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Technical Paper

Body Cross-Sectional Stiffness Criteria for the Optimal Development of the BIW Weight and Torsional Stiffness

2021-04-06
2021-01-0797
Body-in-white plays a key role in protecting passengers in the event of collision between vehicles, and also endures external forces during cornering in a vehicle. Stiffness of body-in-white is the basic characteristic of a car body, and it is closely related to the full-vehicle-level performance such as body durability, ride and handling, etc. There have been many attempts to correlate body stiffness to full-vehicle-level performance, and studying the relationship between torsional body stiffness and durability has been the popular topic among others. In general, it is believed to be true that bodies with high torsional stiffness exhibit good durability performance, and in many cases this assumption seems to be verified. However, not all cases are true to this assumption. In this paper, relationship between torsional body stiffness and body durability has been closely studied.
Technical Paper

Study on Selective Electroplating for Pattern/Lighting on Plastic

2021-04-06
2021-01-0367
For making metal touch feeling and lighting simultaneously, selective electroplating is widely applied in button, panel and etc. in interior/exterior parts of automotive. In this paper, new selective electroplating with printing are suggested as an alternative manufacturing process of two shot molding, PC (Polycarbonate) and ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene). Manufacturing process of selective electroplating with printing is as follows: For preventing to plate metal layer in area of letter or symbol, masking ink is printed on parts, button, panel, etc., with electroplatable PC+ABS. After conventional electroplating process, the part has electroplated metal layer except for the printed area. It had been studied the composition of ink and PC+ABS for obtaining skip plating and light transmittance on printed area.
Technical Paper

Concept Study on Windshield Actuation for Active Control of Wind Noise in a Passenger Car

2020-09-30
2020-01-1535
The windshield is an integral part of almost every modern passenger car. Combined with current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and the integration of lightweight material systems, the reduction of interior noise caused by stochastic and transient wind excitation is deemed to be an increasing challenge for future NVH measures. Active control systems have proven to be a viable alternative compared to traditional passive NVH measures in different areas. However, for windshield actuation there are neither comparative studies nor actually established actuation concepts available to the automotive industry. This paper illustrates a comparative conceptual study on windshield actuation for the active control of wind noise in a passenger car. Making use of an experimental modal analysis of the windshield installed in a medium-sized vehicle, a reduced order numerical simulation model is derived.
Journal Article

Reinforcement of Low-Frequency Sound by Using a Panel Speaker Attached to the Roof Panel of a Passenger Car

2020-09-30
2020-01-1570
The woofer in a car should be large to cover the low frequencies, so it is heavy and needs an ample space to be installed in a passenger car. The geometry of the woofer should conform to the limited available space and layout in general. In many cases, the passengers feel that the low-frequency contents are not satisfactory although the speaker specification covers the low frequencies. In this work, a thin panel is installed between the roof liner and the roof panel, and it is used as the woofer. The vibration field is controlled by many small actuators to create the speaker and baffle zones to avoid the sound distortion due to the modal interaction. The generation of speaker and baffle zones follows the inverse vibro-acoustic rendering technique. In the actual implementation, a thin acrylic plate of 0.53x0.2 m2 is used as the radiator panel, and the control actuator array is composed of 16 moving-coil actuators.
Technical Paper

A Study on Optimization of the Cross-Section of Door Impact Beam for Weight Reduction

2020-04-14
2020-01-0631
This paper focuses on the optimization of the cross-section of a panel type impact door beam. The key parameters of the cross-section of the beam were artificially changed by using a geometry morphing tool FCM (Fast Concept Modeler), which is plugged in to CATIA. Then, the metamodel of FE (Finite Element) analysis results was created and optimized using LS-OPT. The ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) analysis of results was carried out to find the factor of weight reduction. Finally, a new cross section concept was proposed to overcome the limitation of old structure. The optimization was carried out for the beam with the final cross-section to have 10 % or more reduction in total weight.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Optimum Reduction of Required Brake Fluid Level for Improvement of the High Speed Continuous Brake Distance

2019-09-15
2019-01-2121
The high speed continuous braking distance assessment is the worst condition for thermal fades. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fade characteristic and friction materials & brake fluid amount for improving braking distance. So, we used the dynamometer to measure the friction coefficient, braking distance and required brake fluid amount. Through the measurements, the research was carried out as follows. First of all, we studied the influence of friction coefficient about different shapes (chamfer shape, area of the friction material, number of slots) on the same friction material. Secondly, we knew the effects of braking distance by the shape of the friction material. Through these two studies, the shape of the friction material favorable to the fade characteristics was derived. Finally, we measured the amount of required brake fluid in caliper after 10 consecutive braking cycles through Dynamometer.
Technical Paper

The Analysis of Brake Squeal Noise Related to the Friction Properties of Brake Friction Materials

