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Technical Paper

Analysis of the Pressure Drop Increase Mechanism by Ash Accumulated of Coated GPF

2019-04-02
2019-01-0981
With accelerating exhaust gas regulations in recent years, not only CO / HC / NOx but also PN regulation represented by Euro 6 d, China 6 are getting stricter. PN reduction by engine combustion technology development also progresses, but considering RDE, PN reduction by after treatment technology is also indispensable. To reduce PN exhausted from the gasoline engine, it is effective to equip GPF with a filter structure. Considering the installation of GPF in limited space, we developed a system that so far replaces the second TWC with GPF for the TWC 2 bed system. In order to replace the second TWC with GPF, we chose the coated GPF with filtering and TWC functions. Since the initial pressure drop and the catalyst amount (purification performance) of coated GPF have a conflicting relationship, we developed the coated GPF that can achieve both the low initial pressure drop and high purification performance.
Journal Article

Designing for Turbine Housing Weight Reduction Using Thermal Fatigue Crack Propagation Prediction Technology

2019-04-02
2019-01-0533
Turbine housings in car engine turbochargers, which use costly stainless steel castings, account for nearly 50% of the parts cost of a turbocharger. They are also the component which controls the competitiveness of the turbocharger, in terms of both function and cost. In this research, focusing on thermal fatigue resistance which is one of the main functions demanded of a turbine housing, achieving reduction in wall thickness while securing sufficient thermal fatigue resistance, it is possible to reduce the amount of material used in the turbine housing and aimed for cost reduction. Therefore, we built a method to quantitatively predict, using 3D FEM, the lifespan from the initiation of thermal fatigue cracking to the formation of a penetrating crack which leads to gas leakage.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Rotational Vibration Mechanism of Camshaft at High Engine Speed in Engines with In-Line Four-Cylinder DOHC Configuration

2018-10-30
2018-32-0072
In engines having an inline four cylinder DOHC configuration, the rotational vibrations of camshaft increase at high engine speeds above 10000 rpm, causing an increase of tension in the cam chain. It is therefore difficult to realize an optimum designing of a cam chain system when the durability has to be taken into considerations. Using the simulation we analyzed in this research how the rotational vibrations and tension increase at high engine speeds in an inline four cylinder DOHC engine. As its consequent, it is understood that the increases of rotational vibrations and tension caused by the resonance of the spring mass vibration system in which the cam chain serves as springs and the camshafts as the equivalent masses. Also it is found out that the vibration system is of a unique non-linear type in which the resonance of the fourth order frequency is also excited by the crankshaft torque fluctuations of the second order frequency.
Technical Paper

Diesel CAI Combustion in Uniflow Scavenging 2-Stroke Engine Provided with Port Fuel Injection Device

2018-10-30
2018-32-0015
We studied a simple and cost effective controlled auto ignition (CAI) combustion engine in order to achieve simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot, which are issues in diffusion combustion. The engine type was a uniflow scavenging 2-stroke engine, and the fuel used was diesel, as is common in diesel engines. We examined the position of the injector that effectively forms the premixture and realized stable operation with diesel fuel by the low pressure fuel injection device for port fuel injection (PFI), and it was found that the CAI combustion ignition timing can be controlled through setting the air/fuel ratio that obtains the optimal ignition timing per operation conditions.
Technical Paper

Non-Destructive Measurement of Residual Strain in Connecting Rods Using Neutrons

2018-04-03
2018-01-1063
Increasing the strength of materials is effective in reducing weight and boosting structural part performance, but there are cases in where the residual strain generated during the process of manufacturing of high-strength materials results in a decline of durability. It is therefore important to understand how the residual strain in a manufactured component changes due to processing conditions. In the case of a connecting rod, because the strain load on the connecting rod rib sections is high, it is necessary to clearly understand the distribution of strain in the ribs. However, because residual strain is generally measured by using X-ray diffractometers or strain gauges, measurements are limited to the surface layer of the parts. Neutron beams, however, have a higher penetration depth than X-rays, allowing for strain measurement in the bulk material.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Power Transmission Efficiency for Two-Mode Half-Toroidal IVT

