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Technical Paper

Development of Vehicle Thermal Management Model for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Electric Vehicle

2022-03-29
2022-01-0201
Recently, automobile manufacturers are interested in the development of battery electric vehicle (BEV) having a longer mileage to satisfy customer needs. The BEV with high efficiency depends on the temperature of the electric components. Hence it is important to study the effect of the cooling system in electric vehicle in order to optimize efficiency and performance. In this study, we present a 1-D vehicle thermal management (VTM) simulation model. The individual vehicle subsystems were modeled including cooling, power electric (PE), mechanical, and control components. Each component was integrated into a single VTM model and it would be used to calculate energy transfer among electrical, thermal, and mechanical energy. As a result, this simulation model predicts a plenty of information including the state of each component such as temperature, energy consumption, and operating point about electric vehicle depending on driving cycles and environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of the Frontal Crash Performance of Vehicle by Simplified Crash Model

2022-03-29
2022-01-0871
This study presents a design methodology to predict the crash behavior of mid-size sedan with a simplified crash model. Without detailed conventional finite element, the simplified crash model can be adopted in the early stage of the vehicle design. Designing vehicle structure to satisfy crash performance target is highly complex problem in the early design stage, because of the nonlinear mechanical behavior, high number of degrees-of-freedom, lack of information and boundary conditions changing over the following development process. In this study, the front structure of the vehicle is divided into load-carrying members and the rigid element through the analysis of load-carrying mechanism, and its physical property (force-displacement relation) is parameterized as the property of the non-linear discrete beam element of the LS-DYNA. The effectiveness of the proposed research is shown by the example of the mid-size sedan.
Technical Paper

A Conceptual Analysis in the Early Design Stage for the Road-Noise Reduction using FRF-Based Substructuring

2022-03-29
2022-01-0312
NVH analysis based on numerical simulations before actual test vehicle is available becomes common process in the automotive industry. Furthermore, the latest work scope is extending even to conceptual study in the very early design stage, beyond traditional numerical simulations simply using 3-D CAD data. In case when reasonable information is provided at this very early vehicle development stage, a better decision on the design concept would be possible, and subsequent design process can be carried out in more efficient manner. The core of this trend is that it allows us to predict vehicle performance at the conceptual design stage without 3-D CAD data, and then, with this prediction, to suggest meaningful design directions for next stage. From this point of view, FRF-Based Substructuring (FBS) methodology has potential to be used as an appropriate tool for this purpose.
Technical Paper

Development of a Built-in Type Dashboard Camera with Reliability and Usability

2022-03-29
2022-01-0111
Dashcam, which is considered essential parts of vehicles in Korea, are installed in most vehicles for reasons such as accidents, evidence of threatened driving of other vehicles, and insurance premiums. Aftermarket dashcam have been developed with many improvements such as higher resolution camera and LCD application, but still have problems in usability and durability. The first problem is a separate device mounted on the top of the windshield, which obstructs the driver's view and may injure the driver due to a collision impact. In addition, the connection of the power supply may cause a vehicle breakdown such as a fire due to a worker's mistake or a product defect. Secondly, in order to view the stored video, it is troublesome to remove the SD card and check it on the computer. Moreover, since the LCD is so small, it is difficult to search and play the desired video from the list in many saved files.
Technical Paper

A Development of Spindle drive power trunk lid system with Optimizing operation noise

2022-03-29
2022-01-0759
The power trunk lid system is a device that automatically opens and closes the trunk lid by motor, for the purpose to improve user’s convenience. This technology was applied only to high-end large cars such as Equus and Genesis. But as preference for high convenience features increases, the scope of application is gradually expanding to semi-large and mid-sized cars. Therefore, the necessity of securing profitability through cost reduction was emerged, and it made us to develop the power trunk lid system by spindle drives. Compared to the conventional swing arm drive type, the spindle drive type may achieve cost savings, lightness and easy of assembly by optimizing the required motor specifications. However, since it uses a planetary gear with high gear ratio and the high rotation speed of the motor, operating noise is relatively large.
Technical Paper

