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Technical Paper

Analysis of the Correlation between Flow and Combustion Characteristics in Spark-Ignited Engine

2021-04-06
2021-01-0463
As global emission standards are becoming more stringent, it is necessary to increase thermal efficiency through the high compression ratio in spark-ignited engines. Various studies are being conducted to mitigate knocking caused by an increased compression ratio, which requires an understanding of the combustion phenomena inside the combustion chamber. In particular, the in-cylinder flow is a major factor affecting the entire combustion process from the generation to the propagation of flames. In the field of spark-ignited engine research, where interest in the concept of lean combustion and the expansion of the EGR supply is increasing, flow analysis is essential to ensure a rapid flame propagation speed and stable combustion process. In this study, the flow around the spark plug was measured by the Laser Doppler Velocimetry system, and the correlation with combustion in spark-ignited engines was analyzed.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on a Six-Stroke Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine with Continuously Variable Valve Duration (CVVD)

2021-04-06
2021-01-0512
An experimental study was conducted on a multi-cylinder engine to understand the feasibility of a six-stroke homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation under stoichiometric conditions. State-of-the-art technologies such as continuously variable valve duration (CVVD) and high-pressure gasoline direct injection (GDI) were experimentally exploited to increase the degree of freedom of engine control. The motivation of six-stroke HCCI combustion is to remedy the load limitation and the cyclic variation in four-stroke HCCI combustion with two additional strokes: compression and expansion strokes. The six-stroke HCCI combustion occurs in the following order. First, hot residual gas is trapped by applying negative valve overlap (NVO). Next, fresh air enters, fuel is injected, and lean HCCI combustion occurs in the 1st power stroke (PS). Subsequently, additional fuel is injected, and the 2nd combustion occurs with the remaining oxygen in the two additional strokes.
Technical Paper

Body Cross-Sectional Stiffness Criteria for the Optimal Development of the BIW Weight and Torsional Stiffness

2021-04-06
2021-01-0797
Body-in-white plays a key role in protecting passengers in the event of collision between vehicles, and also endures external forces during cornering in a vehicle. Stiffness of body-in-white is the basic characteristic of a car body, and it is closely related to the full-vehicle-level performance such as body durability, ride and handling, etc. There have been many attempts to correlate body stiffness to full-vehicle-level performance, and studying the relationship between torsional body stiffness and durability has been the popular topic among others. In general, it is believed to be true that bodies with high torsional stiffness exhibit good durability performance, and in many cases this assumption seems to be verified. However, not all cases are true to this assumption. In this paper, relationship between torsional body stiffness and body durability has been closely studied.
Technical Paper

Study on Selective Electroplating for Pattern/Lighting on Plastic

2021-04-06
2021-01-0367
For making metal touch feeling and lighting simultaneously, selective electroplating is widely applied in button, panel and etc. in interior/exterior parts of automotive. In this paper, new selective electroplating with printing are suggested as an alternative manufacturing process of two shot molding, PC (Polycarbonate) and ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene). Manufacturing process of selective electroplating with printing is as follows: For preventing to plate metal layer in area of letter or symbol, masking ink is printed on parts, button, panel, etc., with electroplatable PC+ABS. After conventional electroplating process, the part has electroplated metal layer except for the printed area. It had been studied the composition of ink and PC+ABS for obtaining skip plating and light transmittance on printed area.
Technical Paper

A Performance Design of Constant Pressure Type Exhaust Brake

2021-04-06
2021-01-0398
In commercial vehicles, the exhaust brake assists the service brake to share the excess load and is used as an auxiliary brake to assist with the safety of the engine and the service brake on downhill slopes. To meet the customer's demand for auxiliary brakes, the specification of auxiliary brakes must be determined at the product proposal stage. In this study, performance design was conducted to derive exhaust brake specifications that fit the customer's requirements. For performance design, a system model was created and key design factors with high performance contribution were extracted. Optimal specifications were derived from parameter studies for key design factors. Additionally, performance analysis was performed with design tolerances using the performance design model. Performance was verified through actual vehicle evaluation and design specifications were confirmed.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Driver IC in LED Rear Combination Lamp for Circuit Standardization

2021-04-06
2021-01-0850
Today, many automakers are using LED lamp sources in exterior lamps to establish brand awareness and introduce specialized lamp designs. These eye-catching LED lamp source solutions require many control functions as the lamp functions are diversified and advanced, and accordingly the requirements for standardization and optimization of controllers are increasing. In particular, our LED rear combination lamps have a variety of LED loads according to the design of the lamp model, the installation position, and the diagnostic regulations, so that the design complexity and the number of specifications of the controller are increased [4]. In recent years, more and more aesthetic designs and new technologies are used by various automakers to optimize their controllers in cooperation with global partners to optimize costs [1].
Technical Paper

