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Technical Paper

Research on Technique for Correction of Running Resistance with Focus on Tire Temperature and Tire Thermal Balance Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-0623
At present, measurements of running resistance are conducted outdoors as a matter of course. Because of this, the ambient temperature at the time of the measurements has a considerable impact on the measurement data. The research discussed in this paper focused on the temperature characteristic of the tires and developed a new correction technique using a special rolling test apparatus. Specifically, using a tire rolling test apparatus that made it possible to vary the ambient temperature, measurements were conducted while varying the levels of factors other than temperature that affect rolling resistance (load, inflation pressure, and speed). Next, a regression analysis was applied to the data for each factor, and coefficients for a relational expression were derived, making it possible to derive a quadratic equation for the tire rolling resistance correction formula.
Technical Paper

Design of High Performance Coated GPF with 2D/3D Structure Analysis

2019-04-02
2019-01-0977
In recent years along with stringent the regulations, vehicles equipped with gasoline particulate filter (GPF) have started to launch. Compared to bare GPF, coated GPF (cGPF) requires not only PN filtration efficiency, low pressure drop, but also purification performance. In the wall flow type cGPF having a complicated the pore shape, the pore structure further irregularly changes depending on the coated state of the catalyst, so it is difficult to understand the matter of in-wall. In order to advance of cGPF function, it was researched that revealing the relevance between pore structure change in the wall and GPF function. Therefore, to understand the catalyst coated state difference, cGPF of several coating methods were prepared, and their properties were evaluated by various analyses, and performance was tested.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Pressure Drop Increase Mechanism by Ash Accumulated of Coated GPF

2019-04-02
2019-01-0981
With accelerating exhaust gas regulations in recent years, not only CO / HC / NOx but also PN regulation represented by Euro 6 d, China 6 are getting stricter. PN reduction by engine combustion technology development also progresses, but considering RDE, PN reduction by after treatment technology is also indispensable. To reduce PN exhausted from the gasoline engine, it is effective to equip GPF with a filter structure. Considering the installation of GPF in limited space, we developed a system that so far replaces the second TWC with GPF for the TWC 2 bed system. In order to replace the second TWC with GPF, we chose the coated GPF with filtering and TWC functions. Since the initial pressure drop and the catalyst amount (purification performance) of coated GPF have a conflicting relationship, we developed the coated GPF that can achieve both the low initial pressure drop and high purification performance.
Journal Article

Development of New Hydrogen Fueling Method for Fuel Cell Motorcycle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1184
A new hydrogen fueling protocol named MC Formula Moto was developed for fuel cell motorcycles (FCM) with a smaller hydrogen storage capacity than those of light duty FC vehicles (FCV) currently covered in the SAE J2601 standard (over than 2kg storage). Building on the MC Formula based protocol from the 2016 SAE J2601 standard, numerous new techniques were developed and tested to accommodate the smaller storage capacity: an initial pressure estimation using the connection pulse, a fueling time counter which begins the main fueling time prior to the connection pulse, a pressure ramp rate fallback control, and other techniques. The MC Formula Moto fueling protocol has the potential to be implemented at current hydrogen stations intended for fueling of FCVs using protocols such as SAE J2601. This will allow FCMs to use the existing and rapidly growing hydrogen infrastructure, precluding the need for exclusive dispensers or stations.
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminium Hollow Subframe Using High-Pressure Die Casting

2016-04-05
2016-01-0406
High-tensile steel plates and lightweight aluminum are being employed as materials in order to achieve weight savings in automotive subframe. Closed-section structures are also in general use today in order to efficiently increase parts stiffness in comparison to open sections. Aluminum hollow-cast subframe have also been brought into practical use. Hollow-cast subframe are manufactured using sand cores in gravity die casting (GDC) or low-pressure die casting (LPDC) processes. Using these manufacturing methods, it is difficult to reduce product thickness, and the limitations of the methods therefore make the achievement of weight reductions a challenge. The research discussed in this paper developed a lightweight, hollow subframe technology employing high-pressure die casting (HPDC), a method well-suited to reducing wall thickness, as the manufacturing method. Hollow-casting using HPDC was developed as a method of forming water jackets for water-cooled automotive engines.
Journal Article

