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Technical Paper

Balancing Hydraulic Flow and Fuel Injection Parameters for Low-Emission and High-Efficiency Automotive Diesel Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0111
The introduction of new light-duty vehicle emission limits to comply under real driving conditions (RDE) is pushing the diesel engine manufacturers to identify and improve the technologies and strategies for further emission reduction. The latest technology advancements on the after-treatment systems have permitted to achieve very low emission conformity factors over the RDE, and therefore, the biggest challenge of the diesel engine development is maintaining its competitiveness in the trade-off “CO2-system cost” in comparison to other propulsion systems. In this regard, diesel engines can continue to play an important role, in the short-medium term, to enable cost-effective compliance of CO2-fleet emission targets, either in conventional or hybrid propulsion systems configuration. This is especially true for large-size cars, SUVs and light commercial vehicles.
Technical Paper

Study of Friction Optimization Potential for Lubrication Circuits of Light-Duty Diesel Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0056
Over the last two decades, engine research has been mainly focused on reducing fuel consumption in view of compliance with stringent homologation targets and customer expectations. As it is well known, the objective of overall engine efficiency optimization can be achieved only through the improvement of each element of the efficiency chain, of which mechanical constitutes one of the two key pillars (together with thermodynamics). In this framework, the friction reduction for each mechanical subsystems has been one of the most important topics of modern Diesel engine development. In particular, the present paper analyzes the lubrication circuit potential as contributor to the mechanical efficiency improvement, by investigating the synergistic impact of oil circuit design, oil viscosity characteristics (including new ultra-low formulations) and thermal management. For this purpose, a combination of theoretical and experimental tools were used.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Analysis for Modeling Propeller Shaft Liner Material

2019-06-05
2019-01-1560
In recent truck applications, single-piece large-diameter propshafts, in lieu of two-piece propshafts, have become more prevalent to reduce cost and mass. These large-diameter props, however, amplify driveline radiated noise. The challenge presented is to optimize prop shaft modal tuning to achieve acceptable radiated noise levels. Historically, CAE methods and capabilities have not been able to accurately predict propshaft airborne noise making it impossible to cascade subsystem noise requirements needed to achieve desired vehicle level performance. As a result, late and costly changes can be needed to make a given vehicle commercially acceptable for N&V performance prior to launch. This paper will cover the development of a two-step CAE method to predict modal characteristics and airborne noise sensitivities of large-diameter single piece aluminum propshafts fitted with different liner treatments.
Technical Paper

Effectiveness of Power-Law Profile Indentations on Structure-Borne Noise

2019-06-05
2019-01-1496
A study on the effect of indenting power-law shaped profiles on the flexible structures for investigating the vibration damping characteristics using computational simulation method is discussed. The simulation results are checked to see the impact of such features on the damping behavior of flexible structures responsible for radiating noise when excited with fluctuating loads. Though the conventional remedies for solving Noise and vibration issues generally involves tuning of structure stiffness or damping treatment this paper gives an insight on the idea of manipulation of elastic waves within the flexible structure itself to minimize the cross-reflections of the mechanical waves. The simulation studies mentioned in this paper not only hovers over the effectiveness of such features but also will be helpful for the engineers to look through a different perspective while solving N&V issues using simulation tools.
Technical Paper

Multi-Material Topology Optimization: A Practical Method for Efficient Material Selection and Design

2019-04-02
2019-01-0809
As conventional vehicle design is adjusted to suit the needs of all-electric, hybrid, and fuel-cell powered vehicles, designers are seeking new methods to improve system-level design and enhance structural efficiency; here, multi-material optimization is suggested as the leading method for developing these novel architectures. Currently, diverse materials such as composites, high strength steels, aluminum and magnesium are all considered candidates for advanced chassis and body structures. By utilizing various combinations and material arrangements, the application of multi-material design has helped designers achieve lightweighting targets while maintaining structural performance requirements. Unlike manual approaches, the multi-material topology optimization (MMTO) methodology and computational tool described in this paper demonstrates a practical approach to obtaining the optimum material selection and distribution of materials within a complex automotive structure.
Technical Paper

