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Technical Paper

Development of 4-Cylinder 2.0L Gasoline Engine Cooling System Using 3-D CAE

2019-04-02
2019-01-0156
To satisfy the global fuel economy restrictions getting stricter, various advanced cooling concepts, like active flow control strategy, cross-flow and fast warm-up, have been applied to the engine. Recently developed Hyundai’s next generation 4-cylinder 2.0L gasoline engine, also adopts several new cooling subsystems. This paper reviews how 3-D CAE analysis has been extensively used to evaluate cooling performance effectively from concept phase to pre-production phase. In the concept stage, the coolant flow in the water jacket of cylinder head and block was investigated to find out the best one among the proposed concepts and the further improvement of flow was also done by optimizing cylinder head gasket holes. Next, 3-D temperature simulation was conducted to satisfy the development criteria in the prototype stage before making initial test engines.
Technical Paper

A Study on Control Logic Design for Power Seat

2019-04-02
2019-01-0466
The large luxury sedan seat has a 22-way Movement. It offers a wide range of adjustments to enhance passenger comfort performance while it has many constraints on movement in constrained indoor space. In addition, the power seat is operated by a motor, which makes it difficult for the user to determine the amount of adjustment, unlike determining the amount of adjustment by the power and feel of a person, such as manual seat adjustment. IMS, one-touch mode, is also constrained by parameters such as indoor space package, user's lifestyle, etc. during function playback. This paper aims to design the seat control logic to achieve the best seat comfort while satisfying each constraint. The results of this study are as follows. Increase robustness of power seat control logic. Provide optimal adjustments and comfort at each location. Offer differentiated custom control and seating modes for each seat. Improve customer satisfaction and quality by upgrading software.
Technical Paper

Incorporation of Friction Material Surface Inhomogeneity in Complex Eigenvalue Analysis to Improve the Accuracy of Brake Squeal Analysis

2018-10-05
2018-01-1873
The sliding surface of the brake friction material is not uniform but composed of random contact plateaus with a broad pressure distribution, which are known to closely related to the triggering mechanism of friction induced noise and vibrations. The non-uniform contact plateaus are attributed to the various ingredients in the friction material with a broad range of physical properties and morphology and the size and stiffness of the plateau play crucial roles in determining the friction instability. The incorporation of friction surface inhomogeneity is, therefore, crucial and has to be counted to improve the accuracy of the numerical calculation to simulate brake noise. In this study, the heterogeneous nature of the friction material surface was employed in the simulation to improve the correlation between numerical simulations and experimental results.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Slot Disc Shape for Improving Brake Fade Performance

2018-10-05
2018-01-1883
Due to improvements in vehicle powertrain performance, friction material fade performance is becoming an important topic. For this reason, needs for studies to improve thermal characteristics of the brake system is increasing. Methods for improving the fade characteristics have several ways to improve the thermal characteristic of friction materials and increase disc capacity. However, increasing disc capacity(size) have some risk of weight and cost rise, and friction factor improvements in friction material tend to cause other problems, such as increasing squeal wire brush noise and increasing metal pick up on disc surface. Therefore, a slot disc study is needed to overcome the problems discussed previously. Currently, there is few research history for slot disc related to fade and metal pickup improvements.
Technical Paper

An Application of Acoustic Metamaterial for Reducing Noise Transfer through Car Body Panels

2018-06-13
2018-01-1566
This paper presents the design of an additional structure based on acoustic metamaterial (AMM) for the reduction of vibro-acoustic transfer function of a car body panel. As vehicles are lighter and those engine forces are bigger recently, it has become more difficult to reduce the vibration and noise transfer through body panels by using just conventional NVH countermeasures. In this research, a new approach based on AMM is tried to reduce the vibration and noise transfer of a firewall panel. First, a unit cell structure based on the locally resonant metamaterial is devised and the unit cell’s design variables are studied to increase the wave attenuation in the stop band of a dispersion curve, where the Floquet-Bloch theorem is used to estimate the dispersion curve of a two-dimensional periodic structure. Also, the vibration transfer and the vibro-acoustic transfer are predicted in a FE model of meta-plate which is composed of a periodic system of the devised unit cell.
Technical Paper

