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Technical Paper

A Multi-Resonant Speed Piezoelectric Beam Device for Harvesting Energy from Vehicle Wheels

2020-04-14
2020-01-1236
This work analyzes a cantilevered piezoelectric beam device for harvesting energy from the simultaneous rotation and translational vibration of vehicle wheels. The device attaches to the wheel rim so that it displaces tangentially during operation. A lumped-parameter analytical model for the coupled electromechanical system is derived. The device has one natural frequency that is speed-dependent because of centripetal acceleration affecting the total stiffness of the device. Even though the device has one natural frequency, it experiences three resonances as the rotation speed varies. One resonance occurs when the rotation speed coincides with the speed-dependent natural frequency of the device. The other two resonances are associated with excitations from the vibration of the vehicle wheel. The device’s parameters are chosen so that these three resonances occur when the wheel travels near 30 mph, 55 mph, and 70 mph.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Sheet Metal Joining with Self-Piercing Riveting

2020-04-14
2020-01-0223
Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has been in production in automotive industry since early 1990s. A substantial amount of experimental work was traditionally required in order to find an appropriate combination of rivet and anvil design to satisfy the required joint parameters. Presented study is describing the methodology of numerical simulation of SPR process and its experimental validation for Aluminum alloys and steels. Among material properties, the required information for numerical simulation includes stress-strain curves validated for the range of strains taking place in SPR process (up to 2.0 of true strain for sheets and up to 0.4 of true strain for the rivet) and parameters of fracture model for all involved materials: all sheets in the stack and the rivet material. Experimental data on stress-strain curves for extended range of strains was obtained based upon multistep rolling tensile testing procedure for the sheet metals.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Characterization and Modeling of Wet Clutch Actuator for High-Fidelity Propulsion System Simulations

2020-04-14
2020-01-1414
Innovations in mobility are built upon a management of complex interactions between sub-systems and components. A need of CAE tools that are capable of system simulations is well recognized, as evidenced by a growing number of commercial packages. However impressive they are, the predictability of such simulations still rests on the representation of base components. Among them, a wet clutch actuator continues to play a critical role in next generation propulsion systems. It converts hydraulic pressure to mechanical force to control torque transmitted through a clutch pack. The actuator is typically modeled as a hydraulic piston opposed by a mechanical spring. Because the piston slides over a seal, some models have a framework to account for seal friction. However, there are few literatures to describe the effects of seals on clutch actuator dynamics.
Technical Paper

Research on the different Behavior of Edge Cracking Limit by Adopting the Laser Cutting Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-1264
The edge fracture occurs more frequently during the forming procedure by using the material with higher strength. To avoid the edge fracture that happens during the manufacturing, the edge cracking limit at different pre-strain level needs to be determined. The edge of the part under forming is conventionally manufactured by mechanical cutting, and the edge cracking limit under this circumstance is already heavily studied. In recent years, laser cutting is more applied in the automotive industry to cutting the edge due to the following advantages over mechanical cutting: easier work holding, higher precision, no wearing, smaller heat-affected zone, etc. The change cutting method could lead to a different behavior to the edge cracking limit at different pre-strain level. In this paper, the edge cracking limits of sets of pre-strained coupons with different pre-strain levels are tested. Half of them is cut by the conventional punch method, and the other half uses laser cutting.
Technical Paper

Bendability Study of 7xxx Aluminum Alloy Based on the DIC Technique

2019-04-02
2019-01-1265
Bendability is a critical characteristic of sheet metal during the stamping process in automobile industry. Bending operation plays an important role in the panels forming of vehicles. In this study, the recently developed “Incremental Bending” method was utilized to evaluate the ambient bendability of 7xxx series avoiding bending crack. A 3D digital image correlation (DIC) measurement system is improved to capture the displacement and strain information on the stretched side of the sheet samples. The background, experimental method and data post-procedure are introduced in detail. After several sequential images acquisition and data processing, the major strain histories on the stretch zone of the samples are measured. With different bending process and parameters, the location of peak strain and the surface major strain distribution were evaluated as a function of R/T ratio (the inner radius over sheet thickness).
Technical Paper