Body Cross-Sectional Stiffness Criteria for the Optimal Development of the BIW Weight and Torsional Stiffness

2021-04-06
2021-01-0797
Body-in-white plays a key role in protecting passengers in the event of collision between vehicles, and also endures external forces during cornering in a vehicle. Stiffness of body-in-white is the basic characteristic of a car body, and it is closely related to the full-vehicle-level performance such as body durability, ride and handling, etc. There have been many attempts to correlate body stiffness to full-vehicle-level performance, and studying the relationship between torsional body stiffness and durability has been the popular topic among others. In general, it is believed to be true that bodies with high torsional stiffness exhibit good durability performance, and in many cases this assumption seems to be verified. However, not all cases are true to this assumption. In this paper, relationship between torsional body stiffness and body durability has been closely studied.
Technical Paper

A Performance Design of Constant Pressure Type Exhaust Brake

2021-04-06
2021-01-0398
In commercial vehicles, the exhaust brake assists the service brake to share the excess load and is used as an auxiliary brake to assist with the safety of the engine and the service brake on downhill slopes. To meet the customer's demand for auxiliary brakes, the specification of auxiliary brakes must be determined at the product proposal stage. In this study, performance design was conducted to derive exhaust brake specifications that fit the customer's requirements. For performance design, a system model was created and key design factors with high performance contribution were extracted. Optimal specifications were derived from parameter studies for key design factors. Additionally, performance analysis was performed with design tolerances using the performance design model. Performance was verified through actual vehicle evaluation and design specifications were confirmed.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Driver IC in LED Rear Combination Lamp for Circuit Standardization

2021-04-06
2021-01-0850
Today, many automakers are using LED lamp sources in exterior lamps to establish brand awareness and introduce specialized lamp designs. These eye-catching LED lamp source solutions require many control functions as the lamp functions are diversified and advanced, and accordingly the requirements for standardization and optimization of controllers are increasing. In particular, our LED rear combination lamps have a variety of LED loads according to the design of the lamp model, the installation position, and the diagnostic regulations, so that the design complexity and the number of specifications of the controller are increased [4]. In recent years, more and more aesthetic designs and new technologies are used by various automakers to optimize their controllers in cooperation with global partners to optimize costs [1].
Technical Paper

Integrated Control of In-Wheel Motor and Electronic Limited Slip Differential for Lateral Stability and Maneuverability

2021-04-06
2021-01-0974
This paper presents an integrated control of in-wheel motor (IWM) and electronic limited slip differential (eLSD) to enhance the vehicle lateral stability and maneuverability. The two actuators are utilized in the proposed controller to achieve separate purposes. The IWM controller is designed to modify the understeer gradient for enhanced handling characteristic and maneuverability. The eLSD controller is devised to improve the lateral stability to prevent oversteer in a severe maneuver. The proposed controller consists of a supervisor, upper-level controller and lower-level controller. The supervisor determines a target motion based on a target understeer gradient for IWM control and a yaw rate reference for eLSD control. The upper-level controller generates a desired yaw moment for the target motion. In the lower-level controller, the desired yaw moment is converted to the control inputs for IWMs in the two front wheels and eLSD at the rear axle.
Journal Article

On the Aerodynamics of the Notchback Open Cooling DrivAer: A Detailed Investigation of Wind Tunnel Data for Improved Correlation and Reference

2021-04-06
2021-01-0958
Since the introduction of the DrivAer in 2012 this model has become the standard generic aerodynamic benchmark and aerodynamic research model used by automotive OEMs, software vendors and researchers. In 2017, the relevance of the DrivAer has been furthered by the inclusion of a simplified engine bay. Whilst the DrivAer has become the popular standard, the availability of detailed wind tunnel test data, a key enabler for more sophisticated aerodynamic benchmarking and research, remains limited. This paper presents a comprehensive set of wind tunnel test data of the notchback version of the Ford Open Cooling DrivAer, including aerodynamic force measurements, detailed surface pressure measurements and flow field measurements at 3 cross-sections in the vicinity of the model. In addition, the paper will discuss the sensitivity of the experimental data to wind tunnel repeatability and facility-to-facility variations.
Journal Article