Development of a New Pressure Measurement Technique and PIV to Validate CFD for the Aerodynamics of Full-scale Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1623
In the early stages of aerodynamic development of commercial vehicles, the aerodynamic concept is balanced with the design concept using CFD. Since this development determines the aerodynamic potential of the vehicle, CFD with high accuracy is needed. To improve its accuracy, spatial resolution of CFD should be based on flow phenomenon. For this purpose, to compare aerodynamic force, pressure profile and velocity vector map derived from CFD with experimental data is important, but there are some difficulties to obtain pressure profile and velocity vector map for actual vehicles. At the point of pressure measurement for vehicles, installation of pressure taps to the surface of vehicle, i.e., fuel tank and battery, is a problem. A new measurement method developed in this study enables measurement of surface pressure of any desired points. Also, the flexibility of its shape and measuring point makes the installation a lot easier than the conventional pressure measurement method.
Technical Paper

The Development of Brake Feel with Variable Servo Ratio Control

2015-09-27
2015-01-2696
We had developed Electric Servo Brake System, which can control brake pressure accurately with a DC motor according to brake pedal force. Therefore, the system attains quality brake feeling while reflecting intentions of a driver. By the way, “Build-up” is characteristics that brake effectiveness increases in accordance with the deceleration of the vehicle, which is recognized as brake feeling with a sense of relief as not to elongate an expected braking distance at a downhill road due to large-capacity brake pad such as sports car and large vehicles. Then, we have applied the optical characteristic control to every car with Electric Servo Brake System by means of brake pressure control but not brake pad. Hereby, we confirmed that the control gives a driver the sense of relief and the reduction of pedal load on the further stepping-on of the pedal. In this paper, we describe the development of brake feel based on the control overview.
Journal Article

Establishment of Performance Design Process for Vehicle Sound-Roof Packages Based on SEA Method

2015-04-14
2015-01-0664
The process for setting the marketability targets and achievement methods for automotive interior quietness (as related to air borne noise above 400Hz, considered the high frequency range) was established. With conventional methods it is difficult to disseminate the relationship between the performance of individual parts and the overall vehicle performance. Without new methods, it is difficult to propose detailed specifications for the optimal sound proof packages. In order to make it possible to resolve the individual components performance targets, the interior cavity was divided into a number of sections and the acoustic performance of each section is evaluated separately. This is accomplished by evaluating the acoustical energy level of each separate interior panel with the unit power of the exterior speaker excitation. The applicability of the method was verified by evaluating result against predicted value, using the new method, during actual vehicle operation.
Journal Article

Manufacturing Technology for Hollow Structure Large Aluminum Parts Production by High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC)

2015-04-14
2015-01-1319
When using aluminum for vehicle body parts to reduce weight, the high pressure die casting (HPDC) is widely applied due to its adaptability to thin-wall products, near-net-shape castability, and short casting cycle time. Since a hollow construction is advantageous to increase stiffness of body parts, there has been a need of development of techniques for casting of hollow parts by HPDC. So far, hollow casting by HPDC has been realized for small parts using sand cores. When applying that method to large parts, however, it is necessary to increase filling speed. When the filling speed is increased, the core tends to break. In this project, we have developed a method to estimate changes of pressure distribution when filling molten metal by the casting simulation in order to analyze damages to the core. Through the analysis, we discovered occurrence of impulsive pressure waves.
Journal Article

Development of State of the Art Compact and Lightweight Thermoelectric Generator Using Vacuum Space Structure

2015-04-14
2015-01-1691
Exhaust heat recovery units that use a thermoelectric element generate electricity by creating a temperature difference in the thermoelectric element by heating one side and cooling the other side of the thermoelectric circuit (module). In this case, the general structure does not directly join the thermoelectric module with the heat sink, and instead presses the thermoelectric module against the heat sink using bolts or other means in order to prevent thermoelectric element damage due to the difference in linear expansion between the cooled and heated sides of the thermoelectric module. However, this poses the issues associated with a complex, heavy and expensive structure. Therefore, a new vacuum space structure was devised that houses the thermoelectric module in a vacuum chamber and presses the module against the heat sink using atmospheric pressure.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Development of the New Honda FIT/JAZZ

