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Technical Paper

Development of High Appearance Water Born Primer Surfacer Coating for Short Process Body Paint

2019-04-02
2019-01-0189
4C3B (4 coat 3 bake) painting system (see Figure 1) which needs a bake process after the primer surfacer paint was very general and common process for the automotive body painting system. In the beginning of the 2000s, 4C2B painting system (Reference 1) was developed which changed the oven after the primer surfacer paint to a pre heat area, so it can reduce the carbon dioxide (Figure 1, and Figure 2). But unfortunately in this 4C2B painting system, the base coat will be painted on the primer surfacer paint wet-on-wet. By that reason, the appearance deterioration will occur often. The authors used a low temperature crosslinking agent “Polycarbodiimide” to a water born primer surfacer paint, to control the viscosity of primer surfacer paint at the pre heat area. Controlling the viscosity is important to avoid the layer mixing of the primer surfacer paint and the base coat which makes appearance deterioration.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Pressure Drop Increase Mechanism by Ash Accumulated of Coated GPF

2019-04-02
2019-01-0981
With accelerating exhaust gas regulations in recent years, not only CO / HC / NOx but also PN regulation represented by Euro 6 d, China 6 are getting stricter. PN reduction by engine combustion technology development also progresses, but considering RDE, PN reduction by after treatment technology is also indispensable. To reduce PN exhausted from the gasoline engine, it is effective to equip GPF with a filter structure. Considering the installation of GPF in limited space, we developed a system that so far replaces the second TWC with GPF for the TWC 2 bed system. In order to replace the second TWC with GPF, we chose the coated GPF with filtering and TWC functions. Since the initial pressure drop and the catalyst amount (purification performance) of coated GPF have a conflicting relationship, we developed the coated GPF that can achieve both the low initial pressure drop and high purification performance.
Technical Paper

Research on Technique for Correction of Running Resistance with Focus on Tire Temperature and Tire Thermal Balance Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-0623
At present, measurements of running resistance are conducted outdoors as a matter of course. Because of this, the ambient temperature at the time of the measurements has a considerable impact on the measurement data. The research discussed in this paper focused on the temperature characteristic of the tires and developed a new correction technique using a special rolling test apparatus. Specifically, using a tire rolling test apparatus that made it possible to vary the ambient temperature, measurements were conducted while varying the levels of factors other than temperature that affect rolling resistance (load, inflation pressure, and speed). Next, a regression analysis was applied to the data for each factor, and coefficients for a relational expression were derived, making it possible to derive a quadratic equation for the tire rolling resistance correction formula.
Technical Paper

Study on Weave Behavior Simulation of Motorcycles Considering Vibration Characteristics of Whole Body of Rider

2018-10-30
2018-32-0052
In motorcycles, the mass difference between a vehicle and a rider is small and motions of a rider impose a great influence on the vehicle behaviors as a consequence. Therefore, dynamic properties of motorcycles should be evaluated not merely dealing with a vehicle but considering with a man-machine system. In the studies of a simulation for vehicle dynamics, various types of rider models have been proposed and it has already been reported that rider motions have a significant influence on the dynamic properties. However, the mechanism of the interaction between a rider and a vehicle has not been clarified yet. In our study, we focused on weave motion and constructed a full vehicle simulation model that can reflect the influences of the movements of the rider’s upper body and lower body. To construct the rider model, we first measured the vibrational characteristics of a human body using a vibration test bench.
Technical Paper

Research of Atomization Phenomena in HPDC-Step 1 Feature of Gas Porosity Dispersion and Photography of Atomized Flow

2018-04-03
2018-01-1392
In recent years, studies have been conducted on the relationship between the J factor, which indicates flow of molten aluminum at the time of injection, and the quality of HPDC products. The flow of molten metal at a high J factor is referred to as “Atomized Flow.” The authors and others conducted studies on the relationship between the J factor and the strength of HPDC products. An area exceeding 300MPa was found in the product produced at a high J factor corresponding to the “Atomized Flow.” The defect was less in the above-mentioned position because the gas porosity was finely dispersed. Considering that the fine dispersion of gas porosity is related to the “Atomized Flow”, pictures were taken to analyze “Atomized Flow.” The molten aluminum was ejected into an open space at a high speed and the splashed conditions were photographed. From the images taken by the pulse laser permeation, the conditions of microscopic atomized flow were observed precisely.
Technical Paper

