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Technical Paper

A Trend Line Analysis of the Insertion Loss Test Data and Application to Sound Transmission Loss Simulation

2022-06-15
2022-01-0959
In this paper, an application process is studied at which insertion loss (IL) test data of sound barrier assemblies are utilized for the sound transmission loss (STL) simulation of the trimmed dash structure. The considered sound barrier assemblies were composed of a felt layer, a mass layer, and a decoupler layer. Flat samples of sound barrier assemblies with several different thicknesses were prepared, and ILs of them were measured by using a sound transmission loss facility. Flat samples were assumed to have mass-spring resonance frequencies. The mass was set as the area mass of the sound barrier layer of the felt layer and the mass layer. The spring constant of the decoupler layer was assumed as the multiplication of that of an air spring and a spring correction factor. At the beginning, the spring correction factor was assumed to be 1, and the measured IL data vs frequencies are converted to IL data vs frequency ratios, frequency f over the resonance frequency fres.
Technical Paper

Prediction and Optimization of Blocked Force Changes of a Suspension System using Bush Stiffness Injection Method

2022-06-15
2022-01-0956
Automotive OEMs have introduced a new development paradigm, modular architecture development, to improve diversity quality and production efficiency. It needs solid fundamentals of system-based performance evaluation and development for each system level and single component level. When it comes to NVH development, it is challenging to realize the modular concept because noise and vibration should be transferred through various transfer path consisting of many parts and systems, which interact with each other. It is challenging for a single system of interest to be evaluated independently of the adjacent parts and environments. In this study, a new system-based development process for a vehicle suspension was investigated by applying blocked force theory and FRF-based dynamic substructuring. The objective is to determine the better dynamic stiffness distribution of many bushes installed in a suspension system in the frequency range corresponding to road noise.
Technical Paper

High-bandwidth Mechanical Hardware-in-the-Loop Emulation of Structural Dynamics for More Efficient NVH Development and Testing

2022-06-15
2022-01-0953
Numerical simulations offer a wide range of benefits. Therefore, they are widely used in research and development. One of the biggest benefits is the possibility of automated parameter variation. This allows testing different scenarios in a very short period of time. Nevertheless, physical experiments in the laboratory or on a test rig are still necessary and will still be necessary in the future. The physical experiments offer benefits e.g. for very complex and/or nonlinear systems and are needed for the validation of numerical models. In order to enhance the quality of experimental NVH investigations and to make use of the benefits numerical simulation during experimental investigations at the same time, numerical models can be integrated into physical test rigs by means of the mechanical hardware-in-the-loop (mHIL) method (also referred to as real-time dynamic substructuring, hybrid testing or active control of impedance).
Technical Paper

A Study on the Sound Transmission Loss of Split HVAC for Electric Vehicles.

2022-06-15
2022-01-0981
Generally, the HVAC system of a vehicle is composed of Blower unit assembly and Heater unit assembly, and is located at the interior compartment’s side of the dash panel for IC (internal combustion engine) vehicles. Electric vehicles have large space in the PE (power electric) room. This allows HVAC to be pushed to PE room side by placing the Blower unit at the PE room to make the cockpit slim and expand the interior space. However, this new HVAC structure, called the Split HVAC System, is passing through the dash, and allowing the PE noise to transmit to the interior relatively easily. In this paper, a study was performed to enhance the sound transmission of a Split HVAC. A hybrid (FEM+SEA) analysis was performed using VA One, a vibro-acoustic analysis software, in order to simulate the STL up to the high frequency range (~4 kHz) by reflecting the structural and acoustical characteristics of the split HVAC.
Technical Paper

Efficient prediction and analysis of the noise radiated by an electric powertrain

2022-06-15
2022-01-0931
Reducing the emitted noise from vehicles is a primary issue for automotive OEMs due to the constant evolution of the noise regulations. In the context of electric powertrains, virtual prototyping has proven to be a cost-efficient alternative to the build-test process, especially in early design stage and/or if optimization is targeted. Due to the multiphysics nature of the model, the full simulation chain involves multiple components, each having its own specific modelling attributes. The difficulty then resides in the parts assembly, solving issues like mesh-to-mesh projections, time to frequency-domain transformation, 2d-axisymmetric to 3d mapping, data formatting and management, unit and local coordinate systems,… This paper presents an environment that allows for the prediction and analysis of the noise radiated by electric automotive powertrains.
Technical Paper

A Development of SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) Model and Its Applications