Multi-Material Topology Optimization and Multi-Material Selection in Design

2019-04-02
2019-01-0843
As automakers continue to develop new lightweight vehicles, the application of multi-material parts, assemblies and systems is needed to enhance overall performance and safety of new and emerging architectures. To achieve these goals conventional material selection and design strategies may be employed, such as standard material performance indices or full-combinatorial substitution studies. While these detailed processes exist, they often succeed at only suggesting one material per component, and cannot consider a clean-slate design; here, multi-material topology optimization (MMTO) is suggested as an effective computational tool for performing large-scale combined multi-material selection and design. Unlike previous manual methods, MMTO provides an efficient method for simultaneously determining material existence and distribution within a predefined design domain from a library of material options.
Technical Paper

Multi-Material Topology Optimization for Crashworthiness Using Hybrid Cellular Automata

2019-04-02
2019-01-0826
Structures with multiple materials have now become one of the perceived necessities for automotive industry to address vehicle design requirements such as light-weight, safety, and cost. The objective of this study is to develop a design methodology for multi-material structures accountable for vehicle crash durability. The heuristic topology synthesis approach of Hybrid Cellular Automaton (HCA) framework is implemented to generate multi-material structures with the constraint on the volume fraction of the final design. The HCA framework is integrated with ordered-SIMP (solid isotropic material with penalization) interpolation, artificial material library, as well as statistical analysis of material distribution data to ensure a smooth transition between multiple practical materials during the topology synthesis.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Development of the 2019 Chevrolet Corvette C7 ZR1

2019-04-02
2019-01-0665
This paper presents an overview of the aerodynamic development of the 2019 Chevrolet Corvette C7 ZR1. Extensive wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics simulations were completed to engineer the ZR1’s aerodynamics to improve lift-to-drag efficiency and track capability over previous Corvette offerings. The ZR1 architecture changes posed many aerodynamic challenges including increased vehicle cooling, strict packaging demands, wider front track width, and aggressive exterior styling. Through motorsports-inspired aerodynamic development, the ZR1 was engineered to overcome these challenges through the creation of new devices such as a raised rear wing and front underwing. The resulting Standard ZR1 achieved a top speed of 212 mph making it the fastest Corvette ever [1]. Optionally, the ZR1 with the ZTK Performance Package provides the highest downforce of any Corvette, generating approximately 950 pounds at the ZTK’s top speed [1].
Technical Paper

Aerodynamically Induced Loads on Hood Latch and Hood Retention Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-0657
Hood latches are provided with a secondary latch mechanism in order to restrain hoods in the event of an incomplete closing operation. It is important thus to understand the aerodynamically induced loading conditions the latch and hood will be subject to in order to design the hood and hood retention system to withstand those loads. In this paper a method of collecting load and displacement data from actual vehicles is presented, as well as an analysis of the results and the implications for hood and latch design.
Technical Paper

A Qualitative and Quantitative Aerodynamic Study of a Rotating Wheel inside a Simplified Vehicle Body and Wheel Liner Cavity

2019-04-02
2019-01-0658
As automotive OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturer) struggle to reach a balance between Design and Performance, environmental legislations continues to demand more rapid gains in vehicle efficiency. As a result, more attention is being given to the contributions of both tire and wheels. Not only tire rolling resistance, but also tire and wheel aerodynamics are being shown to be contributors to overall efficiency. To date, many studies have been done to correlate CFD simulations of rotating wheels both in open and closed wheeled environments to windtunnel results. Whereas this ensures proper predictive capabilities, little focus has been given to thoroughly explaining the physics that govern this complex environment. This study seeks to exhaustively investigate the complex interactions between the ground, body, and a rotating tire/wheel.
Technical Paper

