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Technical Paper

A Study of the Disc Scoring Generation Principle and Reduction(III)

2019-09-15
2019-01-2112
In the latest works [12], we presented the guideline for reducing Metal pick up(MPU, the main component of disc scoring) by controlling the location of the roughness of disc, the brake pad friction coefficients and the disc slot's size. In this study, the previously studied iron transfer theory to 'Cu free' brake pad and the disc surface roughness controlling methods which are based on the mass production manufacturing process are applied. It is possible to suggest the ways to improve the scoring-free disc without reducing friction coefficient between the disc and pad, and any demerit such as increased wear and airplane noise like conventional slot discs [11].
Technical Paper

Effects of Bore-to-Stroke Ratio on the Efficiency and Knock Characteristics in a Single-Cylinder GDI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1138
As a result of stringent global regulations on fuel economy and CO2 emissions, the development of high-efficiency SI engines is more urgent now than ever before. Along with advanced techniques in friction reduction, many researchers endeavor to decrease the B/S (bore-to-stroke) ratio from 1.0 (square) to a certain value, which is expected to reduce the heat loss and enhance the burning rate of SI engines. In this study, the effects of B/S ratios were investigated in aspects of efficiency and knock characteristics using a single-cylinder LIVC (late intake valve closing) GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine. Three B/S ratios (0.68, 0.83 and 1.00) were tested under the same mechanical compression ratio of 12:1 and the same displacement volume of 0.5 L. The head tumble ratio was maintained at the same level to solely investigate the effects of geometrical changes caused by variations in the B/S ratio.
Technical Paper

The Development of a NOx Reduction System during the Fuel Cut Period for Gasoline Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-1292
Generally, vehicles do not need power during deceleration. Therefore, the fuel efficiency can be improved by stopping the fuel injection in this period. However, when the fuel cut is activated, NOx is emitted immediately after fuel cut. During the fuel cut period, a large amount of fresh air flows into the catalytic converter installed on a vehicle since there is no combustion. Thus, the catalytic materials are converted into an oxidizing atmosphere. As a result, NOx purification performance of the catalyst deteriorates, and eventually NOx is emitted when combustion restarts. The quantity of NOx in this period is relatively small. However, in case of increasing fuel cuts, emission problem could arise. Therefore, in order to meet the stringent regulation such as LEV III-SULEV20 or 30, the number of fuel cuts need to be limited. The problem is that this strategy leads to a disadvantage of fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Half Order Modulation Control for Diesel Combustion Noise by Using Model Based Controller Design

2019-03-25
2019-01-1416
This model based investigation is carried out in order to control the half order modulation for diesel engines using by virtual calibration approach and proposes a feedback control strategy to mitigate cylinder to cylinder imbalance from asymmetric cylinders torque production. Combustion heat release analysis is performed on test data to understand the root cause of observed cylinder to cylinder pressure variations. The injected fuel variations are shown to cause the observed pressure variations between cylinders. A feedback control strategy based on measured crank shaft position is devised to control the half order modulation to balance the combustion pressure profile between cylinders. This control strategy is implemented in Simulink and is tested in closed-loop with the diesel engine model in AMESim. The closed-loop performance indicates that the half order modulation is considerably improved while having minimal impact on the fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

The Development of Gear Tooth Micro Geometry Analysis Method for the Transmission Gear Noise Robustness

2019-03-25
2019-01-1414
Transmission error has been well known as the main source of excitation about transmission gear whine noise. To minimize transmission error in the gear system, various analysis methods have been studied and applied for long time. Many researchers were focused on gear micro geometry to achieve the low level of transmission error. But, if the gear is misaligned by several factors such as clearance and manufacturing tolerance error, then the gear noise can rapidly and unexpectedly be increased. To overcome this problem, this new analysis method has been developed and introduced. A transmission system simulation model was constructed, which considers various factors of transmission components such as clearance, stiffness and so on. The deformation and vibration characteristics of finite element models were validated by making comparison with frequency response function experiment.
Technical Paper