2019-09-15
2019-01-2132
The friction properties related to squeal noise was analyzed with the development histories and simplified computational method. Firstly, the development histories were investigated especially focusing on the case which the friction materials were modified to improve squeal noise occurrence. Based on the histories, the friction properties of selected friction materials were newly measured using dynamometer. The average friction coefficient levels, torque oscillations, the increment of friction coefficient during full-stop, and etc. were compared with the squeal noise occurrence, and the results showed that increase of friction properties cause production of squeal noise. The result suggested that the size of friction energy was important factors related to triggering the squeal noise. Also, the contact conditions between rotor disc and friction materials were significant factors deciding the noise occurrence.
Journal Article

A Study of the Disc Scoring Generation Principle and Reduction(III)

2019-09-15
2019-01-2112
In the latest works [12], we presented the guideline for reducing Metal pick up(MPU, the main component of disc scoring) by controlling the location of the roughness of disc, the brake pad friction coefficients and the disc slot's size. In this study, the previously studied iron transfer theory to 'Cu free' brake pad and the disc surface roughness controlling methods which are based on the mass production manufacturing process are applied. It is possible to suggest the ways to improve the scoring-free disc without reducing friction coefficient between the disc and pad, and any demerit such as increased wear and airplane noise like conventional slot discs [11].
Technical Paper

A Study of Design Methodology to Develop Improved Door System of a Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0616
In the past few years, technological innovations in the automobile industry took vehicle performance to the next level. One such innovation is frame integrated panel door. This type of door helps automobile companies to have the advantages of both conventional panel and frame type doors. Though it has a good number of advantages, there are some drawbacks too. It requires improvements in its quality, NVH performance, weight and etc. Quality of a door is low due to the limitations in structural design and manufacturing technologies. And it is difficult to have a robust structure which leads to degradation of key performing factors such as NVH. For a lightweight vehicle, it is important to design an optimized structure for saving weight, without compromising its performance. In order to overcome these drawbacks a new optimized design structure is required for door system.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Holographic Lighting

2019-04-02
2019-01-0846
A signal lamp performs a function to inform the position and behavior of the vehicle. And it represents a specific design identity of the vehicle or brand identity. Recently it implements the unique three-dimensional effect while using a LED. However, a number of LEDs and complex form of the lens shape have to be applied, so results in the size, weight, cost increase. In this study, the hologram technology that is an exemplary technique for implementing the described three-dimensional image is applied. With a hologram, it is possible to reproduce a complex shape three-dimensional image by using a hologram film. Therefore the number of parts can be reduced. And it is possible to copy the film has a mass production benefits.
Technical Paper

The Study of Optimization of Sliding Door Effect

2019-03-25
2019-01-1425
A sliding door system is one of the vehicle door types, which is generally applied to the MPVs. The Sliding door is contains three rails (an upper, a center, and lower rail), which are mounted on body structure, and three rollers (the upper roller, the center roller, Lower roller), which are mounted on the sliding door side. The system is different from a swing door, rotated by hinge axis. To set up sliding door layout for better performance, predict operating force is one of the main factors, But The door moving trace is on three-dimension, hard to calculate and predict. So in this study, it is an object to analyze the impact between the main factors affecting the performance of the closing and open performance and the sliding door through the study formula and a layout scheme for ensuring the best operating performance of the sliding doors.
Journal Article

Study on Basic Principles of Operation Noise of Wiper System on Vehicle

2019-03-25
2019-01-1421
The wiper system consists of a motor, linkage, arm, and blade, which provides a clear front view to the driver by removing rain, snow, and foreign matter from the windshield glass. It is a system component that requires a robust design to meet system rigidity, scrubbing performance, and operating noise to any external conditions to provide the driver with a front view. In recent years, however, customer complaints about wiper noise have increased as automobile engine and noise levels have decreased. Based on the analysis of wiper noise, this paper presents quantitative judgment criteria for various wiper noises. In addition, we predict the change of wiper noise to environmental factors through the sound field analysis and propose the solution.
Technical Paper

Development of Surfactant-Free Anti-Fogging Coating for Automotive Headlamps

2019-03-25
2019-01-1439
Recently, the design of automotive headlamps has become diversified and complicated according to customer needs. Hence, structural complexity of the headlamps has also increased. Complex structure of the headlamps inevitably causes a disturbance in air circulation. For this reason, inadvertent micro-sized water droplets, called fogging, are condensed on the inner surface of headlamp lens due to temperature difference between the inner and outer lens surfaces. To circumvent fogging inside of the headlamp lens, an anti-fogging coating is indispensable. Conventionally, diverse surfactants have been adopted as substantial material for the anti-fogging coating. However, the usage of the surfactants causes undesirable side effect such as water mark arising from vapor condensation, which is an important issue that must be fully resolved. In this study, we developed an innovative anti-fogging coating material without using conventional surfactant.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Prediction and Optimization Tool for Wiper High Speed Performance

2019-03-25
2019-01-1417
In this paper, we focused on the robust wiping performance of high speed driven condition as an important situation for vehicle safety. Frist, we selected appropriate wiper performance parameter to accurately predict its ability not only systematic point but also vehicle point. Second, we obtained parameter sensitivity of wiper high-speed performance using DFSS technique. Third, we developed prediction and optimization tool using commercial program; Excel and Visual Basic. Finally, we improved our tool to compare vehicle test and then modified prediction coefficient for the accuracy of tool. Thus, we proposed a systematic tool to predict wiping performance in high speed vehicle, and successfully obtained efficiency when we developed the new project’s wiper performance.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Suspension Component Stiffness on the Road Noise: A Sensitivity Study and Optimization