A Research on Autonomous Vehicle Control in Track Beyond Its Limits of Handling

2021-04-06
2021-01-0977
This paper presents the research related to the self-driving system that has been actively carried out recently. Previous studies have been limited to ensure the path following performance in linear and steady state-alike handling region with small lateral acceleration. However, in the high speed driving, the vehicle cornering response is extended to nonlinear region where tire grips are saturated. This requires a technology to create the driving path for minimum time maneuvering while grasping the tire grip limits of the vehicle in real time. The entire controller consists of three stages-hierarchy: The target motion is determined in the supervisor phase, and the target force to follow the target behavior is calculated in the upper stage controller. Finally, the lower stage controller calculates the actuator phase control input corresponding to the target force.
Technical Paper

Integrated Control of In-Wheel Motor and Electronic Limited Slip Differential for Lateral Stability and Maneuverability

2021-04-06
2021-01-0974
This paper presents an integrated control of in-wheel motor (IWM) and electronic limited slip differential (eLSD) to enhance the vehicle lateral stability and maneuverability. The two actuators are utilized in the proposed controller to achieve separate purposes. The IWM controller is designed to modify the understeer gradient for enhanced handling characteristic and maneuverability. The eLSD controller is devised to improve the lateral stability to prevent oversteer in a severe maneuver. The proposed controller consists of a supervisor, upper-level controller and lower-level controller. The supervisor determines a target motion based on a target understeer gradient for IWM control and a yaw rate reference for eLSD control. The upper-level controller generates a desired yaw moment for the target motion. In the lower-level controller, the desired yaw moment is converted to the control inputs for IWMs in the two front wheels and eLSD at the rear axle.
Journal Article

Analysis of Formaldehyde Scavenger and Its Reaction Products in POM Using Mass Spectrometry

2021-04-06
2021-01-0360
To meet the indoor air quality guideline of newly manufactured vehicles in Korea, China, and other countries, low formaldehyde grade POM (Polyoxymethylene) is used for interior parts essentially. In this paper, formaldehyde scavengers from of 2 commercial low formaldehyde grade POM pellets were identified by LC-MS (Liquid chromatograph-Mass spectrometer) as sebacic dihydrazide and dodecanedioic dihydrazide respectively. The reaction products between formaldehyde and formaldehyde scavengers were also detected, which were converted from hydrazide to hydrazone. So, this kind of additive would be gradually consumed by repetitive molding process or exposure to heat according to formaldehyde emission increase. We are expecting to apply this analytical method and result for quality control and benchmark of low formaldehyde grade POM.
Technical Paper

Concept Study on Windshield Actuation for Active Control of Wind Noise in a Passenger Car

2020-09-30
2020-01-1535
The windshield is an integral part of almost every modern passenger car. Combined with current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and the integration of lightweight material systems, the reduction of interior noise caused by stochastic and transient wind excitation is deemed to be an increasing challenge for future NVH measures. Active control systems have proven to be a viable alternative compared to traditional passive NVH measures in different areas. However, for windshield actuation there are neither comparative studies nor actually established actuation concepts available to the automotive industry. This paper illustrates a comparative conceptual study on windshield actuation for the active control of wind noise in a passenger car. Making use of an experimental modal analysis of the windshield installed in a medium-sized vehicle, a reduced order numerical simulation model is derived.
Technical Paper

Development, System Integration and Experimental Investigation of an Active HVAC Noise Control System for a Passenger Car

2020-09-30
2020-01-1538
Current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and consistent lightweight construction increasingly enable the application of active control systems for the further reduction of noise in vehicles. As different stochastic noise sources such as rolling and wind noise as well as noise radiated by the ventilation system are becoming more noticeable and as passive measures for NVH optimization tend to be heavy and construction-space intensive, current research activities focus on active reduction of noise caused by the latter mentioned sources. This paper illustrates the development, implementation and experimental investigation of an active noise control system integrated into the ventilation duct system of a passenger car.
Technical Paper

A Diagnostic Technology of Powertrain Parts that Cause Abnormal Noises Using Artificial Intelligence

2020-09-30
2020-01-1565
In general, when a problem occurs in a component of powertrains, various phenomena appear, and abnormal noise is one of them. The service mechanics diagnose the noise through analysis by using their ears and equipment. However, depending on their experiences, analysis time and diagnostic accuracy vary greatly. To shorten the analysis time and improve the diagnostic accuracy, we have developed a technology to diagnose powertrain parts that cause abnormal noises. To create the best deep learning model for our diagnosis, we tried to collect many abnormal noises from various parts. The collected noise data was measured under idle and various operating conditions from our vehicles and test cells. This noise data is abnormal noises generated from engines, transmissions, drive system and PE (Power Electric) parts of eco-friendly vehicles. From the collected data, we distinguished good and bad data through detailed analysis in time and frequency domain.
Journal Article

Robust Development of Electric Powertrain NVH for Compact Electric SUV

2020-09-30
2020-01-1503
Electric vehicles (EV’s) present new challenges to achieving the required noise, vibration & harshness performance (NVH) compared with conventional vehicles. Specifically, high-frequency noise and unexpected noise phenomenon, previously masked by the internal combustion engine can cause annoyance in an EV. Electric motor (E-motor) whine noise caused by electromagnetic excitation during E-motor operation is caused by torque ripple and radial excitation. Under high speed and high load operating conditions, the overall sound level may be low, however high frequency whine noise can impair the vehicle level NVH performance. An example of a previously masked unexpected noise phenomenon is a droning noise that can be caused by manufacturing quality variation of the spline coupling between the rotor shaft of the E-motor and the input shaft of the reducer. It is dominated by multiple higher orders of the E-motor rotation frequency.
Journal Article