A Study on Automated Tuning of the Head Gasket Coolant Passage Hole of the Gasoline Engine Cooling System Using Optimization Technology

2019-03-25
2019-01-1411
Tuning the size and position of the cooling water holes in the head gasket during engine cooling system development is generally positioned at the final stage of the cooling system hardware design. Until now, the gasket hole tuning operation was dependent on the case study through repetitive CFD analysis. In this process, there was a difference in the optimization level by know-how and expertise of the person in charge. In this study, a gasket hole tuning technique was developed using optimization algorithms to improve the level of optimization. First, select factors and perform screening using the DOE(Design Of Experiments) method, and then find the optimal gasket hole size and arrangement through the optimal design process based on the results of the CFD analysis planned by DOE.
Technical Paper

Smart Engine Control Strategy for the Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Understanding the Unique Behavior of TWC

2019-03-25
2019-01-1406
The worldwide fuel economy compliance level has been tightening, at the same time, LEV-III/Euro-6d/China-6/BS-6 regulations for NMOG and NOx emissions are being introduced or already effective. Therefore, intensive research effort has been conducted in order to improve the fuel efficiency of passenger cars and reduce exhaust emission. In response to these demands, turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engine is being introduced for gasoline vehicles in consideration of fuel efficiency improvement, high output and driving performance compared to naturally aspirated (NA) engine. However, due to its larger thermal mass from the turbo hardware in the exhaust, it suffers from the cold-start emission. The main hazardous gases emitted from gasoline vehicles are CO, HC and NOx, and a three-way catalyst (TWC) is installed for the purification of these harmful emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of Mass Producible ANC System for Broad-Band Road Noise

2018-06-13
2018-01-1561
The mass producible broad-band ANC system for road noise is developed with fully digital control system. For this configuration, installation packages are intensively considered by minimizing size of the controller, simplifying wiring system and implementing virtual microphone techniques. Virtual microphone technique enables error microphone to be installed in remote position of driver’s ear, and therefore, increases installation degree of freedom significantly. To enhance noise control performance with the minimum latency, filter design of FxLMS algorithm is optimized while additional audio compensation techniques are applied to maintain audio performance of amplifier. The present ANC system is equipped to HMC (Hyundai Motor Company) new release of hydrogen driven vehicle, which is introduced in the technology promotion event in Pyeongchang Olympic 2018.
Technical Paper

The CAE Analysis of a Cylinder Head Water Jacket Design for Engine Cooling Optimization

2018-04-03
2018-01-1459
Hyundai's new engine is developed which optimize the cooling efficiency for knocking improvement and friction reduction. The cooling concepts for this purpose are 1) equalizing the temperature among cylinders by flow optimization, 2) cooling the required area intensively, 3) adopting ‘active flow control’ and 4) enlarging fuel economy at high speed range. In order to realize the cooling concept, 1) cross-flow, 2) compact water jacket & exhaust cooling, 3) flow control valve and 4) cylinder head with integrated exhaust manifold are considered. Improvement of knocking and friction reduction by increased cooling water temperature makes fuel efficiency possible. On the other hand, in order to strengthen the cooling around the combustion chamber and to reduce the deviation among the combustion chamber of cylinders, it is required to design the head water jacket shape accordingly.
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminum Suspension Part using by High Pressure Casting of Electro-Magnetic Stirring

2018-04-03
2018-01-1394
The weight reduction of the car suspension parts has a direct influence on the ride and handling. However, the application of nonferrous metal materials, such as aluminum and magnesium, which results in a lighter weight of the suspension can lead to an increase in manufacturing costs compared to cast iron. In this study, vertical type high-pressure die casting using by electro-magnetic stirring (EMS) with A356 alloy in the sleeve was used to control the fine microstructure. Process optimization and part development, as well as unit product and automotive assessment were carried out for electro-magnetic stirring methods. Without making the slurry, the mechanical properties were obtained through optimization of process variables UTS 320MPa, YS 239MPa, EL 13.3%. It also succeeded in mass production with minimum cost increase of aluminum suspension components.
Technical Paper