2018-06-13
2018-01-1510
This paper investigates the sensitivity of stiffness of front and rear suspension systems on the structure-borne road noise inside a vehicle cabin. A flexible multi-body dynamics based approach is used to simulate the structural dynamics of suspension systems including rubber bushings, suspension arms, a subframe and a twist beam. This approach can accurately predict the force transfer to the trimmed body at each suspension mounting point up to a frequency range of 0 to 300 Hz, which is validated against a force measurement test using a suspension test rig. Predicted forces at each mounting point are converted to road noise inside the cabin by multiplying it with experimentally obtained noise transfer functions. All of the suspension components are modeled as flexible bodies using Craig-Bampton component mode synthesis method.
Technical Paper

Development New Organic Composite Materials with Excellent Long-Term High-Temperature Durability and Reliability for Automotive Parts

2018-04-03
2018-01-0151
In recent years, the emerging technology competitions in automotive industry are improving engine efficiency and electronizing for coping with stringent fuel-economy regulations. However, fuel-economy technologies such as engine down-sizing and numerous electronic parts entrust burden plastic materials acing as mainly electric insulation and housing to have to be higher performance, especially temperature endurance. Engineering plastics (EPs) have critical limitations in terms of degradation by heat. Heat-resisting additives in EP are generally used to be anti-degradation as activating non-radical decomposition of peroxide. However, it could not be effective way to impede the degradation in long term heat aging over 1,000 hours at high temperature above 180 °C. In this study, we suggested the new solution called ‘shield effect’ that is purposeful oxidation at the surface and local crystallization of EP to stop prevent penetrating oxygen to inside of that.
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminum Suspension Part using by High Pressure Casting of Electro-Magnetic Stirring

2018-04-03
2018-01-1394
The weight reduction of the car suspension parts has a direct influence on the ride and handling. However, the application of nonferrous metal materials, such as aluminum and magnesium, which results in a lighter weight of the suspension can lead to an increase in manufacturing costs compared to cast iron. In this study, vertical type high-pressure die casting using by electro-magnetic stirring (EMS) with A356 alloy in the sleeve was used to control the fine microstructure. Process optimization and part development, as well as unit product and automotive assessment were carried out for electro-magnetic stirring methods. Without making the slurry, the mechanical properties were obtained through optimization of process variables UTS 320MPa, YS 239MPa, EL 13.3%. It also succeeded in mass production with minimum cost increase of aluminum suspension components.
Technical Paper

Development of Crash Performance of the Front Bumper System by Adopting Target Cascading Scheme

2018-04-03
2018-01-1054
A practical application of the Target Cascading scheme for the development of the front bumper system of a passenger car is investigated in this paper. The Target cascading in the crash performance of vehicle developments requires a systematic approach, propagating from the desired vehicle-level performance target to appropriate specifications in a system- and/or component-level. To define the values of design specification in the front bumper system, three physical variables are derived by analyzing the vehicle-level performance of the frontal impact under the high-speed (56kph NCAP frontal impact) and the low-speed (15kph RCAR structural test) crash conditions. To ensure the sequential deformation in the high-speed frontal impact and to minimize the damage of the structural member in the low-speed crash, the maximum collapse load of a crash box should be smaller than the collapse load of a front side member.
Technical Paper

Development of Wireless Message for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0027
This paper summarizes the development of a wireless message from infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) for safety applications based on Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). During the development of the Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure (RSZW/LC) safety applications [1], the Basic Information Message (BIM) was developed to wirelessly transmit infrastructure-centric information. The Traveler Information Message (TIM) structure, as described in the SAE J2735, provides a mechanism for the infrastructure to issue and display in-vehicle signage of various types of advisory and road sign information. This approach, though effective in communicating traffic advisories, is limited by the type of information that can be broadcast from infrastructures.
Technical Paper

The CAE Analysis of a Cylinder Head Water Jacket Design for Engine Cooling Optimization

2018-04-03
2018-01-1459
Hyundai's new engine is developed which optimize the cooling efficiency for knocking improvement and friction reduction. The cooling concepts for this purpose are 1) equalizing the temperature among cylinders by flow optimization, 2) cooling the required area intensively, 3) adopting ‘active flow control’ and 4) enlarging fuel economy at high speed range. In order to realize the cooling concept, 1) cross-flow, 2) compact water jacket & exhaust cooling, 3) flow control valve and 4) cylinder head with integrated exhaust manifold are considered. Improvement of knocking and friction reduction by increased cooling water temperature makes fuel efficiency possible. On the other hand, in order to strengthen the cooling around the combustion chamber and to reduce the deviation among the combustion chamber of cylinders, it is required to design the head water jacket shape accordingly.
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