Acceleration of Iterative Vibration Analysis for Form Changes in Large Degrees-of-Freedom Engine Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-1290
Operational analysis of automotive engines using flexible multi-body dynamics is increasingly important from the viewpoint of multi-objective optimization as it can predict not only vibration, but also stress and friction at the same time. Still, the finite element (FE) models used in this analysis have large degrees-of-freedom, so iterative calculation takes a lot of time when there is form change. This research therefore describes a technique that applies a modal differential substructure method (a technique that reduces the degrees of freedom in a FE model) that can simulate form changes in FE models by changing modal mass and modal stiffness in reduced models. By using this method, non-parametric form change in FE model can be parametrically simulated, so it is possible to speed up repeated vibration calculations. In the proposed method, FE model is finely divided for each form change design area, and a reduced model of that divided structure is created.
Technical Paper

Influence of Shock Absorber Friction on Vehicle Ride-Comfort Studied by Numerical Simulation Using Classical Single Wheel Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-0692
Along with the suspension improvement in these two decades, it is well known that the suspension friction force became one of major parameters to affect ride comfort performance. However, it was difficult to carry out quantitative prediction on ride comfort improvement against friction force change with high correlation. It was difficult to analyze correlation between actual vehicle performance and simulation since there were difficulties in controlling damping force and friction individually. On the other hand, magneto-rheological shock absorber (MR Shock) has had several applications and widely spread to passenger vehicles. The large variation and high response of damping force especially in slow piston speed region contributes to achieve an excellent vehicle dynamics performance. However, MR Shock shows the high friction characteristics, due to the unique sliding regime of internal parts. It is said that this high friction characteristic is causing obstacles in ride-comfort.
Technical Paper

Research of Steering Grasping to Take over Driver from System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1068
Lane departure prevention systems are able to detect imminent departure from the road, allowing the driver to apply control to prevent lane departure. These systems possess enormous potential to reduce the number of accidents resulting from road departure, but their effectiveness is highly reliant on their level of acceptance by drivers. The effectiveness of the systems will depend on when they are providing driving assistance, what level of laxness in terms of maintaining contact with the steering wheel is allowed on the part of the driver, and what level of assistance the system provides. This paper will discuss research on the minimum necessary contact and contact strength with the steering wheel on the part of the driver when a lane departure prevention system is in operation.
Technical Paper

Study of 450-kW Ultra Power Dynamic Charging System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1343
This research sought to develop a dynamic charging system, achieving an unlimited EV cruising range by charging the EV at high power during cruising. This system would help make it possible to finish battery charging in a short time by contact with the EV while cruising and enable drivers to freely cruise their intended routes after charging. A simulation of dynamic charging conditions was conducted for ordinary autonomous cruising (i.e., ordinary EV cruising) when dynamically charging at a high power of 450-kW (DC 750 V, 600 A). This report discusses the study results of a method of building the infrastructure, as well as looking at the cruise test results and future outlook. In particular, the research clarified the conditions for achieving an unlimited vehicle cruising range with a 450-kW dynamic charging system. It also demonstrated that this system would allow battery capacities to be greatly reduced and make it possible to secure the battery supply volume and resources.
Journal Article

Prediction Method for Water Intrusion into the Engine Air Intake Duct while Running on Flooded Road at the Early Stage of Vehicle Development

2017-03-28
2017-01-1322
Vehicles are required durability in various environments all over the world. Especially water resistance on flooded roads is one of the important issues. To solve this kind of problem, a CFD technology was established in order to predict the water resistance performance of the vehicle at the early development stage. By comparison with vehicle tests on flooded roads, it is clarified the following key factors are required for accurate prediction; the vehicle velocity change, the vehicle height change and the air intake flow rate. Moreover, these three key factors should be appropriately determined from vehicle and engine specification to predict water intrusion for flooded roads at the early stage of development. In this paper, a methodology which determines appropriate analysis conditions mentioned above for flooding simulation from vehicle and engine specification is described. The methodology enables us to determine whether the vehicle provides sufficient waterproofness.
Journal Article