A Study of Low-Friction Road Estimation using an Artificial Neural-Network

2018-04-03
2018-01-0811
Road friction estimation algorithms had been studied for many years because it is very important factor for safety control and fuel efficiency of vehicle. But traditional solutions are hard to adapt in automotive industry because their performance is not sufficient enough and expensive to implement. Therefore, this paper proposes a road friction estimation algorithm based on a trained artificial neural-network which is low cost and robust. The suggested method doesn’t need expensive additional sensors such as optical or lidar sensor, also it shows better performance in real car environment compared to other algorithms based on vehicle dynamics. In this paper, we would describe this algorithm in detail and analyze the test results evaluated in real road conditions.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Method to Manage the Weight and Cost of a Vehicle by Adjusting the Parameters of Styling Profile

2018-04-03
2018-01-1025
Since the fuel efficiency of vehicle has become one of the big issues due to environmental pollution problems, many studies have been conducted on various methods such as improving powertrain performance and aerodynamic performance, reducing the weight of the vehicle and so on. There have been many new attempts to reduce weight but mostly about improving material property. In the case of vehicles sharing the same platform, the weight and cost of vehicle are mainly changed by the exterior styling. But, there is no solution to control the exterior styling in terms of the weight and cost of vehicle, yet. The purpose of this study is to find the way to save the weight and cost of vehicle while achieving the various performance and requirements of vehicle (safety, aerodynamics, driver’s visibility and so on) from exterior styling point of view. We focused on the weight difference of the vehicles that shared the platform and were same overall dimensions.
Technical Paper

Development New Organic Composite Materials with Excellent Long-Term High-Temperature Durability and Reliability for Automotive Parts

2018-04-03
2018-01-0151
In recent years, the emerging technology competitions in automotive industry are improving engine efficiency and electronizing for coping with stringent fuel-economy regulations. However, fuel-economy technologies such as engine down-sizing and numerous electronic parts entrust burden plastic materials acing as mainly electric insulation and housing to have to be higher performance, especially temperature endurance. Engineering plastics (EPs) have critical limitations in terms of degradation by heat. Heat-resisting additives in EP are generally used to be anti-degradation as activating non-radical decomposition of peroxide. However, it could not be effective way to impede the degradation in long term heat aging over 1,000 hours at high temperature above 180 °C. In this study, we suggested the new solution called ‘shield effect’ that is purposeful oxidation at the surface and local crystallization of EP to stop prevent penetrating oxygen to inside of that.
Technical Paper

A Development of Aluminum EGR Cooler for Weight Reduction and Fuel Economy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0102
As environmental problems such as global warming are emerging, regulations on automobile exhaust gas are strengthened and various exhaust gas reduction technologies are being developed in various countries in order to satisfy exhaust emission regulations. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology is a very effective way to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) at high combustion temperatures by using EGR coolers to lower the combustion temperature. This EGR cooler has been mass-produced in stainless steel, but it is expensive and heavy. Recently, high efficiency and compactness are required for the EGR cooler to meet the new emission regulation. If aluminum material is applied to the EGR cooler, heat transfer efficiency and light weight can be improved due to high heat transfer coefficient of aluminum compared to conventional stainless steel, but durability is insufficient. Therefore, the aluminum EGR cooler has been developed to enhance performance and durability.
Technical Paper

A Study of Suspension Tightening Torque on the R&H Performance of High Performance Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0577
Suspension is a system which operates dynamically according to road condition unlike other system statically mounted to the body. Especially this is more remarkable in high performance vehicle because there are more high inputs from road to suspension than normal vehicle. For this reason, the tightening torque of suspension system of high performance vehicle is more important than other systems and normal vehicle. To support the clamping between parts against force from road when cornering, optimized tightening torque is required to maximize R&H performance. For this optimization, it should be conducted first to comprehend how much performance effects on vehicle by tightening torque. This paper presents relationship between tightening torque of suspension parts hardware and R&H performance.
Technical Paper