Development of Evaluation Methods for Steering Loss of Assist

2019-04-02
2019-01-1236
Loss of power steering assist (LoA) is viewed as a potential hazard in certain vehicle operational scenarios. Despite the importance of this steering failure mode, few published test protocols for the objective or subjective evaluation of vehicle performance in a loss of assist situation exist. The first part of this paper examines five of the key steering failure modes that can result in LoA and discusses why LoA persists as a key industry challenge. The second part analyzes the situational dynamics affecting vehicle controllability during a LoA event and proposes a subjective evaluation driving course that facilitates evaluations in various LoA scenarios. A corresponding objective test procedure and metric is also proposed. These evaluation methods support consistent performance evaluation of physical vehicles while also enabling the prediction of vehicle characteristics early in the vehicle development process (VDP).
Technical Paper

Planetary Carrier Staking Groove Optimization

2019-01-09
2019-26-0239
Simple planetary gears are widely used in automobile industry due to their compact design and high power density. A simple planetary gear set consists of a Sun gear, Ring gear, Planets and Carrier which houses planet gears. Mounting of planet pinions on carrier is through pins which is supported on needle roller bearings. A process called staking is used to assemble the pinion pins on to the carrier. Pinion pins have a staking region which after assembly expands outward into staking groove on the carrier to prevent axial movement of the pins. Design of the groove plays a vital role for the fixation of planet pins and robustness a carrier. Planetary carrier staking grooves are designed to meet pinion pin retention and strength targets.
Technical Paper

Parametric Optimization of Planetary Carrier for Durability

2019-01-09
2019-26-0049
Planetary gear set is one of the most commonly used gear systems in automotive industry as they cater to high power density requirements. A simple planetary gear set consists of a sun gear, ring gear, planets and carrier which houses planet gears. Efficiency of a transmission is dependent upon performance of gear sets involved in power transfer to a great extent. Structural rigidity of a planetary carrier is critical in a planetary gear set as its deflection may alter the load distribution of gears in mesh causing durability and noise issues. Limited studies exist based on geometrical parameters of a carrier which would help a designer in selecting the dimensions at an early stage. In this study, an end to end automated FEA process based on DOE and optimization in Isight is developed. The method incorporates a workflow allowing for an update of carrier geometry, FE model setup, analysis job submission and post-processing of results.
Technical Paper

Alternate Solution for EV Charge Point Infrastructure in Crowded Urban Areas along the Shore

2019-01-09
2019-26-0121
Many countries including India have aggressively aimed to implement electric vehicles (EVs) usage from 2030 onwards. Companies such as General Motors, Uber, Waymo and Nissan etc. are exploring the realm of autonomous vehicles (AV) for use as taxis as early as 2019. Above facts logically arrive at the solution of Autonomous EVs as taxis. With the commitment towards enabling an all-electric future, there exists a need to provide suitable infrastructure for recharging. Major urban cities located by the shoreline such as New York, Hong Kong, Mumbai, Los Angeles etc. have been facing the space crunch, with real estate prices sky-rocketing exponentially. With this premise, the operating company would need a large amount of space to store their EVs for charging which attributes to a longer downtime. This brings a need for an economical charging location that has a reduced usage of urban infrastructure and energy consumption.
Technical Paper

Mechanism Analysis and Simulation Study of Automobile Millimeter Wave Radar Noise

2018-08-07
2018-01-1641
The paper analyzes the mechanism of automobile millimeter wave radar noise, this paper does not study radar noise from the angle of signal processing, but from the level of false detection and missed detection, at the same time, the noise mechanism is modeled and verified. Firstly, the purpose and significance of the research of radar vehicle noise are described, and then, we summarize and outline the macro phenomenon and the specific characteristics of the automobile millimeter wave radar noise.
Technical Paper

Trajectory-Tracking Control for Autonomous Driving Considering Its Stability with ESP