2022-03-29
2022-01-0557
A physics-based model for SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) was developed based on five independent SGB (Synthetic Gas Bench) tests. There are NH3 adsorption & desorption test, NO oxidation test, NH3 oxidation test, SCR reaction (NOx & NH3) test and SV (Space Velocity) test. To validate the accuracy of SCR model’s prediction, transient reactor tests were conducted at four different input conditions. A newly developed SCR model showed more than 90% prediction accuracy in transient test conditions in view of cumulative NOx. Validation of SCR model was conducted on 1.6L light duty diesel vehicle in the WLTC (Worldwide Harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle). Based upon this SCR model, vehicle level SCR calibrations used for urea dosing control were made and validated in the emission test cycles like WLTC.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Improvement of EV One-Pedal Driving System Interface and Cost Reduction

2022-03-29
2022-01-0644
In this study it will show, big data analysis and user survey of driving records were conducted to investigate frequency of use and ease of operation of the regen paddle to control one-pedal driving system in electric vehicle. According to 3.8 million driving record big data analysis result, it was found that the driver manipulates 3.31 times on average during a single trip, mainly during the early stages of driving. According to user observation research result in 41.8% of participants did not used or used less than 5 time of regen paddle during one single trip. Also 336 participants, which occupy 83%, responded that the regen paddle manipulation for one-pedal driving was inconvenient. In conclusion, because of the use frequency of the regen paddle is low and the operation of regen paddle is inconvenient. It seems necessary to change the design of the regen paddle.
Technical Paper

Development of a Prediction Model for Tire Tread Pattern Noise Based on Convolutional Neural Network with RMSProp Algorithm

2022-03-29
2022-01-0883
Tire tread pattern noise is a major source of road noise generated by motor vehicles. Recently, noise control technology has been developing, and low-noise motor vehicles, such as electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles, have been commercialized. The importance of low-noise tires has increased since regulations R117 for tire noise and R51.03 for motor vehicle noise have been strengthened. To evaluate the tire noise in the development stage of motor vehicles, finished products of tires are required; hence, financial and time costs should be invested. Therefore, it is highly useful to predict tire noise levels in the early stages. Recently, a technology to predict the tire pattern noise using a supervised training method of artificial neural network (ANN) has been developed. The tire tread depth is estimated using the shading of the full image of the actual tire, and the leading edge of the contact patch is calculated using tire contact patch images.
Technical Paper

Development of the Frontal Crash Performance of Vehicle by Simplified Crash Model

2022-03-29
2022-01-0870
This study presents a design methodology to predict the crash behavior of mid-size sedan with a simplified crash model. Without detailed conventional finite element, the simplified crash model can be adopted in the early stage of the vehicle design. Designing vehicle structure to satisfy crash performance target is highly complex problem in the early design stage, because of the nonlinear mechanical behavior, high number of degrees-of-freedom, lack of information and boundary conditions changing over the following development process. In this study, the front structure of the vehicle is divided into load-carrying members and the rigid element through the analysis of load-carrying mechanism, and its physical property (force-displacement relation) is parameterized as the property of the non-linear discrete beam element of the LS-DYNA. The effectiveness of the proposed research is shown by the example of the mid-size sedan.
Technical Paper

A Development of Spindle Drive Power Trunk Lid System with Optimizing Operation Noise

2022-03-29
2022-01-0758
The power trunk lid system is a device that automatically opens and closes the trunk lid by motor, for the purpose to improve user’s convenience. This technology was applied only to high-end large cars such as Equus and Genesis. But as preference for high convenience features increases, the scope of application is gradually expanding to semi-large and mid-sized cars. Therefore, the necessity of securing profitability through cost reduction was emerged, and it made us to develop the power trunk lid system by spindle drives. Compared to the conventional swing arm drive type, the spindle drive type may achieve cost savings, lightness and easy of assembly by optimizing the required motor specifications. However, since it uses a planetary gear with high gear ratio and the high rotation speed of the motor, operating noise is relatively large.
Technical Paper

Lateral Control of a Commercial Vehicle Using Feedback Augmented Disturbance Observer

2022-03-29
2022-01-0093
In the path following problem, a commercial vehicle has a delay of a hydraulic steering actuator and slow steering response accordingly. In addition, there are disturbances due to the harsh driving conditions of commercial vehicles. These disturbances may include uncertainties about actuator dynamic delay, modeling error and steering angle sensor offset. Designing a lateral controller with good performance that can overcome this problem is the key to successfully carrying out autonomous driving of commercial vehicles. Usually, it is difficult to consider disturbances with uncertainties in the geometric based control methods. Therefore, this paper proposed a lateral controller using feedback augmented disturbance observer for the commercial vehicle. First, a dynamics was modeled which can describe delay of the hydraulic actuator of the commercial vehicle. After that, a lateral controller was designed based on this dynamics model.
Technical Paper