A Development of Fuel Saving Driving Technique for Parallel HEV

2018-04-03
2018-01-1006
This paper examines the effect of pulse-and-glide (PnG) driving strategies on the fuel efficiency when applied on parallel HEVs. Several PnG strategies are proposed, and these include the electrical, mechanical, and combined PnG strategies. The electrical PnG strategy denotes the hybrid powertrain control tactics in which the battery is charged or discharged according to the power demanded while maintaining the constant vehicle speed. On the other hand, the mechanical PnG strategy denotes the powertrain control tactics in which the vehicle accelerates or decelerates according to the power load while minimizing the battery usage. The combined PnG strategy involves both electrical and mechanical strategies to find a balanced point in between them. Here, a tradeoff relationship between the fuel efficiency and the vehicle drivability related to the tracking performance of the desired target speed is revealed.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Stroke-to-Bore Ratio of Atkinson DISI Engines with Variable Valve Timing

2018-04-03
2018-01-1419
In this study, fundamental questions in improving thermal efficiency of spark-ignition engine were revisited, regarding two principal factors, that is, stroke-to-bore (S/B) ratio and valve timings. In our experiment, late intake valve closing (LIVC) camshaft and variable valve timing (VVT) module for valve timing control were equipped in the single-cylinder, direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine with three different S/B ratios (1.00, 1.20, and 1.47). In these three setups, displacement volume and compression ratio (CR) were fixed. In addition, the tumble ratio for cylinder head was also kept the same to minimize the flow effect on the flame propagation caused by cylinder head while focusing on the sole effect of changing the S/B ratio.
Technical Paper

Development of High Efficiency Gasoline Engine with Thermal Efficiency over 42%

2017-10-08
2017-01-2229
The maximum thermal efficiency of gasoline engine has been improving and recently the maximum of 40% has been achieved. In this study, the potential of further improvement on engine thermal efficiency over 40% was investigated. The effects of engine parameters on the engine thermal efficiency were evaluated while the optimization of parameters was implemented. Parameters tested in this study were compression ratio, tumble ratio, twin spark configuration, EGR rate, In/Ex cam shaft duration and component friction. Effects of each parameter on fuel consumption reduction were discussed with experimental results. For the engine optimization, compression ratio was found to be 14, at which the best BSFC without knock and combustion phasing retardation near sweet spot area was showed. Highly diluted combustion was applied with high EGR rate up to 35% for the knock mitigation.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injector Nozzle Hole Geometry on Particulate Emissions in a Downsized Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0111
In this study, the effect of the nozzle tip geometry on the nozzle tip wetting and particulate emissions was investigated. Various designs for the injector nozzle hole were newly developed for this study, focusing on the step hole geometry to reduce the nozzle tip wetting. The laser induced fluorescence technique was applied to evaluate the fuel wetting on the nozzle tip. A vehicle test and an emissions measurement in a Chassi-Dynamo were performed to investigate the particulate emission characteristics for injector nozzle designs. In addition, the in-cylinder combustion light signal measurement by the optical fiber sensor was conducted to observe diffusion combustion behavior during the vehicle test. Results showed that the step hole surface area is strongly related to nozzle tip wetting and particulate emissions characteristics. Injectors without the step hole and with a smaller step hole geometry showed significant reduction of nozzle tip wetting and number of particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Auxiliary Belt Drive System for Actual Fuel Saving

2017-03-28
2017-01-0898
The engine indicated torque is not delivered entirely to the wheels, because it is lowered by losses, such as the pumping, mechanical friction and front auxiliary power consumption. The front auxiliary belt drive system is a big power consumer-fueling and operating the various accessory devices, such as air conditioning compressor, electric alternator, and power steering pump. The standard fuel economy test does not consider the auxiliary driving torque when it is activated during the actual driving condition and it is considered a five-cycle correction factor only. Therefore, research on improving the front end auxiliary drive (FEAD) system is still relevant in the immediate future, particularly regarding the air conditioning compressor and the electric alternator. An exertion to minimize the auxiliary loss is much smaller than the sustained effort required to reduce engine friction loss.
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