Experimental Drawbeads Design Research

2019-04-02
2019-01-1087
In order to constrain the restraining force and control the speed of metal flow, drawbeads are widely used in industry. They prevent wrinkling or necking in formed panels, reduce the binder force, and minimize the usage of sheet metal to make a part. Different drawbead configurations can satisfy various stamping production. Besides local design of drawbeads, other factors like pulling directions, binder angles and single or multiple beads play an important role too. Moreover, it was found that the same beads configuration can own a different rate of change of pulling force on different gaps by experience. In this paper, to study the effect of each factor, the Aluminum and Steel sheet metals were tested to obtain the pulling force as they passed through a draw bead. Three gap cases between a male and a female beads are set to figure out the trend of pulling force.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Springback (Side-Wall-Curl) of Sheet Metal based on the DBS System

2019-04-02
2019-01-1088
Springback is a common phenomenon in automotive manufacturing processes, caused by the elastic recovery of the internal stresses during unloading. A thorough understanding of springback is essential for the design of tools used in sheet metal forming operations. A DBS (Draw-bead Simulator) has been used to simulate the forming process for two different sheet metals: aluminum and steel. Two levels of pulling force and two die radii have been enforced to the experimental process to get different springback. Also, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system has been adopted to capture the sheet contour and measure the amount of side-wall-curl (sheet springback) after deformation. This paper presents the influence of the material properties, force, and die radius on the deformation and springback after forming. A thorough understanding of this phenomenon is essential, seeing that any curvature in the part wall can affect quality and sustainability.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Low Mileage GPF Filtration and Regeneration as Influenced by Soot Morphology, Reactivity, and GPF Loading

2019-04-02
2019-01-0975
As European and Chinese tailpipe emission regulations for gasoline light-duty vehicles impose particulate number limits, automotive manufacturers have begun equipping some vehicles with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Increased understanding of how soot morphology, reactivity, and GPF loading affect GPF filtration and regeneration characteristics is necessary for advancing GPF performance. This study investigates the impacts of morphology, reactivity, and filter soot loading on GPF filtration and regeneration. Soot morphology and reactivity are varied through changes in fuel injection parameters, known to affect soot formation conditions. Changes in morphology and reactivity are confirmed through analysis using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) respectively.
Journal Article

Closed-Form Structural Stress Solutions for Spot Welds in Square Plates under Central Bending Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-1114
A new closed-form structural stress solution for a spot weld in a square thin plate under central bending conditions is derived based on the thin plate theory. The spot weld is treated as a rigid inclusion and the plate is treated as a thin plate. The boundary conditions follow those of the published solution for a rigid inclusion in a square plate under counter bending conditions. The new closed-form solution indicates that structural stress solution near the rigid inclusion on the surface of the plate along the symmetry plane is larger than those for a rigid inclusion in an infinite plate and a finite circular plate with pinned and clamped outer boundaries under central bending conditions. When the radius distance becomes large and approaches to the outer boundary, the new analytical stress solution approaches to the reference stress whereas the other analytical solutions do not.
Technical Paper

A Computational Study on Laminar Flame Propagation in Mixtures with Non-Zero Reaction Progress

2019-04-02
2019-01-0946
Flame speed data reported in most literature are acquired in conventional apparatus such as the spherical combustion bomb and counterflow burner, and are limited to atmospheric pressure and ambient or slightly elevated unburnt temperatures. As such, these data bear little relevance to internal combustion engines and gas turbines, which operate under typical pressures of 10-50 bar and unburnt temperature up to 900K or higher. These elevated temperatures and pressures not only modify dominant flame chemistry, but more importantly, they inevitably facilitate pre-ignition reactions and hence can change the upstream thermodynamic and chemical conditions of a regular hot flame leading to modified flame properties. This study focuses on how auto-ignition chemistry affects flame propagation, especially in the negative-temperature coefficient (NTC) regime, where dimethyl ether (DME), n-heptane and iso-octane are chosen for study as typical fuels exhibiting low temperature chemistry (LTC).
Technical Paper