Incoming Wave Estimation Characteristics by MUSIC Method Using a Virtual Array Antenna in Urban Reception Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0077
We developed “Two-Stage Method” that makes it possible to evaluate the automotive suitability of FM receivers by generating a virtual radio wave environment on a PC. The major technological challenge for the Two-Stage Method was reproducing an actual radio wave environment on PC. It was necessary to estimate the characteristics of the FM radio wave environment in tests using the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) method. However, when the MUSIC method is applied to FM reception, restrictions in factors including the number of array antenna elements and the occupied bandwidth result in issues of separation performance in relation to multipath waves in urban environments. We therefore developed a MUSIC Method using a virtual array antenna, making it possible to create combinations of numbers of array and sub-array elements as desired, thus boosting multipath wave separation performance. This development was reported at the 2015 SAE World Congress.
Journal Article

Development and Application of FM Multipath Distortion Rate Measurement System Using a Fading Emulator Based on Two-Stage Method

2016-04-05
2016-01-0082
The suitability of FM radio receivers for automobiles has conventionally been rated by evaluating reception characteristics for broadcast waves in repeated driving tests in specific test environments. The evaluation of sound quality has relied on the auditory judgment due to difficulties to conduct quantitative evaluations by experiments. Thus the method had issues in terms of the reproducibility and objectivity of the evaluations. To address these issues, a two-stage method generating a virtual radio wave environment on a PC was developed. The research further defined the multipath distortion rate, MDr, as an index for the sound quality evaluation of FM receivers, and the findings concerning the suitability of the evaluation of FM terminals for automobiles were reported at the 2015 SAE World Congress.
Technical Paper

Development of Motor Emulator Provided with HIL Simulator for Simulation of HEV Power Control Unit Current during Vehicle Operation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1218
Conventionally, it has not been possible to evaluate current and temperature in power control units (PCU) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) during vehicle operation without using an actual permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The research discussed in this paper developed a motor emulator to take the place of an actual motor, making it possible to conduct tests for the evaluation of current and temperature in PCU during vehicle operation without the need to use a motor. The motor emulator is provided with a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulator that calculates motor models at high speed using a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The developed system models the motor in detail via the HIL simulator, while a 3-phase current generator accurately reproduces the transient current in the PCU during vehicle operation.
Journal Article

Prediction of Fatigue Strength of Motorcycle Exhaust System Considering Vibrating and Thermal Stresses

2015-11-17
2015-32-0739
A method applicable in the design stage to predict fatigue strength of a motorcycle exhaust system was developed. In this prediction method, a vibrating stress, thermal stresses, stresses resulting from the assembling of the exhaust system components and a deterioration of fatigue strength of materials originated from high temperature were simultaneously taken into account. For the prediction of the vibrating stress, flexible multibody dynamics was applied to get modeling accuracy for vibration characteristics of the entire motorcycle and the exciting force delivered from engine vibrations. The thermal conduction analysis and the thermal deformation analysis based on finite element method (FEM) were applied for the prediction of thermal stresses in the exhaust system components. The temperature distribution on the surfaces of the exhaust system components is required for calculations of the thermal stresses.
Technical Paper

The Development of Brake Feel with Variable Servo Ratio Control

2015-09-27
2015-01-2696
We had developed Electric Servo Brake System, which can control brake pressure accurately with a DC motor according to brake pedal force. Therefore, the system attains quality brake feeling while reflecting intentions of a driver. By the way, “Build-up” is characteristics that brake effectiveness increases in accordance with the deceleration of the vehicle, which is recognized as brake feeling with a sense of relief as not to elongate an expected braking distance at a downhill road due to large-capacity brake pad such as sports car and large vehicles. Then, we have applied the optical characteristic control to every car with Electric Servo Brake System by means of brake pressure control but not brake pad. Hereby, we confirmed that the control gives a driver the sense of relief and the reduction of pedal load on the further stepping-on of the pedal. In this paper, we describe the development of brake feel based on the control overview.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Brake System for Small Motorcycles