2015-04-14
2015-01-1535
This paper discusses the characteristic flow field of the new Honda FIT/Jazz as determined from the aerodynamic development process, and introduces the technique that reduced aerodynamic drag in a full model change. The new FIT was the first model to take full advantage of the Flow Analysis Simulation tool (FAST), our in-house CFD system, in its development. The FAST system performs aerodynamic simulation by automatically linking the exterior surface design with a predefined platform layout. This allows engineers to run calculations efficiently, and the results can be shared among vehicle stylists and aerodynamicists. Optimization of the exterior design gives the new FIT a moderate pressure peak at the front bumper corner as compared to the previous model, resulting in a smaller pressure difference between the side and underbody.
Journal Article

Evaluation of the Performance of a Boosted HCCI Gasoline Engine with Blowdown Supercharge System

2013-10-15
2013-32-9172
HCCI combustion can realize low NOx and particulate emissions and high thermal efficiency. Therefore, HCCI combustion has a possibility of many kinds of applications, such as an automotive powertrain, general-purpose engine, motorcycle engine and electric generator. However, the operational range using HCCI combustion in terms of speed and load is restricted because the onset of ignition and the heat release rate cannot be controlled directly. For the extension of the operational range using either an external supercharger or a turbocharger is promising. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of the intake pressure on the HCCI high load limit and HCCI combustion characteristics with blowdown supercharging (BDSC) system. The intake pressure (Pin) and temperature (Tin) were varied as experimental parameters. The intake pressure was swept from 100 kPa (naturally aspirated) to 200 kPa using an external mechanical supercharger.
Technical Paper

Development of Intake Air Pressure Sensorless Fuel Injection System for Small Motorcycles

2011-11-08
2011-32-0564
A new control system using O₂ feedback control has been developed as an alternative to intake air pressure sensors. This control method uses the operational condition compensation coefficient Kbu. This coefficient encompasses the state of the engine and environmental conditions such as atmospheric pressure, and corrects fuel injection in response to changes in these factors. Kbu makes it possible to control the amount of fuel injection without depending on an intake air pressure sensor. It also makes it possible to carry out the appropriate air-fuel ratio correction even at times when O₂ feedback control is not operating, such as the cold period, when the engine is first started, or during transient operation, by using Kbu values recorded in the Engine Control Unit (henceforth ECU).
Technical Paper

Control Technology of Brake-by-Wire System for Super-Sport Motorcycles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0080
Super-sport motorcycles have shorter wheelbases than other category motorcycles. Due to this, strong braking occasionally causes large pitching motions to occur, including rear-wheel-lift. In order to reduce such pitching motions and achieve an effective braking force, the authors have developed a brake-by-wire system that uses a pressure sensor to detect the braking input pressure and an electric actuator to variably control the hydraulic pressure. This system makes it possible to precisely control the braking force compared with the previous ABS. Large pitching control was performed by the distribution of a front wheel and a rear-wheel braking forces, CBS (Combined Brake System), by using electronic control, and Brake-by-Wire has been suitable for sport riding. As a result, stable braking performance could be obtained without spoiling the handling characteristics of super-sport motorcycles.
Technical Paper

A Study of High Power Output Diesel Engine with Low Peak Cylinder Pressure

2010-04-12
2010-01-1107
This study examined a high-speed, high-powered diesel engine featuring a pent-roof combustion chamber and straight ports, with the objective of improving the specific power of the engine while minimizing any increase in the maximum cylinder pressure (Pmax). The market and contemporary society expect improvements in the driving performance of diesel-powered automobiles, and increased specific power so that engine displacement can be reduced, which will lessen CO2 emissions. When specific power is increased through conventional methods accompanied with a considerable increase in Pmax, the engine weight is increased and friction worsens. Therefore, the authors examined new technologies that would allow to minimize any increase in Pmax by raising the rated speed from the 4000 rpm of the baseline engine to 5000 rpm, while maintaining the BMEP of the baseline engine.
Technical Paper