2018-04-03
2018-01-1060
Infinitely variable transmission (IVT) is one of the methods used to extend the ratio coverage. In this paper, a dynamic behavior analysis technology was developed for an IVT utilizing a half-toroidal variator as the shifting device. The traction coefficient of traction fluid used for the half-toroidal IVT varies greatly according to contact surface slip rate, contact pressure and fluid temperature. This paper used measurement values from a four-roller machine to identify the coefficient, and then applied it to the dynamic behavior analysis. Use of the identified traction coefficient enabled power transmission characteristic predictions of a half-toroidal variator. To reproduce the elastic deformation in actual operation, the research used the Finite Element Method (FEM) for modeling. This model was also used to visualize the frictional state of traction surfaces during operation.
Technical Paper

Influence of Shock Absorber Friction on Vehicle Ride-Comfort Studied by Numerical Simulation Using Classical Single Wheel Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-0692
Along with the suspension improvement in these two decades, it is well known that the suspension friction force became one of major parameters to affect ride comfort performance. However, it was difficult to carry out quantitative prediction on ride comfort improvement against friction force change with high correlation. It was difficult to analyze correlation between actual vehicle performance and simulation since there were difficulties in controlling damping force and friction individually. On the other hand, magneto-rheological shock absorber (MR Shock) has had several applications and widely spread to passenger vehicles. The large variation and high response of damping force especially in slow piston speed region contributes to achieve an excellent vehicle dynamics performance. However, MR Shock shows the high friction characteristics, due to the unique sliding regime of internal parts. It is said that this high friction characteristic is causing obstacles in ride-comfort.
Journal Article

Development of Electric Powertrain for CLARITY PLUG-IN HYBRID

2018-04-03
2018-01-0415
Honda has developed the 2018 model CLARITY PLUG-IN HYBRID. Honda’s new plug-in hybrid is a midsize sedan and shares a body platform with the CLARITY FUEL CELL and the CLARITY ELECTRIC. The vehicle’s electric powertrain boosts driving performance as an electric vehicle (EV) over Honda’s previous plug-in hybrid. The CLARITY PLUG-IN HYBRID’s electric powertrain consists of a traction motor and generator built into the transmission, a Power Control Unit (PCU) positioned above the transmission, an Intelligent Power Unit (IPU) fitted under the floor, and an onboard charger fitted below the rear trunk. The PCU integrates an inverter that drives the traction motor, an inverter that drives the generator, and a DC-DC converter to boost battery voltage (referred to as a “Voltage Control Unit (VCU)” below).
Technical Paper

Development of High-Power-Density DC-DC Converter Using Coupled Inductors for Clarity Plug-In Hybrid

2018-04-03
2018-01-0458
Honda has developed an electric powertrain for a 2017 plug-in hybrid vehicle using its second-generation SPORT HYBRID i-MMD powertrain system as a base. The application of the newly developed powertrain system realizes a long all-electric range (AER), allowing operation as an EV for almost all everyday driving scenarios, with dynamic performance making it possible for the vehicle to operate as an EV across the entire speed range, up to a maximum speed of 100 mph. The amount of assist provided by power from the batteries during acceleration has been increased, helping to downsize the engine while also balancing powerful acceleration with quietness achieved by controlling racing of the engine. In order to realize this EV performance with the second-generation SPORT HYBRID i-MMD system as the base, it was necessary to increase the power output of the DC-DC converter, taking restrictions on space into consideration.
Journal Article

Ag-Type PM Oxidation Catalyst with Nd Added to Increase Contact Property between PM and Catalyst

2018-04-03
2018-01-0328
Honda diesel engine vehicles that go on the market in 2018 will be equipped with a newly developed silver (Ag)-type catalyzed diesel particulate filter (cDPF). Ag has high particulate matter (PM) oxidation performance, but conventional catalyst-carrying methods cause weak contact property between PM and Ag; therefore, the newly Ag-type cDPF was developed on the concept of enhancing the property of contact between PM and the catalyst to realize contact property enhancement at the macro, meso, and nano scales. As a result, the newly developed catalyst showed an enhancement of T90 performance by a factor of approximately 2 relative to the conventional Ag-type catalyst in fresh condition. Durability in the environment of an automobile in use was examined through hydrothermal aging, lean-rich (L/R) aging, sulfur (S) poisoning, and ash deposition. The results have confirmed that hydrothermal aging is the greatest factor in deterioration.
Technical Paper