Research on Stick & Sprag-Slip Phenomenon of Door Waist Belts

2018-04-03
2018-01-0674
The squeak noise generated during the moving of the door glass has a influence on the performance of vehicles felt by the consumer. In order to improve the noise, it is necessary to understand the principle of a friction vibration. In this paper, it is confirmed that the principle on the waist belt is most closely related to stick-slip and sprag-slip among various vibration characteristics. Stick-slip is expressed by energy accumulation and divergence due to difference in static and dynamic friction coefficient. Sprag-slip define instability of geometric structure due to angle of lips on the belt. In this paper, the physical model and the energy equation are established for the above two phenomena. Stick-slip can be solved by decreasing the difference of the static and dynamic friction coefficient. Sprag-slip is caused by the ratio of compressive and shear stiffness of the lips. The belt uses flocking to ensure durability, not coating.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Rear Brake Grinding Noise by Rear Suspension Types

2017-09-17
2017-01-2486
Brake grinding noise is caused by the friction of the disc and pads. The friction generates vibration and it transmits to the body via the chassis system. We called it structure-borne noise. To improve the noise in the vehicle development, the aspects of chassis or body's countermeasure occurs many problems, cost and time. In this reason many brake companies try to make solution with brake system, like brake pad materials or disc surface condition. However the countermeasures of excitation systems also have a lot of risk. It could be occurred side-effects of braking performance, and need to re-verify brake noise like Creep-groan, Groan, Squeal, Judder and so on. For this reason, it is essential to make a robust chassis system in the initial development stage of the vehicle for the most desirable grinding noise-resistant vehicle. This paper is about rear brake grind noise path analysis and countermeasure of chassis system. There are two steps to analysis.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Voice Recognition Performance in Response to Background Noise and Gender Based Frequency

2017-06-05
2017-01-1888
Voice Recognition (VR) systems have become an integral part of the infotainment systems in the current automotive industry. However, its recognition rate is impacted by external factors such as vehicle cabin noise, road noise, and internal factors which are a function of the voice engine in the system itself. This paper analyzes the VR performance under the effect of two external factors, vehicle cabin noise and the speakers’ speech patterns based on gender. It also compares performance of mid-level sedans from different manufacturers.
Journal Article

A Novel Method for Objective Evaluation of Interior Sound in a Passenger Car and Its Application to the Design of Interior Sound in a Luxury Passenger Car

2017-06-05
2017-01-1758
Recently the interior sound is actively generated by the active sound design (ASD) device in a passenger car. Therefore, the objective evaluation method for the sound quality of actively designed sounds is required. In previous research, the sound quality of interior sound has been presented with powerful and pleasant for the existing passenger car. This paper presents a novel approach method for the objective evaluation of powerfulness and pleasantness of actively designed interior sound. The powerfulness has been evaluated based on the degreed of modulation and a quantity of low frequency booming of the sound in the paper. On the other hand, the pleasantness is evaluated based on the slope ratio of harmonic orders per octave in frequency domain. These evaluation methods are successfully applied to the objective evaluation of luxury passenger car.
Technical Paper

A Research on Brand Sound Positioning and Implementing with Active Sound Design

2017-06-05
2017-01-1754
This paper aims to establish a systematic process of developing a brand driving sound. Firstly, principal factors of a brand sound identity are extracted from factor analysis of many sample cars. As a result, brand sound positioning map is drawn using jury test data. Also, the multiple regression analysis of subjective and objective test results is carried. As a result, the principal factors are expressed by objective test data and brand sound positioning map can be easily updated from the measurement data. In addition, what should be improved for designing a target sound is reviewed. Secondly, various technologies of target sound design are discussed to involve the brand identity and vehicle’s character in driving sound. Also, an efficient tool to implement the target sound with an active sound design (ASD) system in a vehicle is introduced. This tool enables to efficiently design, tune and simulate a target sound for ASD system in a laboratory.
Journal Article

