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Technical Paper

Optimization of Slot Disc Shape for Improving Brake Fade Performance

2018-10-05
2018-01-1883
Due to improvements in vehicle powertrain performance, friction material fade performance is becoming an important topic. For this reason, needs for studies to improve thermal characteristics of the brake system is increasing. Methods for improving the fade characteristics have several ways to improve the thermal characteristic of friction materials and increase disc capacity. However, increasing disc capacity(size) have some risk of weight and cost rise, and friction factor improvements in friction material tend to cause other problems, such as increasing squeal wire brush noise and increasing metal pick up on disc surface. Therefore, a slot disc study is needed to overcome the problems discussed previously. Currently, there is few research history for slot disc related to fade and metal pickup improvements.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Disc Scoring Generation Principle and Reduction (II)

2018-10-05
2018-01-1891
In the latest paper [10], we presented our work based on experiments studying MPU (Metal Pick Up) of the pad and scoring(scratching) of the disc. The main component of MPU was iron “Fe”. If the roughness of the disc was small, the content of iron “Fe” was increased and the segregation of that was decreased especially in initial condition. In this study, we extended our study based on the results by adding some additional factors such as the location of the roughness of the disc, the coefficients brake pad friction, and disc slots. We made various discs of different roughness boundaries and slots, and pads of pad friction coefficients; and conducted two types of tests for whether a slot is present or not with the other same conditions to confirm the impact of the scoring. We find and believe that our experimental data should serve a useful guideline for reducing MPU of the pad and scoring of the disc.
Technical Paper

The Root Cause Analysis of Steel Fuel Tank Cracking at a Fatigue Point and Test Method Development of Durability

2017-03-28
2017-01-0393
Fuel tank in vehicle must hold the fuel in a stable way under any driving condition. However, the fuel tank might not conserve the fuel firmly in case a crack emerged while the fuel tank is exposed to different driving condition. Basically, when the engine is in purging at a normal ambient temperature before fuel boiling, the pressure inside the fuel tank decreases. However, the pressure inside a fuel tank increases while a vehicle is driven at extreme hot ambient temperature as fuel is boiling. This repetitive pressure change in the fuel tank comes with fuel tank’s physical expansion and shrink, which would cause a damage to the fuel tank. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the root cause of why fuel tank cracks at a fatigue point. We also aim to set up the method of how to test durability of the fuel tank in association with the pressure inside the tank.
Technical Paper

Design for NVH Performance and Weight Reduction in Plastic Timing Chain Cover Application

2014-04-01
2014-01-1043
Light weighting is a critical objective in the automotive industry to improve fuel efficiency. But when redesigning parts for light weight, by changing from metal to plastic, the resulting design gives NVH issues due to differences in part mass and material stiffness. Many parts were not converted from metal to plastic because of NVH issues that could not be solved. Many engine parts such as cylinder head cover, air intake manifold, oil pan and etc. previously made of metal have since long been replaced with plastic. But timing chain cover has not been replaced because of the aforementioned issue. Sealing performance due to the dynamic characteristics of the application is another challenging factor. In this paper, the key aspects of the plastic timing chain cover as well as its advantage are presented.
Technical Paper

Material NVH Convergence Technology for a Plastic Intercooler Pipe

2014-04-01
2014-01-1040
The main contribution of this paper is to employ a sound and vibration theory in order to develop a light and cost effective plastic intercooler pipe. The intercooler pipe was composed of two rubber hoses and one aluminum pipe mounted between an ACV (Air Control Valve) and an intercooler outlet. The engineering design concept is to incorporate low-vibration type bellows and an impedance-mismatched center pipe, which replaces the rubber hoses and aluminum pipe respectively. The bellows were designed to adapt powertrain movement for high vibration transmission loss to the intercooler outlet. Also, the impedance-mismatched center pipe was implemented to increase reflected wave by using relatively higher modulus than bellows part and applying a SeCo (Sequential Coextrusion) processing method.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Manufacturing and Evaluation Technology for the Light Weight Brake Disc Composed of Hybrid Type Material

2014-04-01
2014-01-1009
Reducing unsprung mass of the car is a representative method to enhance the ride & handling performance and fuel efficiency. In this study, brake disc weight is reduced 15∼20% using a hybrid type material. The basis for this study is the separation of the friction surface and HAT(mounting part). Aluminum material is applied in the HAT for a light weight effect. Gray iron is applied in the friction surface section to maintain braking performance. Two types of joining between aluminum and cast iron are developed. One is the aluminum casting method utilizing a gray iron insert and the other is a bolted assembly method. Detailed structure, process and material are optimized using try-out & dynamometer experiments. The Reliability of this development is proved through durability (dynamometer and vehicle) testing.
Technical Paper

Development of Cast-Forged Knuckle using High Strength Aluminum Alloy

2011-04-12
2011-01-0537
Aluminum steering knuckles are widely employed for weight reduction and improvement of ride & handling performance. In this study, a high strength aluminum alloy for cast-forged knuckle was designed to achieve higher mechanical properties than those of the conventional foundry alloy. Using this alloy, high strength knuckles were manufactured and performed test of mechanical properties, suspension module strength and durability. The strength and the elongation of the developed knuckle were increased by 20% and 40%, respectively, as compared with the conventional alloy. Also this knuckle passed the static strength and durability test of the front suspension module.
Technical Paper