Dual Fuel Injection (DI + PFI) for Knock and EGR Dilution Limit Extension in a Boosted SI Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1735
Combined direct and port fuel injection (i.e., dual injection) in spark ignition engines is of increasing interest due to the advantages for fuel flexibility and the individual merits of each system for improving engine performance and reducing engine-out emissions. Greater understanding of the impact of dual injection will enable deriving the maximum benefit from the two injection systems. This study investigates the effects of dual injection on combustion, especially knock propensity and tolerance to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) dilution at different levels of EGR. A baseline for comparison with dual injection results was made using direct injection fueling only. A splash blended E20 fuel was used for the direct injection only tests. For the dual injection tests, gasoline, representing 80% by volume of the total fuel, was injected using the direct injector, and ethanol, representing 20% by volume of the total fuel, was injected using the port fuel injector.
Technical Paper

Study on Frictional Behavior of AA 6XXX with Three Lube Conditions in Sheet Metal Forming

2018-04-03
2018-01-0810
Light-weighting vehicles cause an increase in Aluminum Alloy stamping processes in the Automotive Industry. Surface finish and lubricants of aluminum alloy (AA) sheet play an important role in the deep drawing processes as they can affect the friction condition between the die and the sheet. This paper aims to develop a reliable and practical laboratory test method to experimentally investigate the influence of surface finish, lubricant conditions, draw-bead clearances and pulling speed on the frictional sliding behavior of AA 6XXX sheet metal. A new double-beads draw-bead-simulator (DBS) system was used to conduct the simulated test to determine the frictional behavior of an aluminium alloy with three surface lubricant conditions: mill finish (MF) with oil lube, electric discharge texture (EDT) finish with oil lube and mill finish (MF) with dry lube (DL).
Technical Paper

Friction Coefficient Evaluation on Aluminum Alloy Sheet Metal Using Digital Image Correlation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1223
The coefficient of friction between surfaces is an important criterion for predicting metal behavior during sheet metal stamping processes. This research introduces an innovative technique to find the coefficient of friction on a lubricated aluminum sheet metal surface by simulating the industrial manufacturing stamping process while using 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC) to track the deformation. During testing, a 5000 series aluminum specimen is placed inside a Stretch-Bend-Draw Simulator (SBDS), which operates with a tensile machine to create a stretch and bend effect. The friction coefficient at the contact point between an alloy sheet metal and a punch tool is calculated using an empirical equation previously developed. In order to solve for the unknown friction coefficient, the load force and the drawback force are both required. The tensile machine software only provides the load force applied on the specimen by the load cell.
Technical Paper

Property and Fiber Orientation Determination for Carbon Fiber Composite

2018-04-03
2018-01-1216
Unexpected severe failures occur during the warm forming procedure of carbon fiber material due to the existence of extremely large deformation/strain. To evaluate this failure, a good understanding the accurate material property under certain loading is important to evaluate the forming feasibility of carbon fiber material. Also, a clear connection between the fiber orientation and the material property helps to increase the accuracy of the forming prediction. Therefore, an experimental test is needed to evaluate the material property as well as the fiber orientation. In this paper, a uniaxial tension test for the prepreg carbon fiber under the warm forming condition is performed. A halogen lamp is used to heat the specimen to reach the warm forming condition. A 3D Digital Image Correlation (3D-DIC) is utilized to measure the material property and the fiber orientation in this test, along with a DIP system.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation and Optimization of Computational Methods for High Pressure Fuel Pipe Brazed Joints

2018-04-03
2018-01-1222
A V-engine high pressure fuel pipe have experienced several failures during dyno engine validations at brazed joints due to combination of static and dynamic engine loads. The braze fillet experience high local stress concentration with large gradients and it was critical to capture strain contour at this spot to properly understand the failure. Strain gauges was used to measure strain but was incapable of capturing the braze fillet due to the small fillet radius and lack of real estate to install the gauge (braze fillet radius ~ 0.10 mm). A whole field optical experiment method Digital Image Correlation was utilized to successfully captured strain contour at area of interest and results fed back to computational model.
Technical Paper