On the Use of Driver-in-the-Loop (DIL) Systems in Commercial Vehicle Chassis Development

2017-01-10
2017-26-0242
A vehicle simulation model is developed, validated and integrated into a closed-loop virtual driving environment using a state-of-the-art hexapod driving simulator. Thirty variant states are implemented and evaluated subjectively on steering and handling performance quality and quantity. Standard open-loop objective testing manoeuvres are simulated and performance metrics are calculated, allowing for a systematic cross-correlation process. Graphical analysis of the correlation metrics proves that chassis changes may accurately be felt through the simulator interface. It is proposed how obtained correlation models may serve for driver-feel optimizing target setting in early vehicle development stages, frontloading a great deal of costly prototype testing. System requirements are established and benefits and limitations are portrayed.
Technical Paper

A Case Study: Application of Analytical and Numerical Techniques to Squeak and Rattle Analysis of a Door Assembly

2015-06-15
2015-01-2257
Squeak and rattle (S&R) problems in body structure and trim parts have become serious issues for automakers because of their influence on the initial quality perception of consumers. In this study, various CAE and experimental methods developed by Hyundai Motors for squeak and rattle analysis of door systems are reported. Friction-induced vibration and noise generation mechanisms of a door system are studied by an intelligent combination of experimental and numerical methods. It is shown that the effect of degradation of plastics used in door trims can be estimated by a numerical model using the properties obtained experimentally. Effects of changes in material properties such as Young's modulus and loss factor due to the material degradation as well as statistical variations are predicted for several door system configurations. As a new concept, the rattle and squeak index is proposed, which can be used to guide the design.
Technical Paper

Development of an Algorithm to Automatically Detect and Distinguish Squeak and Rattle Noises

2015-06-15
2015-01-2258
Squeak and rattle (S&R) noises are undesirable noises caused by friction-induced vibration or impact between surfaces. While several computer programs have been developed to automatically detect and rate S&R events over the years, no reported work has been found that can detect squeak and rattle noises and distinguish them. Because the causes of squeak noises and rattle noises are different, knowing if it is a squeak noise or rattle noise will be very helpful for automotive engineers to choose an appropriate measure to solve the problem. The authors have developed a new algorithm to differentiate squeak noises and rattle noises, and added it to the S&R detection algorithm they had developed previously. The new algorithm utilizes a combination of sound quality metrics, specifically sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength.
Technical Paper

Study of Reduction Method of Brake Grind Noise

2014-09-28
2014-01-2513
Rust accumulated on disc surfaces causes brake judder and grind noise. This paper deals with grind noise(wire brush brake noise) in vehicles which is a low frequency vibration and broadband noise problem at 100∼1kHz that appears in low vehicle speed. Recently, the customer complaints have increased for grind and creep groan noise more than squeal noise. Low frequency brake noise is a combined effect of brake and suspension systems working with each other. The noise transfer path is also important. Experimental results are confirmed through ODS, Modal, TPA and 3D acoustic camera for noise transmission path. Finally, reduction methods of grind noise are presented.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Transfer Path Analysis of Brake Creep Groan Noise

2014-09-28
2014-01-2510
Creep groan noise occurs in a just moving vehicle by the simultaneous application of torque to the wheel and the gradual release of brake pressure in-vehicle. It is the low frequency noise giving the driver a very uncomfortable feeling. It is caused by the stick-sleep phenomenon at the lining and disc interface. Recently, the field claim of low frequency creep groan has increased. There are a lot of efforts to improve creep groan noise by means of modification of lining material. In this paper, Transfer path of creep groan noise was analyzed through ODS and TPA. Additionally the correlation between Source (Brake torque variation, Brake vibration) and Creep Groan Sound level was discussed. Finally countermeasure to Creep Groan noise was suggested.
Technical Paper

