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Journal Article

Ductile Fracture Prediction of Automotive Suspension Components

Characterization of the plastic and ductile fracture behavior of a ferrous casting commonly used for the steering knuckle of an automotive suspension system is presented in this work. Ductile fracture testing for various coupon geometries was conducted to simulate a wide range of stress states. Failure data for the higher stress triaxiality were obtained from tension tests conducted on thin flat specimens, wide flat specimens and axisymmetric specimens with varying notch radii. The data for the lower triaxiality were generated from thin-walled tube specimens subjected to torsional loading and compression tests on cylindrical specimens. The failure envelopes for the material were developed utilizing the test data and finite element (FE) simulations of the corresponding test specimens. Experiments provided the load-displacement response and the location of fracture initiation.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction of an Automotive Chassis System with Combined Hardening Material Model

The choice of an appropriate material model with parameters derived from testing and proper modeling of stress-strain response during cyclic loading are the critical steps for accurate fatigue-life prediction of complex automotive subsystems. Most materials used in an automotive substructure, like a chassis system, exhibit combined hardening behavior and it is essential to capture this behavior in the CAE model in order to accurately predict the fatigue life. This study illustrates, with examples, the strain-controlled testing of material coupons, and the calculations of material parameters from test data for the combined hardening material model used in the Abaqus solver. Stress-strain response curves and fatigue results from other simpler material models like the isotropic hardening model and the linear material model with Neuber correction are also discussed in light of the respective fatigue theories.
Technical Paper

New Light Truck Platform Chassis

The objectives of a new generation of light trucks required the development of a new platform chassis, using advances in packaging, manufacturing efficiency, mass reduction, fuel efficiency, noise and vibration toughness, and ride comfort, while maintaining the vehicle's fun-to-drive character. This paper outlines the chassis component and packaging integration, light weight material application with structural optimization, as well as technical concepts executed to improve performance. Key component focus points are axles and bearings, wheels, tires, suspensions, brakes, engine cradles and sub-frames, steering systems, mechanical controls, and fuel and exhaust systems.
Technical Paper

Considerations for the Application of Magnetorheological Dampers to a Crossover SUV

Magnetorheological (MR) dampers have been used in the market on various vehicles since 2001. They use a special oil-based fluid (Magnetorheological Fluid, MRF) that contains small iron particles (1-10 μm in size) and a controllable electromagnetic piston to allow a wide range of damping forces. The system's wide range of available damping force combined with nearly instantaneous response time helps maximize body control while simultaneously providing outstanding ride comfort. This paper describes how the MR technology was combined with conventional suspension tuning to achieve an enhanced level of dynamic performance. While the MR damper offers enhanced performance, its unique response characteristics require tuning of other hardware components that could be considered to be beyond the normal tuning range for that of a conventional suspension.
Journal Article

Vehicle Dynamics Simulation for Predicting Steering Power-Off Limit Performance

A simulation tool has been developed for predicting steering effort of a vehicle during steering power-assist system failure. The vehicle system is modeled with the inclusion of a system-level vehicle model and a steering system model that are linked together through the steering moment at the kingpin and front road wheel angle. A driver model has also been designed to provide closed-loop steering angular input to make the car follow a certain target path. The simulation model is correlated well with actual vehicle tests under various steering input and lateral acceleration conditions. Also illustrated are some examples of comparison between measured and simulated sensitivity study for selected factors.
Journal Article

The Influence of Direct Yaw Control AWD Systems on Vehicle Stability and Response in All Driving Conditions

Driveline torque distribution has long been a research topic, and in the last several decades research has been directed towards enhancing on-road vehicle stability and agility through application of controllable driveline systems. This paper discusses the impact of Direct Yaw Control AWD systems (DYC AWD Systems) on the combined acceleration and turning performance as it pertains to maneuverability and stability on all road surfaces. To achieve higher levels of both safety and performance, the application of a controllable DYC AWD system capable of applying direct yaw moment to the vehicle chassis serves as a key goal to achieve the optimal result. A classification of existing driveline systems is discussed and compared to these optimal requirements. Representative on-vehicle scenarios are discussed to illustrate the impact of AWD control on the vehicle stability and maneuverability and to highlight the effects to the vehicle operator.
Technical Paper

New Telematics Approach by “Diversifying Communication and Customer Opportunity”

Customer satisfaction is one of the most important goals for car manufacturers in providing telematics services to their customers. Telematics is not merely a chance for additional revenue, but should be used to supplement value to an OEM's core business. Unfortunately most existing Telematics business models focus on revenue opportunities. However, the customer value of Telematics still resides in a conventional vehicle–related value model. Typical examples of killer applications are related to transportation, such as real time traffic information, vehicle operation information, vehicle diagnostic information and on–board entertainment. A new approach, which is well accepted by customers, is anticipated. The key solution is a combination of several challenges, such as the transformation of customer relationship management (CRM), optimum integration of existing infrastructure, and customer value proposition based on customers' essential expectations.
Technical Paper

An Experimentally Validated Physical Model of a High-Performance Mono-Tube Damper

A mathematical model of a gas-charged mono-tube racing damper is presented. The model includes bleed orifice, piston leakage, and shim stack flows. It also includes models of the floating piston and the stiffness characteristics of the shim stacks. The model is validated with experimental tests on an Ohlins WCJ 22/6 damper and shown to be accurate. The model is exercised to show the effects of tuning on damper performance. The important results of the exercise are 1) the pressure variation on the compression side of the piston is insignificant relative to that on the rebound side because of the gas charge, 2) valve shim stiffness can be successfully modeled using stacked thin circular plates, 3) bleed orifice settings dominate the low speed regime, and 4) shim stack stiffness dominates the high speed regime.
Technical Paper

Lower Extremity and Brake Pedal Interaction in Frontal Collisions: Sled Tests

A series of eight sled tests was conducted using Hybrid III dummies and cadavers in order to examine the influence of foot placement on the brake pedal in frontal collisions. The brake pedal in the sled runs was fixed in a fully depressed position and the occupants' muscles were not tensed. The cadaver limbs and the Hybrid III lower extremities with 45° ankle and soft joint-stop were extensively instrumented to determine response during the crash event. Brake pedal reaction forces were measured using a six-axis load cell and high speed film was used for kinematic analysis of the crashes. Four right foot positions were identified from previous simulation studies as those orientations most likely to induce injury. In each test, the left foot was positioned on a simulated footrest, acting as a control variable that produced repeatable results in all dummy tests. Each of the different right foot orientations resulted in different loads and motions of the right leg and foot.
Technical Paper

Lower Extremity and Brake Pedal Interaction in Frontal Collisions: Computer Simulation

An Articulated Total Body frontal crash simulation was created with the dummy's right foot placed on the brake pedal. This study examined how interaction of the driver's foot with the brake pedal influenced the behavior of the lower extremities in frontal collisions. Braking parameters considered in the study included foot position on the pedal, whether or not the occupant's muscles were tensed and if the brake pedal was rigid or was allowed to depress. Two basic foot positions were identified as most likely to induce injury of the lower limb. One represented a foot that was pivoted about the heel from the gas pedal to the brake pedal. The other position replicated a foot that was lifted from the gas pedal to the brake pedal, resulting in an initial gap between the heel and floor. Both positions resulted in different loads and behavior of the foot, indicating that driver pre-impact position is a contributing factor to one's injury risk.