A Model for Crank-Angle-Resolved Engine Cylinder Pressure Estimation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1157
Real-time measurement or estimation of crank-angle-resolved engine cylinder pressure may become commonplace in the next generation of engine controllers to optimize spark, valve timing, or compression ratio. Toward the development of a real-time cylinder pressure estimator, this work presents a crank-angle-resolved engine cylinder pressure estimation model that could accept inputs such as speed, manifold pressure and throttle position, and deliver crank-angle resolved cylinder pressure in real-time, at engine speeds covering the useful operating range of most engines. The model was validated by comparing simulated cylinder pressure with thirteen sets of cylinder pressure data, from two different commercial engines from two different OEMs. Estimated pressures were compared against the actual measured pressure traces. The average relative error is about 3% while the maximum relative error is 5%. Both can be improved with further tuning.
Technical Paper

Study of Incremental Bending Test on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-0807
Bendability is one of the most important formability characteristics in sheet metal forming, so it has to be understood for robust aluminum stamping process designs. Crack is one of the major failure modes in aluminum sheet bending. In this study, a new “incremental bending” method is proposed to reduce the risk of bending failure. A novel laboratory test methodology is conducted to test the 5xxx series aluminum sheet bendability with 3D digital image correlation (DIC) measurement system. The designs of test apparatus and test procedure are introduced in this paper. Through the data processing and evaluation of a sequence image acquisition, the major strain histories within the zone of the through thickness crack of test samples are measured. Testing results show that incremental bending is capable of reducing peak strain on the outer surface obviously compared with traditional non-incremental bending. The more step, more movement, the more peak strain reduction.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic and Practical Benefits of Waste Energy Recovery Using an Electric Turbo-Generator Under Different Boosting Methods

2018-04-03
2018-01-0851
This paper provides insight into the tradeoffs between exhaust energy recovery and increased pumping losses from the flow restriction of the electric turbo-generator (eTG) assessed using thermodynamic principles and with a detailed GT-Power engine model. The GT-Power engine model with a positive displacement expander model was used to predict the influence of back pressure on in-cylinder residuals and combustion. The eTG is assessed for two boosting arrangements: a conventional turbocharger (TC) and an electrically assisted variable speed (EAVS) supercharger (SC). Both a low pressure (post-turbine) and high pressure (pre-turbine) eTG are considered for the turbocharged configuration. The reduction in fuel consumption (FC) possible over various drive cycles is estimated based on the steady-state efficiency of frequently visited operating points assuming all recovered energy can be reused at an engine efficiency of 30% with 10% losses in the electrical path.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Imaging Studies of Gasoline Fuel Sprays at Fuel Injection Pressures from 300 to 1500 bar

2018-04-03
2018-01-0294
High-pressure gasoline fuel injection is a means to improve combustion efficiency and lower engine-out emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of fuel injection pressure on transient gasoline fuel spray development for a wide range of injection pressures, including over 1000 bar, using a constant volume chamber and high-speed imaging. Reference grade gasoline was injected at fuel pressures of 300, 600, 900, 1200, and 1500 bar into the chamber, which was pressurized with nitrogen at 1, 5, 10, and 20 bar at room temperature (298 K). Bulk spray imaging data were used to quantify spray tip penetration distance, rate of spray tip penetration and spray cone angle. Near-nozzle data were used to evaluate the early spray development.
Technical Paper

Scale Similarity Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Flows—Particle Image Velocimetry and Large-Eddy Simulations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0172
This presentation is an assessment of the turbulence-stress scale-similarity in an IC engine, which is used for modeling subgrid dissipation in LES. Residual stresses and Leonard stresses were computed after applying progressively smaller spatial filters to measured and simulated velocity distributions. The velocity was measured in the TCC-II engine using planar and stereo PIV taken in three different planes and with three different spatial resolutions, thus yielding two and three velocity components, respectively. Comparisons are made between the stresses computed from the measured velocity and stress computed from the LES resolved-scale velocity from an LES simulation. The results present the degree of similarity between the residual stresses and the Leonard stresses at adjacent scales. The specified filters are systematically reduced in size to the resolution limits of the measurements and simulation.
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