A Study on an Integrated System to Measure and Analyze Customer Vehicle Usage Monitoring through a Smartphone

2014-04-01
2014-01-0183
Customer vehicle usage monitoring is one of the most fundamental elements to consider in the process of developing a durable vehicle. The extant method to research customer vehicle usage takes considerable time and effort because it requires attaching a series of sensors to the vehicle-gyroscope, accelerometer, microphone, and GPS-to gather information through data logs and then to analyze data in a computer where designated analyzing software has been installed. To solve the problem, this paper introduces a new concept of integrated system developed to examine customer vehicle usage that can analyze data by collecting it from a variety of sensors installed on a smartphone.
Technical Paper

Convolution of Engineering Methods (TRIZ, FMEA, Robust Engineering) to Creatively Develop New Technologies

2014-04-01
2014-01-0780
Many high risks of failure in developing and applying new technologies exist in the recent automotive industry because of big volume of selling cars in a global market. Several recalls cost companies more than $ 100 million per problem. New technologies always have uncertainty in performing intended functions at various given conditions despite the fact that engineers do their best to develop technologies to meet all the requirements. Uncertainty of new technologies put companies into danger of failing in their business. Therefore, many companies tend to take interest in reducing risks from the uncertainty in technologies, but the increasing complexity of modern automotive technologies make it difficult to develop complete technologies. A new engineering methodology called SPEED Engineering was introduced to reduce the risks of new technology applications and to facilitate engineers to conceive innovative ideas dominating the market in the future.
Technical Paper

Learning Slip Control of an Engine Clutch in a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Linear Vehicle Launch

2014-04-01
2014-01-1745
This work studied the control technique for the engine clutch engagement at launch for the TMED parallel HEV for the improved drivability and dynamic performance. Analysis are done on the speed synchronization of the clutch plates, the speed control using the starter motor (ISG), and the fluid pressure control for the clutch. Possible external factors such as changes in the friction coefficient of transmission fluid, temperature variation, auxiliary power and pressure losses are identified and their effects on the targeted dynamic performance are examined. The targeted system performance was achieved with a learning control technique using fluid pressure as the only control input. This involves the compensation for the effect of external factors on the fluid pressure profile and this effect is memorized for the subsequent slip-launch application.
Technical Paper

An Improved Methodology for Calculation of the Inertial Resistance of Automotive Latching Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0544
This paper outlines an improved methodology to perform calculations to verify the compliance of automotive door latch systems to minimum legal requirements as well as to perform additional due diligence calculations necessary to comprehend special cases such as roll over crashes and locally high inertial loadings. This methodology builds on the calculation method recommended by SAE J839 and provides a robust and clear approach for application of this method to cable release systems, which were not prevalent at the time J839 was originally drafted. This method is useful in and of itself but its utility is further increased by the application of the method to a Computer Aided Design (CAD) template (in this case for Catia V5), that allows some automation of the calculation process for a given latch type. This will result in a savings of time, fewer errors and allows for an iterative concurrent analysis during the design process.
Technical Paper

Combined Condensing Air-Conditioning System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0712
In order to improve the fuel consumption ratio of the vehicle, a great deal of research is being carried out to improve air-conditioning efficiency. Increasing the efficiency of the condenser is directly connected to the power consumption of the compressor. This paper describes an experimental method of using an additional water-cooled condenser to reduce power consumption and decrease discharge pressure of the air-conditioning system. First, the principle of a combined cooling (water + air) method was evaluated theoretically. Next, experimental proof was conducted with the additional water-cooled condenser. The shape and structure is similar to the plate type of the transmission oil cooler used in a radiator. Through a number of tests, it was found that it is possible is to reduce power consumption of compressor by decreasing discharge pressure.
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