2015-09-27
2015-01-2680
Combined Brake System for small motorcycles has been developed. In small motorcycles, some models have a hydraulic disc brake both in the front and rear wheels but many of them have a hydraulic disc front brake and a mechanical drum rear brake. Accordingly, it was necessary to develop a new system to link the hydraulic system with the mechanical system to allow an application of Combined Brake System to these models. In this paper, a CBS having a new configuration is described where a disc brake and a drum brake are linked in a simple lever structure of an input force distributor, and an inhibitor spring at the foot pedal. With this mechanism equipped, the distribution of brake forces is controlled. When a large input force is applied, a large proportion of brake force is applied to the front brake to obtain adequate deceleration. When a mild input force is applied, which is frequently operated, the brake force proportion is large in the rear compared to the front.
Technical Paper

Deployment of Vehicle-to-Grid Technology and Related Issues

2015-04-14
2015-01-0306
In order to reduce emissions and enhance energy security, renewable power sources are being introduced proactively. As the fraction of these sources on a power grid grows, it will become more difficult to maintain balance between renewable power supply and coincident demand, because renewable power generation changes frequently and significantly, depending on weather conditions. As a means of resolving this imbalance between supply and demand, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology is being discussed, because it enables vehicles to contribute to stabilizing the power grid by utilizing on-board batteries as a distributed energy resource as well as an energy storage for propulsion. The authors have built a plug-in vehicle with a capability of backfeeding to the power grid, by integrating a bi-directional on-board AC/DC and DC/AC converter (on-board charger) and a digital communication device into the vehicle. The vehicle is interconnected to a power regulation market in the United States.
Journal Article

Development of γ′-Fe4N Phase Control Technology and Low-Carbon Alloy Steel for High-Strength Nitrided Gear

2015-04-14
2015-01-0519
A new nitriding technology and material technology have been developed to increase the strength of microalloyed gears. The developed nitriding technology makes it possible to freely select the phase composition of the nitride compound layer by controlling the treatment atmosphere. The treatment environment is controlled to exclude sources of supply of [C], and H2 is applied as the carrier gas. This has made it possible to control the forward reaction that decomposes NH3, helping to enable the stable precipitation of γ′-phase, which offers excellent peeling resistance. A material optimized for the new nitriding technology was also developed. The new material is a low-carbon alloy steel that makes it possible to minimize the difference in hardness between the compound layer and the substrate directly below it, and is resistant to decline in internal hardness due to aging precipitation in the temperature range used in the nitriding treatment.
Journal Article

Prediction of Friction Drive Limit of Metal V-Belt

2015-04-14
2015-01-1138
When fluctuations in the speed of rotation of the drive pulley are transmitted to the driven pulley via the metal V-belt, the transmitted fluctuations become attenuated as friction force approaches a state of saturation. The research discussed in this paper focused on these fluctuations in the speed of rotation and developed an index for the slip state between the belt and the pulleys. The drive and driven pulleys were regarded as a one-dimensional vibrating system connected by elastic bodies, and changes in the state matrix of the system were focused on. It was determined that when all of the eigenvalues in this state matrix become real numbers, slip speed between the belt and the pulleys increases sharply. A method was proposed of estimating this behavior of the eigenvalues from changes in the speed of rotation of the drive and driven pulleys, and indexing the current slip state.
Journal Article

Research on Mechanism of Change in Suspension Transfer Force in Relation to Low-Frequency Road Noise

2015-04-14
2015-01-0667
Cabin quietness is one of the important factors for product marketability. In particular, the importance of reducing road noise is increasing in recent years. Methods that reduce acoustic sensitivity as well as those that reduce the force transferred from the suspension to the body (the suspension transfer force) are used as means of reducing road noise. Reduction of the compliance of the body suspension mounting points has been widely used as a method of reducing acoustic sensitivity. However, there were cases where even though this method reduced acoustic sensitivity, road noise did not decrease. This mechanism remained unclear. This study focused on the suspension transfer force and analyzed this mechanism of change using the transfer function synthesis method. The results showed that the balance between the body's suspension mounting points, suspension bush, and suspension arm-tip compliance is an important factor influencing the change in suspension transfer force.
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