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Technical Paper

Real-world Emission Analysis Methods Using Sensor-based Emission Measurement System

Every year, due to exhaust gas regulations that are getting stricter, the average air pollution is going to be solved, but the local roadside pollution is still pressing issue. In order to solve this local roadside pollution problem, it is necessary to evaluate and/or predict “where” and “how much” pollutants such as NOx are emitted. In recent years, Real Driving Emission regulations using PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) have been introduced mainly in Europe. However, PEMS has a configuration close to 100 kg, and its weight affects the driving conditions of vehicles running on actual roads. In this study, we focused on the analysis of real world emissions using SEMS (Sensor-based / Simple Emission Measurement System). Whereas PEMS is a method of sampling and analyzing exhaust gas, SEMS directly attaches NOx sensor and PM sensor to the exhaust pipe and measures the concentration.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristic of Offset Orifice Nozzle under Multi Pulse Ultrahigh Pressure Injection and PCCI Combustion Conditions

CI engines provide higher thermal efficiency compared to other internal combustion engines. On the other hand large amounts of smoke and NOx are produced during combustion. Smoke and NOx can be reduced by applying Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. Unfortunately, the problems of PCCI combustion include unstable start of combustion and limited operating range. The multi-pulse ultrahigh pressure injection allows fuel to control PCCI combustion. The objective of offset orifice nozzle is to improve mixture formation and shorten spray penetration in order to increase thermal efficiency and control PCCI combustion. The offset orifice nozzle was designed by shift orifice aliment from into the sac center to edge of sac follow swirl direction. Counter bore design was applied to offset orifice nozzle in order to keep the constant orifice length as standard nozzle.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Control Using Multi Pulse Ultrahigh Pressure Injection

Compression ignition (CI) engines provide higher thermal efficiency compared to other internal combustion engines although large amounts of NOx and soot are produced during combustion. NOx and soot emissions can be reduced by using Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. However, the problems of PCCI combustion include limited operating range, unstable start of combustion and an increase in combustion noise. The multi-pulse ultrahigh pressure injection allows fuel to be injected near TDC, improving mixture formation and enhancing the possibility to extend the operating range of PCCI combustion. The objective of this paper is to control and extend the operating range of PCCI combustion using multi-pulse ultrahigh pressure injection. This has not been studied before. Combustion characteristics were investigated using apparent rate of heat release analysis, heat balance analysis, exhaust emission measurement and soot concentration measurement.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Analysis in a Diesel Engine Based on a Heat Flux Measurement Using a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

To investigate the heat transfer phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine, a correlation for the heat transfer coefficient in a combustion chamber of a diesel engine was investigated based on heat flux measured by the authors in the previous study(8) using the rapid compression and expansion machine. In the correlation defined in the present study, thermodynamically estimated two-zone temperatures in the burned zone and the unburned zone are applied. The characteristic velocity given in the correlation is related to the speed of spray flame impinging on the wall during the fuel injection period. After the fuel injection period, the velocity term of the Woschni’s equation is applied. It was shown that the proposed correlation well expresses heat transfer phenomena in diesel engines.
Technical Paper

NOx Reduction with the HC-SCR System over Cu/Zeolite Based Catalysts

Diesel engine is one the effective solutions for reducing CO2 and recognized as a leading candidate for mitigating global warming. To comply with increasingly stringent emission standards, all diesel engines require some sort of NOx control systems such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. The SCR catalyst for reducing NOx from diesel engines is classified into two groups, urea-SCR and HC-SCR catalyst, respectively. Although the urea-SCR catalyst is widely recognized as promising de-NOx technology in respect to the NOx conversion efficiency, it have some outstanding issues such as ammonia slip, urea injection, storage space, freezing and some infrastructures for supplying urea water solutions. In an attempt to overcome the inherent shortcoming of existing urea-SCR catalyst, hydrocarbons have been considered as alternative reducing agents for SCR process, instead of NH3.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Effects of Ignition Improvers on Ignition Delay Time of Ethanol Combustion with Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

This work investigates the effects of ignition improvers on the ignition and combustion characteristics of hydrous ethanol with 5% by weight water and 1% by weight Lauric acid (Eh95) under simulated diesel engine conditions using the rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM). Results indicate that hydrous ethanol with commercial additive (ED95) and hydrous ethanol with 5% by weight glycerol ethoxylate in hydrous ethanol exhibit a near identical rate-of-pressure-rise and heat release rate. Ignition delay of hydrous ethanol with 5% by weight glycerol ethoxylate is shorter, but hydrous ethanol with 1% by weight glycerol ethoxylate has longer ignition delay time and different combustion characteristics compared with hydrous ethanol with commercial additive (ED95). Hydrous ethanol with 1% by weight glycerol ethoxylate and hydrous ethanol with 5% by weight glycerol ethoxylate are considered suitable fuels for high compression-ratio diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation in Combustion Characteristics of Ethanol-gasoline Blends for Stratified Charge Engine