Analysis of Formaldehyde Scavenger and Its Reaction Products in POM Using Mass Spectrometry

2021-04-06
2021-01-0360
To meet the indoor air quality guideline of newly manufactured vehicles in Korea, China, and other countries, low formaldehyde grade POM (Polyoxymethylene) is used for interior parts essentially. In this paper, formaldehyde scavengers from of 2 commercial low formaldehyde grade POM pellets were identified by LC-MS (Liquid chromatograph-Mass spectrometer) as sebacic dihydrazide and dodecanedioic dihydrazide respectively. The reaction products between formaldehyde and formaldehyde scavengers were also detected, which were converted from hydrazide to hydrazone. So, this kind of additive would be gradually consumed by repetitive molding process or exposure to heat according to formaldehyde emission increase. We are expecting to apply this analytical method and result for quality control and benchmark of low formaldehyde grade POM.
Technical Paper

Concept Study on Windshield Actuation for Active Control of Wind Noise in a Passenger Car

2020-09-30
2020-01-1535
The windshield is an integral part of almost every modern passenger car. Combined with current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and the integration of lightweight material systems, the reduction of interior noise caused by stochastic and transient wind excitation is deemed to be an increasing challenge for future NVH measures. Active control systems have proven to be a viable alternative compared to traditional passive NVH measures in different areas. However, for windshield actuation there are neither comparative studies nor actually established actuation concepts available to the automotive industry. This paper illustrates a comparative conceptual study on windshield actuation for the active control of wind noise in a passenger car. Making use of an experimental modal analysis of the windshield installed in a medium-sized vehicle, a reduced order numerical simulation model is derived.
Technical Paper

Development, System Integration and Experimental Investigation of an Active HVAC Noise Control System for a Passenger Car

2020-09-30
2020-01-1538
Current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and consistent lightweight construction increasingly enable the application of active control systems for the further reduction of noise in vehicles. As different stochastic noise sources such as rolling and wind noise as well as noise radiated by the ventilation system are becoming more noticeable and as passive measures for NVH optimization tend to be heavy and construction-space intensive, current research activities focus on active reduction of noise caused by the latter mentioned sources. This paper illustrates the development, implementation and experimental investigation of an active noise control system integrated into the ventilation duct system of a passenger car.
Journal Article

Robust Development of Electric Powertrain NVH for Compact Electric SUV

2020-09-30
2020-01-1503
Electric vehicles (EV’s) present new challenges to achieving the required noise, vibration & harshness performance (NVH) compared with conventional vehicles. Specifically, high-frequency noise and unexpected noise phenomenon, previously masked by the internal combustion engine can cause annoyance in an EV. Electric motor (E-motor) whine noise caused by electromagnetic excitation during E-motor operation is caused by torque ripple and radial excitation. Under high speed and high load operating conditions, the overall sound level may be low, however high frequency whine noise can impair the vehicle level NVH performance. An example of a previously masked unexpected noise phenomenon is a droning noise that can be caused by manufacturing quality variation of the spline coupling between the rotor shaft of the E-motor and the input shaft of the reducer. It is dominated by multiple higher orders of the E-motor rotation frequency.
Journal Article

Development of Logistic Regression Models to Classify Seat Fit

2020-04-14
2020-01-0869
The digital evaluation process of vehicle-seat dimensions is an efficient and cost-effective way to achieve better seating comfort and proper fit. The present study is intended to quantify the statistical relationships between seat dimensions (e.g., insert width and bolster height defined at SAE J2732) and subjective seat fit (e.g., too tight, right fit, or too wide). Subjective fit evaluations for 45 different vehicle seats and the corresponding vehicle seat dimensions at various cross-sectional planes were collected by seat engineers (experts). The best subset logistic regression analyses were applied to quantify the relationships between the collected expert evaluations and seat dimensions at each cross-sectional plane. As a result, significant seat dimensions on the seat fit were identified and their statistical relationships were quantified as regression coefficients.
Technical Paper

