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Journal Article

Performance of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Airlock Coolant Loop Remediation (A/L CLR) Hardware Phase II

2009-07-12
2009-01-2541
An EMU water processing kit (Airlock Coolant Loop Recovery – A/L CLR) was developed as a corrective action to Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) coolant flow disruptions experienced on the International Space Station (ISS) in May of 2004 and thereafter. Conservative schedules for A/L CLR use and component life were initially developed and implemented based on prior analysis results and analytical modeling. The examination of post-flight samples and EMU hardware in November of 2006 indicated that the A/L CLR kits were functioning well and had excess capacity that would allow a relaxation of the initially conservative schedules of use and component life. A relaxed use schedule and list of component lives were implemented thereafter. Since the adoption of the relaxed A/L CLR schedules of use and component lives, several A/L CLR kit items, transport loop water samples and sensitive EMU transport loop components have been examined to gage the impact of the relaxed requirements.
Technical Paper

Testing of the Multi-Fluid Evaporator Prototype

2008-06-29
2008-01-2166
Hamilton Sundstrand has developed a scalable evaporative heat rejection system called the Multi-Fluid Evaporator (MFE). It was designed to support the Orion Crew Module and to support future Constellation missions. The MFE would be used from Earth sea level conditions to the vacuum of space. This system combines the functions of the Space Shuttle flash evaporator and ammonia boiler into a single compact package with improved freeze-up protection. The heat exchanger core is designed so that radial flow of the evaporant provides increasing surface area to keep the back pressure low. The multiple layer construction of the core allows for efficient scale up to the desired heat rejection rate. A full-scale unit uses multiple core sections that, combined with a novel control scheme, manage the risk of freezing the heat exchanger cores. A four-core MFE prototype was built in 2007.
Journal Article

Performance of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Airlock Coolant Loop Remediation (A/L CLR) Hardware

2008-06-29
2008-01-2060
Following the Columbia accident, the EMUs (Extravehicular Mobility Units) onboard the ISS (International Space Station) went unused for an extended period of time. Upon startup, the units experienced a failure in the coolant systems. The failure resulted in a loss of EVA (Extravehicular Activity) capability from the US segment of the ISS. A failure investigation determined that chemical and biological contaminants and byproducts from the ISS Airlock Heat Exchanger, and the EMU itself, fouled the magnetically coupled pump in the EMU Transport Loop Fan/Pump Separator leading to a lack of coolant flow. Remediation hardware (the Airlock Coolant Loop Remediation water processing kit) and a process to periodically clean the EMU coolant loops on orbit were devised and implemented. The intent of this paper is to report on the successful implementation of the resultant hardware and process, and to highlight the go-forward plan.
Technical Paper

Testing of the Multi-Fluid Evaporator Engineering Development Unit

2007-07-09
2007-01-3205
Hamilton Sundstrand is under contract with the NASA Johnson Space Center to develop a scalable, evaporative heat rejection system called the Multi-Fluid Evaporator (MFE). It is being designed to support the Orion Crew Module and to support future Constellation missions. A MFE would be used from Earth sea level conditions to the vacuum of space. The current Space Shuttle configuration utilizes an ammonia boiler and flash evaporator system to achieve cooling at all altitudes. With the MFE system, both functions are combined into a single compact package with significant weight reduction and improved freeze-up protection. The heat exchanger core is designed so that radial flow of the evaporant provides increasing cross-sectional area to keep the back pressure low. Its multiple layer construction allows for efficient scale up to the desired heat rejection rate.
Technical Paper

High Heat Flux Dissipation for DEW Applications

2004-11-02
2004-01-3205
A High Heat Flux Demonstration Program has been initiated to investigate and demonstrate the performance of a number of candidate cooling technologies to address the need of dissipating the large thermal loads and high heat fluxes associated with Directed Energy Weapons (DEW) systems. The technologies selected for these investigations utilize both single-phase and two-phase cooling concepts. The single-phase devices investigated are based upon the concept of jet impingement with and without extended surface areas. The two-phase devices investigated extend the jet impingement concepts into the liquid-vapor phase change regime, as well as a device based upon vapor injection spray cooling technology. In addition, all devices must demonstrate scalability. For each device a unit cooling cell has been defined and greater surface area capability is to be achieved with the addition of adjacent cells without significantly affecting the performance of neighboring cells.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Testing of Brazed Space Station IATCS Materials

2004-07-19
2004-01-2471
Increased nickel concentrations in the IATCS coolant prompted a study of the corrosion rates of nickel-brazed heat exchangers in the system. The testing has shown that corrosion is occurring in a silicon-rich intermetallic phase in the braze filler of coldplates and heat exchangers as the result of a decrease in the coolant pH brought about by cabin carbon dioxide permeation through polymeric flexhoses. Similar corrosion is occurring in the EMU de-ionized water loop. Certain heat exchangers and coldplates have more silicon-rich phase because of their manufacturing method, and those units produce more nickel corrosion product. Silver biocide additions did not induce pitting corrosion at silver precipitate sites.
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