Temperature Prediction of Actual Contact Portion of the Metal Belt CVT

2018-04-03
2018-01-0122
In a previous study by the authors, austenite (γ phase) formed on the topmost of pulleys after long term operation of continuously variable transmission (CVT) [1]. In general, martensite arising from heat treatment forms on the surface of pulleys and gears. Therefore, the sliding surface has a body-centered cubic (BCC) metal structure, and transformation into and existence of austenite (γ phase) is difficult unless there is a thermal history exceeding the eutectoid point. For the verification of that possibility, it was crucial to obtain temperature variation on the sliding surface. The major problem for such measurements was rotation of parts inside an operating CVT. In this study, uniquely developed measurement system enabled non-contact temperature measurement near the contact portion. Results were substituted to heat conduction equation to predict the temperature at the exact contact portion.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations of Mixture Formation in Combustion Chambers of Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines Incorporating a Sub-Chamber

2017-10-08
2017-01-2280
The aim of this study is to clarify the mixture formation in the combustion chamber of our developed natural gas engine incorporating the sub-chamber injection system, in which natural gas is directly injected into a combustion sub-chamber in order to completely separate rich mixture in the sub-chamber, suitable for ignition, from ultra-lean mixture in the main chamber. Mixture distributions in chambers with and without sub-chamber were numerically simulated at a variety of operating conditions. The commercial software of Fluent 16.0 was used to conduct simulations based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations in an axial 2 dimensional numerical domain considering movements of piston. Non-reactive flow in the combustion chamber was simulated before the ignition timing at an engine speed of 2000 rpm. The turbulence model employed here is standard k-ε model. Air-fuel ratio is set with a lean condition of 30.
Technical Paper

New 1.0L I3 Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-1029
To comply with the environmental demands for CO2 reduction without compromising driving performance, a new 1.0 liter I3 turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine has been developed. This engine is the smallest product in the new Honda VTEC TURBO engine series (1), and it is intended to be used in small to medium-sized passenger car category vehicles, enhancing both fuel economy through downsizing, state-of-the-art friction reduction technologies such as electrically controlled variable displacement oil pump and timing belt in oil system, and also driving performance through turbocharging with an electrically controlled waste gate. This developed engine has many features in common with other VTEC TURBO engines such as the 1.5 liter I4 turbocharged engine (2) (3), which has been introduced already into the market.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Powertrain for New Model Hybrid Sports Utility Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1158
An electric powertrain has been developed for Honda’s 2017 model hybrid SUV. The electric powertrain developed for the hybrid model consists of a Twin Motor Unit (TMU), a high-output front motor mated to a 7-speed DCT for efficient power generation, a Power Control Unit (PCU), and an Intelligent Power Unit (IPU). The TMU is made up of two motor units able to drive the left and right wheels independently, as employed in Honda’s flagship sedan and high-end sports cars. The PCU delivers electric power to the motors, and the IPU stores drive torque and regenerative energy. The high-output front motor and TMU are equipped with sports hybrid SH-AWD components, as used in existing mass-production models, in order to realize handling performance equaling that of the base SUV. Positioned under the floor outside the passenger cabin, the PCU has a newly developed 3-in-1 inverter, motor control ECU, and 12V DC-DC converter built-in, and is housed in a fully waterproof structure.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Analysis of Leakage Suppression of DLC Coating on Piston Ring

2017-03-28
2017-01-0457
Piston ring wear in gasoline engine induces deterioration of emissions performance due to leakage of blow-by gas, instability of idling caused by reduced compression in combustion chamber, and to generate early degeneration of engine oil. We examined anti-wear performance of DLC coating on piston ring, which had been recently reported as an effective method for improving the abrasion resistance. As a result, wear rate remained low under the condition of DLC existence on sliding surface, but once DLC was worn out completely, wear of the piston ring was accelerated and its life became shorter than piston ring without DLC. In this research, we designed reciprocating test apparatus that operates at much higher velocity range, and characterized the frictional materials of the piston ring and sleeve and the DLC as a protective film, a vapor phase epitaxy (VPE) was actively used as a means to form certain level of convex and concave shape on its surface.
Journal Article