The increasing of global energy demand and stringent pollution regulations have promoted research on alternative fuels. In Thailand, ethanol, can be produced from many sources of national agriculture products as renewable fuel, which was strongly promoted by government due to its many merits for use in transportation field. In this study, combustion characteristics of ethanol-gasoline blend (20%, 85%, and 100%) as well as pure gasoline (E0) were investigated by using a swirl-generated constant volume combustion chamber. Flame propagations of different fuel blends were observed by high speed Schlieren photography technique while pressure history data were recorded for detailed combustion analysis. Combustion behavior, combustion duration and rate of pressure rise of all tested fuels were investigated in various swirl intensities and equivalence ratios. In addition, effect of swirl intensities and ethanol concentration on lean misfire limit were also discussed.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Measurements of Temperatures of Flame and Wall Surface in a Combustion Chamber of Diesel Engine

In order to investigate the combustion phenomena in a combustion chamber of the diesel engine at transient operations, the simultaneous measurements of temperatures of flame and wall surface in a combustion chamber were conducted. The new technique for simultaneous measurements of flame temperature and wall surface was developed. Laser-Induced phosphorescence was used for the measurement of wall surface temperature which was coupled with the flame temperature measurement by a two-color pyrometry. The NOx and soot emissions were also measured simultaneously in transient operations. The relation between the temporal changes of emissions and temperatures of flame and surface wall are discussed. The results show that the temporal change of NOx emission during transient operation is similar to that of the average gas temperature in a chamber. On the other hand, the temporal change of soot emission is similar to neither that of flame temperature nor that of average gas temperature.
Journal Article

Laser-Induced Phosphorescence Thermography of Combustion Chamber Wall of Diesel Engine

In order to investigate the mechanism of heat transfer on the chamber wall of direct-injection diesel engines, 2-D temperature imaging and heat flux measurement in the flame impinging region on the chamber wall were conducted using laser-induced phosphorescence technique. The temperature of the chamber wall surface was measured by the calibrated intensity variation of the 355nm-excited laser-induced phosphorescence from an electrophoretically deposited thin layer of La2O2S:Eu phosphor on a quartz glass plate placed in a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM). Instantaneous 2-D images of wall temperature at different timings after start of injection and time-resolved (10kHz) heat flux near the flame impinging region were obtained for combusting and non-combusting diesel sprays with impinging distance of 23.4mm at different injection pressures (80 and 120MPa).
Technical Paper

A Study on Effect of Heterogeneity of Oxygen Concentration of Mixture in a Combustion Chamber on Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Engine

In this study, the combustion characteristics of diesel flame achieved in a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM) at various patterns of oxygen distribution in the chamber are investigated in order to clarify the effect of heterogeneity of oxygen distribution in diesel engines induced by EGR on the soot and NOx emissions. To make the heterogeneous distribution of oxygen in a combustion chamber, the mixtures with different oxygen concentrations are injected through the each different port located on the cylinder wall. Results indicate that the amount of oxygen entrained into the spray upstream the luminous flame region affects the NO emission from diesel flame strongly.
Technical Paper

Pyrene-LIF Thermometry of the Early Soot Formation Region in a Diesel Spray Flame

In order to investigate early soot formation process in diesel combustion, spectral analysis and optical thermometry of early soot formation region in a transient spray flame under diesel-like conditions (Pg2.8 MPa, Tg620-820K) was attempted via laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) from pyrene (C16H10) doped in the fuel. Pyrene is known to exhibit a temperature\-dependent variation of LIF spectrum; the ratio of S2/S1 fluorescence yields, from the lowest excited singlet state S1 and the second excited singlet state S2, depends on temperature. In the present study, pyrene was doped (1%wt) in a model diesel fuel (0-solvent) and the variation of LIF spectra from the pyrene in the spray flame in a rapid compression machine were examined at different ambient temperatures, ambient oxygen concentrations, measurement positions and timings after start of fuel injection.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Mixing in Transient Spray by LES (Comparison between Numerical and Experimental Results of Transient Particle Laden Jets)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the turbulent mixing in a diesel spray by large eddy simulation (LES). As the first step for the numerical simulation of diesel spray by LES, the LES of transient circular gas jets and particle laden jets were conducted. The simulation of transient circular jets in cylindrical coordinates has numerical instability near the central axis. To reduce the instability of calculation, azimuthal velocity around the central axis is calculated by the linear interpolation and filter width around the axis is modified to the radial or axial grid scale level. A transient circular gas jet was calculated by the modified code and the computational results were compared with experimental results with a Reynolds number of about 13000. The computational results of mean velocity and turbulent intensity agreed with experimental results for z/D>10. Predicted tip penetration of the jet also agreed to experimental data.
Technical Paper

2-D Imaging of Soot Formation Process in a Transient Spray Flame by Laser-induced Fluorescence and Incandescence Techniques

In order to investigate the soot formation process in a diesel spray flame, simultaneous imaging of soot precursor and soot particles in a transient spray flame achieved in a rapid compression machine was conducted by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and by laser-induced incandescence (LII) techniques. The 3rd harmonic (355nm) and the fundamental (1064nm) laser pulses from an Nd:YAG laser, between which a delay of 44ns was imposed by 13.3m of optical path difference, were used to excite LIF from soot precursor and LII from soot particles in the spray flame. The LIF and the LII were separately imaged by two image-intensified CCD cameras with identical detection wavelength of 400nm and bandwidth of 80nm. The LIF from soot precursor was mainly located in the central region of the spray flame between 40 and 55mm (270 to 370 times nozzle orifice diameter d0) from the nozzle orifice. The LII from soot particles was observed to surround the soot precursor LIF region and to extend downstream.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Simulation of Ignition Delay in Diesel Engines