Reinforcement of Low-Frequency Sound by Using a Panel Speaker Attached to the Roof Panel of a Passenger Car

2020-09-30
2020-01-1570
The woofer in a car should be large to cover the low frequencies, so it is heavy and needs an ample space to be installed in a passenger car. The geometry of the woofer should conform to the limited available space and layout in general. In many cases, the passengers feel that the low-frequency contents are not satisfactory although the speaker specification covers the low frequencies. In this work, a thin panel is installed between the roof liner and the roof panel, and it is used as the woofer. The vibration field is controlled by many small actuators to create the speaker and baffle zones to avoid the sound distortion due to the modal interaction. The generation of speaker and baffle zones follows the inverse vibro-acoustic rendering technique. In the actual implementation, a thin acrylic plate of 0.53x0.2 m2 is used as the radiator panel, and the control actuator array is composed of 16 moving-coil actuators.
Journal Article

Development of Logistic Regression Models to Classify Seat Fit

2020-04-14
2020-01-0869
The digital evaluation process of vehicle-seat dimensions is an efficient and cost-effective way to achieve better seating comfort and proper fit. The present study is intended to quantify the statistical relationships between seat dimensions (e.g., insert width and bolster height defined at SAE J2732) and subjective seat fit (e.g., too tight, right fit, or too wide). Subjective fit evaluations for 45 different vehicle seats and the corresponding vehicle seat dimensions at various cross-sectional planes were collected by seat engineers (experts). The best subset logistic regression analyses were applied to quantify the relationships between the collected expert evaluations and seat dimensions at each cross-sectional plane. As a result, significant seat dimensions on the seat fit were identified and their statistical relationships were quantified as regression coefficients.
Technical Paper

Development of an Air Support System for Long-Distance Drive Comfort

2020-04-14
2020-01-0868
Passenger fatigue during long distance driving is greatly influenced by the comfort performance of the seat. Seat comfort performance is determined by the appropriate contour of the seat and the appropriate pad with sufficient thickness. The height of vehicle has been lowered to enhance car styling, and battery for electric vehicle applied to the underbody of the vehicle, reducing the package space of the seat in the vehicle. These external factors eventually lead to a reduced pad thickness of the seat cushion and compromise one of the important components in the seat cushion compartment, creating an uncomfortable cushioning problem when driving long distances. To improve the cushion composition of the seat within a limited package, air bladders are applied to the underside of the cushion pad. In addition, the function to support the buttocks using the air bladders of the lower cushion, similar to lumbar support for the back, was implemented to improve cushion comfort performance.
Technical Paper

Eco-Vehicle Battery System Big-Data Analysis and Fault Mode and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) Related Robust System Development

2020-04-14
2020-01-0447
High-voltage battery system plays a critical role in eco-friendly vehicles due to its effect on the cost and the electric driving range of eco-friendly vehicles. In order to secure the customer pool and the competitiveness of eco-vehicle technology, vehicle electrification requires lowering the battery cost and satisfying the customer needs when driving the vehicles in the real roads, for example, maximizing powers for fun drive, increasing battery capacities for achieving appropriate trip distances, etc. Because these vehicle specifications have a critical effect on the high-voltage battery specification, the key technology of the vehicle electrification is the appropriate decision on the specification of the high-voltage battery system, such as battery capacity and power. These factors affect the size of battery system and vehicle under floor design and also the profitability of the eco-friendly vehicles.
Technical Paper

A Performance Measurement and Analysis Method for Infotainment System

2020-04-14
2020-01-1347
The software must be verified and optimized from time to time to ensure system performance quality from the development process. Because the later you discover performance issues, the greater the cost of performance improvements, along with the extent to which they are fixed in the source code. In particular, performance problems due to poor system design should be identified and corrected as soon as possible. Also, as development progresses, source code added for new features and modified by bugs can potentially increase system resource usage or worsen responsiveness. Therefore, the development process needs to periodically measure, analyze, and improve system performance. This paper introduces the system-wide performance analyzer and explains how to use it to measure and analyze the performance of the infotainment system for performance management and improvement.
Technical Paper

A Study on Optimization of the Cross-Section of Door Impact Beam for Weight Reduction

2020-04-14
2020-01-0631
This paper focuses on the optimization of the cross-section of a panel type impact door beam. The key parameters of the cross-section of the beam were artificially changed by using a geometry morphing tool FCM (Fast Concept Modeler), which is plugged in to CATIA. Then, the metamodel of FE (Finite Element) analysis results was created and optimized using LS-OPT. The ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) analysis of results was carried out to find the factor of weight reduction. Finally, a new cross section concept was proposed to overcome the limitation of old structure. The optimization was carried out for the beam with the final cross-section to have 10 % or more reduction in total weight.
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