2018-08-07
2018-01-1639
With rapid increase of vehicles on the road, safety concerns have become increasingly prominent. Since the leading cause of many traffic accidents is known to be by human drivers, developing autonomous vehicles is considered to be an effective approach to solve the problems above. Although trajectory tracking plays one of the most important roles on autonomous driving, handling the coupling between trajectory-tracking control and ESP under certain driving scenarios remains to be challenging. This paper focuses on trajectory-tracking control considering the role of ESP. A vehicle model is developed with two degrees of freedom, including vehicle lateral, and yaw motions. Based on the proposed model, the vehicle trajectory is separated into both longitudinal and lateral motion. The coupling effect of the vehicle and ESP is analyzed in the paper. The lateral trajectory-tracking algorithm is developed based on the preview follower theory.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Parallel Executions on Multiple Virtual ECU Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0011
We have developed a cooperative simulation environment for multiple electronic control units (ECUs) including a parallel executions mechanism to improve the test efficiency of a system, which was designed with multiple ECUs for autonomous driving. And we have applied it to a power window system for multiple ECUs with a controller area network (CAN). The power window model consists of an electronic-mechanical model and a CPU model. Each simulator with a different executions speed operates in parallel using a synchronization mechanism that exchanges data outputted from each simulator at a constant cycle. A virtual ECU simulated microcontroller hardware operations and executed its control program step-by-step in binary code to test software for the product version. As co-simulation technology, a mechanism that synchronously executes heterogeneous simulators and a model of an in-vehicle communication CAN connecting each ECU were developed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Combined Battery System for Electric Vehicles with Battery Lifespan Enhancements

2018-04-03
2018-01-0448
We propose a combined battery system (CBS) for low cost electric vehicles (EVs) to enhance battery life. The EVs popularly called as Neighborhood Electric Vehicle or Low-Speed-Electric-Vehicle are spreading in developing countries. Conventionally the EVs batteries consist of high energy density cells, and we call it as energy cells (EC). A major issue with the EVs is high operational costs mainly due to high battery cost and short lifespan of the ECs. In this study, we develop a CBS consisting of a combination of following two kinds of batteries: i) EC which is the main energy source for the EV, and ii) a battery having high power density also called as power cells (PC) which is more suitable to bear high charge-discharge currents. The key feature of the proposed system is to minimize the size of additional battery by using our high power lithium ion battery. We performed experiments to estimate EC life for several capacity values of the PC.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Hitachi Electric Vehicle Combined Battery System Lifespan in India

2018-04-03
2018-01-0447
We have developed a drive cycle (DC) to test Hitachi’s combined battery system (CBS) for electric vehicles (EVs) having battery lifespan enhancements. Conventionally EV batteries consist of high energy density cells, and we call them as energy cells (EC). A major issue with the EVs is high operational costs mainly due to short lifespan of the ECs. CBS almost doubles the EC and thus overall battery system lifespan, as per the evaluation over a WLTP based method. We want to test the CBS under Indian conditions which has predominantly hot weather, and traffic jam scenarios. Battery deterioration and thus its lifespan is sensitive to traffic conditions and ambient temperature. Hence, it was needed to evaluate the CBS over an Indian DC and use 40°C as ambient temperature. However, it was difficult to carry out the tests since there is no standard Indian DC for small / light weight four wheelers.
Technical Paper

Structural and Cost Evaluation of Snap Fits used in Connections of Vehicle Door Trim Panel Components with FEA Assist

2017-11-07
2017-36-0195
Among the most important finishing structures of a vehicle interior, the door trim panels reduce external noises, present ergonomic concepts generating comfort, improve appearance, and provide objects storage, knobs and buttons. The panels usually composed of several molded parts (trim, armrest, etc.) connected to each other also have structural function as support closing loads, protect occupants of door internal mechanisms, energy absorption in side impacts and resist misuse conditions. Therefore, these trims usually made of polymeric materials must to present good structural integrity, demanding appropriate connections between components to have good load distribution. The connections between parts can be made using bolts, interference fits (like self-locking), welding tubular plastic towers (heat stakes), or clips (such as snap fits) and last two are the most common due to be cheap and with good retention.
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