To investigate the ignition process in a diesel spray, the ignition in a transient fuel spray is analyzed numerically by a simple quasi-steady spray model coupled with the Shell kinetics model at various operating conditions and validity of this model is assessed by a comparison with existing experimental data. The calculated results indicate that the competition between the heat absorption of fuel and the hot air entrainment determines the equivalence ratio of mixtures favorable for the ignition to occur in the shortest time.
Technical Paper

A Two-Zone Model Analysis of Heat Release Rate in Diesel Engines

A thermodynamic two-zone model which assumes a stoichiornetric burned gas region and unburned air region is presented in an attempt to calculate more precise rate of heat release of diesel combustion. A comparison is made of the rate of heat release obtained by the two-zone model with that obtained by the conventional single-zone model. It shows around 10 % increase in the rate of heat release with the two-zone model. The effect of state equation of gas is also examined with the single-zone model and the use of a real gas law in stead of the perfect gas law is found to yield minor difference in the rate of heat release at a high boost operating condition.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer From Impinging Diesel Flames to the Combustion Chamber Wall

The local heat fluxes from impinging combusting and evaporating diesel sprays to the wall of a square combustion chamber were measured in a rapid compression machine. It was revealed that the ratio of local heat flux between the combusting and evaporating spray, q̇c/q̇e, is of the same order of magnitude as (Tc-Tw)/(Te-Tw) and its values estimated by a two-zone model agree roughly with the measured ones. The time-mean local heat flux during the spray impingement was found to be approximately proportional to the 0.8th power of the injection velocity and the heat-transfer phenomenon depends largely on whether the ignition starts before or after the impingement.
Technical Paper

Combustion Enhancement of Very Lean Premixture Part in Stratified Charge Conditions

Local inhomogeneity of mixture concentration affects combustion characteristics in the lean burn system and also in the stratified charge combustion system. To investigate such combustion systems, the effects of inhomogeneous mixtures were examined using a carefully controlled experimental system. In this study, a constant-volume chamber, which can simulate an idealized stratified charge by using a removable partition inside the chamber, was developed. Flow and combustion characteristics were examined by indicated pressure analysis, Schlieren photography, ion probe measurements and local equivalence ratios measurements while varying the combination of initial equivalence ratios on each side of the partition. As a result, combustion characteristics of charge stratified, very lean propane-air mixture were clarified.
Technical Paper

Ignition, Combustion and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine Equipped with a Micro-Hole Nozzle

In an attempt to achieve lean combustion in Diesel engines which has a potential for simultaneous reduction in no and soot, the authors developed a micro-hole nozzle which has orifices with a diameter as small as 0.06 mm. Combustion tests were carried out using a rapid compression-expansion machine which has a DI Diesel type combustion chamber equipped with the micro-hole nozzle. A comparison with the result of a conventional nozzle experiment revealed that the ignition delay was shortened by 30 %, and in spite of that, both peaks of initial premixed combustion and diffusion combustion increased significantly. The combustion in the case of the micro-hole nozzle experiment was accompanied with a decrease in soot emission, whereas an increase in NO emission.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Dispersion of Fuel Droplets in an Unsteady Spray via Discrete Vortex Method

The turbulent dispersion of particles in an unsteady two dimensional particle-laden jet was simulated by a discrete vortex method coupling with a model of gas/particles interaction. Numerical analysis of a spray yielded the distributions of vorticity, fuel mass concentration and local Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of droplets in a spray. The predicted distribution of local SMD of droplets in a spray demonstrated that the size of droplets in the spray periphery is larger than that of droplets in the center region of spray. This trend of distribution of drop size coincided with that of measured one. The predicted distributions of drop size and vorticity revealed that the larger droplets are easily centrifuged to the periphery of the spray. The effects of the pattern of injection rate on the mixing process in a transient spray were also investigated.
Technical Paper

Development of a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine Simulating Diesel Combustion

A rapid compression-expansion machine was developed, which can simulate intake, compression, expansion and exhaust strokes in a single Diesel cycle by an electrically controlled and hydraulically actuated driving system. The whole system which is composed of a hydraulic actuator, fuel injector and a valve driving device, is sequentially controlled by a micro-computer. The machine features; 1) accurate control of piston position at TDC, 2) no effect of lubricant on HC emission due to the use of dry piston rings; 3) independent control of local wall temperature; and 4) high power output to drive heavy piston at high frequency. The single cycle operation permits Diesel combustion experiments under a wide range of operating conditions and easy access of optical diagnostics with minimized amount of test fuel. The performance test showed that the machine can drive a DI Diesel type piston with a 100 mm bore at a maximum frequency of 16.7 Hz at a maximum compression pressure of 15 MPa.