A Study on Optimization of the Cross-Section of Door Impact Beam for Weight Reduction

2020-04-14
2020-01-0631
This paper focuses on the optimization of the cross-section of a panel type impact door beam. The key parameters of the cross-section of the beam were artificially changed by using a geometry morphing tool FCM (Fast Concept Modeler), which is plugged in to CATIA. Then, the metamodel of FE (Finite Element) analysis results was created and optimized using LS-OPT. The ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) analysis of results was carried out to find the factor of weight reduction. Finally, a new cross section concept was proposed to overcome the limitation of old structure. The optimization was carried out for the beam with the final cross-section to have 10 % or more reduction in total weight.
Technical Paper

A Performance Measurement and Analysis Method for Infotainment System

2020-04-14
2020-01-1347
The software must be verified and optimized from time to time to ensure system performance quality from the development process. Because the later you discover performance issues, the greater the cost of performance improvements, along with the extent to which they are fixed in the source code. In particular, performance problems due to poor system design should be identified and corrected as soon as possible. Also, as development progresses, source code added for new features and modified by bugs can potentially increase system resource usage or worsen responsiveness. Therefore, the development process needs to periodically measure, analyze, and improve system performance. This paper introduces the system-wide performance analyzer and explains how to use it to measure and analyze the performance of the infotainment system for performance management and improvement.
Technical Paper

The Analysis of Brake Squeal Noise Related to the Friction Properties of Brake Friction Materials

2019-09-15
2019-01-2132
The friction properties related to squeal noise was analyzed with the development histories and simplified computational method. Firstly, the development histories were investigated especially focusing on the case which the friction materials were modified to improve squeal noise occurrence. Based on the histories, the friction properties of selected friction materials were newly measured using dynamometer. The average friction coefficient levels, torque oscillations, the increment of friction coefficient during full-stop, and etc. were compared with the squeal noise occurrence, and the results showed that increase of friction properties cause production of squeal noise. The result suggested that the size of friction energy was important factors related to triggering the squeal noise. Also, the contact conditions between rotor disc and friction materials were significant factors deciding the noise occurrence.
Technical Paper

Extensive Correlation Study of Acoustic Trim Packages in Trimmed Body Modeling of an Automotive Vehicle

2019-06-05
2019-01-1511
In the automotive sector, the structure borne noise generated by the engine and road-tire interactions is a major source of noise inside the passenger cavity. In order to increase the global acoustic comfort, predictive simulation models must be available in the design phase. The acoustic trims have a major impact on the noise level inside the car cavity. Although several publications for this kind of simulations can be found, an extensive correlation study with measurement is needed, in order to validate the modeling approaches. In this article, a detailed correlation study for a complete car is performed. The acoustic trim package of the measured car includes all acoustic trims, such as carpet, headliner, seats and firewall covers. The simulation methodology relies on the influence of the acoustic trim package on the car structure and acoustic cavities. The challenge lies in the definition of an efficient and accurate framework for acoustic trimmed bodies.
Technical Paper

A Study of Design Methodology to Develop Improved Door System of a Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0616
In the past few years, technological innovations in the automobile industry took vehicle performance to the next level. One such innovation is frame integrated panel door. This type of door helps automobile companies to have the advantages of both conventional panel and frame type doors. Though it has a good number of advantages, there are some drawbacks too. It requires improvements in its quality, NVH performance, weight and etc. Quality of a door is low due to the limitations in structural design and manufacturing technologies. And it is difficult to have a robust structure which leads to degradation of key performing factors such as NVH. For a lightweight vehicle, it is important to design an optimized structure for saving weight, without compromising its performance. In order to overcome these drawbacks a new optimized design structure is required for door system.
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