, triaxial acceleration sensors are mounted in the disc vents. Thus, it is possible to evaluate the operational deflection shapes of the disc. Next, an extensive sensibility analysis is performed. Parameters such as environmental conditions, friction coefficient and many others are thereby changed.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Design of In-Wheel Motor Driven Vehicles with Torque-Vectoring

2011-10-04
2011-36-0132
Volatile oil prices and increased environmental sensitivity together with political concerns have moved the attention of governments, automobile manufacturers and customers to alternative power trains. From the actual point of view the most promising concepts for future passenger cars are based on the conversion of electrical into mechanical energy. In-wheel motors are an interesting concept towards vehicle electrification that provides also high potentials to improve vehicle dynamics and handling. Beside aspects concerning the electric system (e.g. motor type, energy storage, and control strategy), there are also some open questions related with the mechanical design of in-wheel motor driven vehicles that need to be solved before series production.
Technical Paper

Measuring System Approach to Analyze Brake Squeal Triggering Mechanism

2011-09-18
2011-01-2359
There are several different possibilities to analyze a squealing brake system. The present paper introduces a complex measuring system which is mounted on a complete vehicle axle at a test rig. This system was developed because the previously performed state-of-the-art tests did not allow any insights in the squeal triggering mechanisms. First of all, a frequency analysis was performed. Thereby the main vibrating parts and the directions of the oscillation could be determined during a squeal event. The second was a modal analysis of the vehicle axle, which was necessary to get further insights into the system as well as to verify an existing Finite Element Method model. Through these tests, however, it was not possible to get any insight into the contact area, and therefore it was impossible to determine the squeal triggering mechanism. Because of this limitation, special guide pins were developed, which are able to measure the vibrating friction force.
Technical Paper

Friction Force Measurement at Brake Discs

2011-05-17
2011-01-1576
Experimental researches on brake squeal have been performed since many years in order to get an insight into friction-excited vibrations and squeal triggering mechanisms. There are many different possibilities to analyse brake squeal. The different operating deflection shapes can be detected using e.g. laser vibrometer systems or acceleration sensors. Piezoelectric load cells can be used for the measurement of the normal contact force of the brake pad. The presented test setup measures not only the mean value of the friction force between brake pad and disc at a certain brake pressure, but also the superposed vibration of this force, which only occurs during a squeal event. Therefore the guide pins of the brake caliper are replaced by modified ones. The brake pads are held in position by these pins and the resulting force of the brake torque, hence the friction force, acts on these pins. The shape of the pins is optimized for measuring these forces.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Thermal Vehicle Brake Behavior During the Vehicle's Development Phase by Co-Simulation

2007-10-07
2007-01-3935
The mathematical thermal design of the vehicle brakes will lead to success if all influence parameters such as friction (fading effect), car geometry and inertia, brake amplifier, tire, convective heat flow, heat conductance and heat radiation are taken into consideration. In addition to a lot of design criteria, the thermal stability of the vehicle brake is becoming more and more important because of permanently increasing engine powers and weight of the vehicles. This requires both stable friction behavior in the contact zone between brake lining and brake disk and a sufficient transfer of the friction energy by means of convective heat flow. In order to accomplish these two tasks, considerable expense on a brake test bed and innumerable brake trials are necessary. It must be guarantied at the end of the brake design process that the vehicle reaches the required braking distance and the thermal stability of the brake, e.g. after several freeway braking sequences.
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