Design and Structural Analysis of Bumper for Automobiles

1998-02-01
980114
An investigation has been performed to study the response of the front bumper beam of automobiles subjected to an external impact load. In the investigation, an aluminum shell structure is modeled as a beam, and the energy absorber of polyurethane is also modeled as statically equivalent springs attached to the beam. Castigliano's second theorem and principles of energy and momentum are then used to calculate the reaction forces and maximum deflection. Stress distribution is then calculated using the beam theory. The primary concern of the investigation is to present a procedure of how to design optimally the cross-sectional shape of the front bumper of automobiles.
Technical Paper

Effect of Normalized Microstructure in Alloy Steel on the Performance of Planetary Gear Set of Automatic Transmission

1997-02-24
970972
The banded microstructure of pearlite and ferrite in normalized alloy steel is susceptible to thermal distortion during carburizing process due to its unidirectional orientation parallel to rolling direction. The planetary gears with material of banded microstructure have been experienced in high thermal distortion during carburizing and quenching process and result in uneven surface hardness and effective case depth at the inside of pinion gear after honing. These defects played failure initiation site roles in durability test during development of new automatic transmission. The galling between the contacting components in severe lubricating system was the main failure mechanism. Double normalizing at 920 °C was designed to resolve the banded microstructure of normalized alloy steel. The microstructure and grain size of the double heated steel became equiaxed and fine due to homogenizing and recrystallization through double heat treatment.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Tempering on Mechanical and Fatigue Properties in Gas-Carburized Cr-Mo Gear Steel

1997-02-24
970709
The effects of tempering on carburized Cr-Mo gear steel were investigated through mechanical and fatigue tests. Specimens were carburized at 900°C for 180 minutes, and then oil quenched at 150°C for 10 minutes of holding time and cooled to room temperature. The subsequent tempering process was performed to 160°C for 90 minutes. Surface hardness and residual compressive stress were decreased by tempering treatment, whereas tensile strength, yield strength and impact energy were increased. Bending fatigue endurance limits for both tempered and untempered specimens were same as 779MPa. The strength of roller contact fatigue is also not greatly influenced by tempering treatment. Thermal distortion for carburized transfer driven gear before and after tempering exhibited a similar distribution. Microstructural changes during tempering were also discussed.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Properties and Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites

1996-02-01
960577
The objective of this study is to investigate mechanical properties and fatigue crack propagation behavior in hybrid metal matrix composites by squeeze infiltration method (15% Al2O3 + SiCw/6061Al). The mechanical properties of Al2O3+SiCw/Al composites including tensile strength, yield strength, Young's modulus, were improved compared with those of unreinforced alloy and Al203/Al composites. The hybrid composites were more ductile than Al2O3/Al composites. Fatigue crack propagation rates of both Al2O3/Al and Al2O3+SiCw/Al composites showed a similar behavior in region II. Their propagation rates were higher in entire ▵K region compared with that of 6061 Al alloy. From the crack path morphology, fatigue cracks propagated linearly and smoothly in 6061 Al alloy. However, in the metal matrix composites cracks tend to avoid the reinforcements promoting crack deflection. It was observed that crack deflection enhanced crack closure due to wedging phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Characterization of High Temperature Properties in Al Matrix Composite Fabricated by the Low Pressure Squeeze Infiltration Process

1994-03-01
940809
Al matrix composites containing alumina (Al2O3) fibers are fabricated by the low pressure (25MPa) squeeze infiltration process which is suitable for the low cost mass production. Mechanical properties at room temperature as well as elevated temperatures (250°C, 350°C) are improved due to the presence of reinforcements. Upto 350°C, composites maintain a reasonable strength, which is much better than strength of the conventional Al alloy. Composites have equivalent wear rates to those of Ni - resist cast iron. Wear behavior is changed with the sliding speed. At low sliding speed, wear proceeds by the excessive failure of matrix and fiber, whilst, at higher sliding speed, matrix fracture near fiber plays a major role in wear. Wear resistance of 125°C is inferior to that of room temperature due to the reduction of mechanical properties followed by matrix softening and poor bonding.
Technical Paper

The Wettability of Silicon Carbide by Liquid Pure Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

1994-03-01
940808
There have been strong moves in recent years to introduce the metal matrix composites concept into higher volume applications, notably the automotive field where large volume production and lower material costs are required. The wettability between reinforcing materials and base material is one of important factors for the strength of composites and its manufacture. The main objective of this paper is to establish a basic understanding of wetting phenomena in SiC/liquid aluminum and aluminum alloy systems. In the present paper, results from the sessile drop method are reported for the effects on the wetting angle, θ, of free silicon in the silicon carbide substrate and of alloying additions of silicon, copper or magnesium to the aluminum drop for the temperature range 700-900 or 1400°C in the titanium-gettered vacuum (1.3 x 10-2 / 1.3 x 10-3 Pa).
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