Establishment of Engine Lubrication Oil Pressure and Flow Rate Distribution Prediction Technology Using 3D-CFD and Multi Body Dynamics

2009-04-20
2009-01-1349
To develop ideal oil circuits, it was necessary to establish technology that would accurately predict lubrication oil pressure and flow rates. Therefore, the oil flow rate was predicted by applying load fluctuations, calculated using multi body dynamics, to an oil film model. In addition, the pressure loss of complex oil passages was obtained using 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (hereafter, “3D-CFD”). Furthermore, the pressure loss of the oil pressure switching valves and other parts that are difficult to predict using 3D-CFD were measured as single parts, and these results were linked with one-dimensional internal flow analysis to develop a prediction method for lubrication oil pressure and flow rate distributions. Verification tests were ultimately performed using a completed engine, and the results confirmed that this simulation method accurately reproduces the oil pressure and oil flow rate in each part.
Technical Paper

Development of Compact Fuel Pump Module for Motorcycles

2008-09-09
2008-32-0039
A compact, low-cost fuel pump module has been developed for use in motorcycles with a small-displacement engine. Various considerations are given to make the module as compact as possible. The pump motor, which is one of the major component parts, is down-sized specifically for applications to small-displacement engines. The pressure regulator uses a simple construction consisting only of a ball and a spring without a diaphragm. Especially noteworthy is that with the volume reduced by approximately 40% from the conventional pressure regulator while using the construction that reduces self-excited vibrations caused by fuel pressure pulsations, the pressure regulator contributes significantly to the down-sizing and cost reduction of the module. Furthermore, the down-sized module remarkably reduces the size of fuel pump mount surface, allowing a modification from the flat-surface sealing to the radial sealing.
Technical Paper

Development of Hydraulic Servo Brake System for Cooperative Control with Regenerative Brake

2007-04-16
2007-01-0868
A new brake system, able to make efficient use of regenerative braking while maintaining excellent brake feel, has been developed to increase the fuel economy of hybrid vehicles. A hydraulic servo was used as a base to enable mechanical operation of the service brakes; solenoid valves and brake fluid pressure sensors were added to this base to make it possible to control brake line pressure as demanded. The use of a stroke simulator in the hydraulic servo prevents brake feel from being affected by the control of the brake pressure. In addition, high-accuracy brake pressure control that functions cooperatively with the regenerative brakes is enabled, resulting in stable braking effectiveness.
Technical Paper

Study on Maximizing Exergy in Automotive Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0257
The use of waste heat for automobile engine that applied Rankine cycle from the viewpoint of exergy (available energy) was researched. In order to recover heat to high quality energy, a heat-management engine whose exhaust port was replaced with an innovative evaporation device was developed. With this engine, high temperature and high pressure steam (400 degree C, 8MPa) could be generated from a large amount of the exhaust loss. In addition, high temperature water (189 degree C) was obtained from cooling loss. Consequently, the system that recovered more exergy from waste heat was established. To verify the system, the Rankine cycle system was installed in a hybrid vehicle and the automatic control system to change steam temperature and pressure according to the load variation was constructed. As the result of vehicle testing, thermal efficiency was increased from 28.9% to 32.7% (by 13.2% increase) at 100km/h constant vehicle speed.
Technical Paper

Development of High-strength Piston Material with High Pressure Die Casting

2006-04-03
2006-01-0986
The technology for a new, high-strength piston material has been developed by using high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, which had a rapid rate of solidification. This method allowed the amount of Ni added to be increased to 5.5 mass%, raising the fatigue strength of the new material at temperatures of 523 K or higher by a factor of 1.5 over that of a conventional material made by gravity die casting (GDC). In addition, application of vacuum to the die cavity and using additional pressure enabled quality exceeding that of conventional GDC pistons. Pistons made from the newly developed material decreased engine friction by 4.4% and increased fuel efficiency by 2.2% in engine bench testing.
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