Strain Analysis of Belt Element-Pulley Interaction of an Automobile CVT under Actual Vehicle Speed Condition

2017-03-28
2017-01-1106
In order to improve shift response, durability and transmission efficiency of the CVT system, it is essential to precisely understand the behavior of individual belt elements. Although there have been some previous works measuring the strain or load on belt elements, they have been performed for speed ranges that are far below actual vehicle operation speeds due to limits in measurement techniques. We therefore developed measurement equipment that can be fitted on a CVT belt to enable measurement during actual CVT operation, and obtained the strain on belt elements under transient conditions including acceleration and transmission ratio shifts. The results showed that the strain peaks due to normal force on V faces of elements around the entrance and/or exit of the pulleys. The bending component of the strain fluctuated on the straight section from the secondary pulley to the primary pulley.
Journal Article

Effects of Cavitation and Hydraulic Flip in 3-Hole GDI Injectors

2017-03-28
2017-01-0848
The performance of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines is governed by multiple physical processes such as the internal nozzle flow and the mixing of the liquid stream with the gaseous ambient environment. A detailed knowledge of these processes even for complex injectors is very important for improving the design and performance of combustion engines all the way to pollutant formation and emissions. However, many processes are still not completely understood, which is partly caused by their restricted experimental accessibility. Thus, high-fidelity simulations can be helpful to obtain further understanding of GDI injectors. In this work, advanced simulation and experimental methods are combined in order to study the spray characteristics of two different 3-hole GDI injectors.
Technical Paper

1-D Simulation Model Developed for a General Purpose Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0030
In recent years, improvements in the fuel economy and exhaust emission performance of internal combustion engines have been increasingly required by regulatory agencies. One of the salient concerns regarding general purpose engines is the larger amount of CO emissions with which they are associated, compared with CO emissions from automobile engines. To reduce CO and other exhaust emissions while maintaining high fuel efficiency, the optimization of total engine system, including various design parameters, is essential. In the engine system optimization process, cycle simulation using 0-D and 1-D engine models are highly useful. To define an optimum design, the model used for the cycle simulation must be capable of predicting the effects of various parameters on the engine performance. In this study, a model for predicting the performance of a general purpose SI (Spark Ignited) engine is developed based on the commercially available engine simulation software, GT-POWER.
Journal Article

Establishment of Fuel Economy Estimation Method Focused on Transmission Efficiency of Rubber Belt Type CVT

2016-11-08
2016-32-0036
A simulation tool has been developed that can be used to estimate a fuel economy while driving in a mode test of a motorcycle equipped with a continuously variable transmission (CVT) at an early stage of development. For a precise estimation of a mode fuel economy, it is necessary to accurately estimate the CVT ratio, the engine speed, and the crankshaft torque during driving in a mode. To achieve this, this study has generalized the transmission efficiency of a CVT system. This study has also derived developed balance equations that can take into account the transmission efficiency of CVT and the slippage that occurs when the centrifugal clutch is about to be engaged. In the proposed method, the pulley ratio of CVT, the engine speed, and the torque at the crankshaft were obtained first by solving the developed balance equations at discrete times during driving in a mode.
Technical Paper

Research on Combustion Noise for Controlled Auto Ignition Engine Fueled with Natural Gas Effect of Stroke Bore Ratio and Ignition Timing

2016-11-08
2016-32-0044
One of the issues involved in compression ignition combustion is the increase in combustion noise from engine mechanical systems caused by rapid combustion. When the fuel used is natural gas, with its high ignition temperature, the compression is increased relative to gasoline, so that combustion becomes even more rapid. The present research pursues the issue of noise by clarifying the distinctive features of combustion noise through tests focused on the two topics of stroke-bore ratio (S/B ratio) and ignition timing for engine structures deformation mode. From these results, we verified combustion noise trend and occurrence factor.
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