Customer Complaints Analysis Using Textmining Method

2022-03-29
2022-01-0131
In recent years, the automobile industry has been making efforts to develop vehicles that satisfy customers' emotions rather than malfunctions. The Vehicle Dependability Study(VDS) has been strengthened emotion items since the introduction of the new evaluation system VDS3 from 2015. The ratio of emotion items increased from 11% to 25%. In order to clarify the problem and cause of emotion items, we analyzed verbatim which is the customers' complaint data provided by J.D power every year, but it was difficult to extract customers' intention because the number of verbatim is small and expressed in terms of customer’s term rather than engineer’s term. To solve the problem, we are additionally colleting big data such as internet, warranty, online survey. Since the amount of data is very large, we developed textmining techniques such as dictionary, topic, Support Vector Machine(SVM), n-gram to improve process.
Technical Paper

Development of Vehicle Thermal Management Model for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Electric Vehicle

2022-03-29
2022-01-0201
Recently, automobile manufacturers are interested in the development of battery electric vehicle (BEV) having a longer mileage to satisfy customer needs. The BEV with high efficiency depends on the temperature of the electric components. Hence it is important to study the effect of the cooling system in electric vehicle in order to optimize efficiency and performance. In this study, we present a 1-D vehicle thermal management (VTM) simulation model. The individual vehicle subsystems were modeled including cooling, power electric (PE), mechanical, and control components. Each component was integrated into a single VTM model and it would be used to calculate energy transfer among electrical, thermal, and mechanical energy. As a result, this simulation model predicts a plenty of information including the state of each component such as temperature, energy consumption, and operating point about electric vehicle depending on driving cycles and environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

A Conceptual Analysis in the Early Design Stage for the Road-Noise Reduction using FRF-Based Substructuring

2022-03-29
2022-01-0312
NVH analysis based on numerical simulations before actual test vehicle is available becomes common process in the automotive industry. Furthermore, the latest work scope is extending even to conceptual study in the very early design stage, beyond traditional numerical simulations simply using 3-D CAD data. In case when reasonable information is provided at this very early vehicle development stage, a better decision on the design concept would be possible, and subsequent design process can be carried out in more efficient manner. The core of this trend is that it allows us to predict vehicle performance at the conceptual design stage without 3-D CAD data, and then, with this prediction, to suggest meaningful design directions for next stage. From this point of view, FRF-Based Substructuring (FBS) methodology has potential to be used as an appropriate tool for this purpose.
Technical Paper

Efficient Acoustic Trim Components Results Recovery for Industrial Finite Elements Models

2022-03-29
2022-01-0309
In the automotive industry, acoustic trim components are playing an essential role in vehicle Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH). They act in three different ways: reducing the structure vibration, absorbing incident acoustic waves and reducing both the structure-borne and air-borne noise transmission. Mastering acoustic trims is key for interior acoustic comfort, a major differentiator in terms of customer appreciation. An elegant and efficient way to solve trimmed vehicle models numerically is the well documented and widely used Reduced Impedance Matrix (RIM) method. It solves the structure and cavity in modal coordinates, while the acoustic trim components are solved in physical coordinates where their complex damping behavior can be fully captured. This method is very accurate to compute structure and cavity results but couldn’t initially recover data such as pressure or displacement inside the acoustic trim parts.
Technical Paper

Body Cross-Sectional Stiffness Criteria for the Optimal Development of the BIW Weight and Torsional Stiffness

2021-04-06
2021-01-0797
Body-in-white plays a key role in protecting passengers in the event of collision between vehicles, and also endures external forces during cornering in a vehicle. Stiffness of body-in-white is the basic characteristic of a car body, and it is closely related to the full-vehicle-level performance such as body durability, ride and handling, etc. There have been many attempts to correlate body stiffness to full-vehicle-level performance, and studying the relationship between torsional body stiffness and durability has been the popular topic among others. In general, it is believed to be true that bodies with high torsional stiffness exhibit good durability performance, and in many cases this assumption seems to be verified. However, not all cases are true to this assumption. In this paper, relationship between torsional body stiffness and body durability has been closely studied.
Journal Article

On the Aerodynamics of the Notchback Open Cooling DrivAer: A Detailed Investigation of Wind Tunnel Data for Improved Correlation and Reference

2021-04-06
2021-01-0958
Since the introduction of the DrivAer in 2012 this model has become the standard generic aerodynamic benchmark and aerodynamic research model used by automotive OEMs, software vendors and researchers. In 2017, the relevance of the DrivAer has been furthered by the inclusion of a simplified engine bay. Whilst the DrivAer has become the popular standard, the availability of detailed wind tunnel test data, a key enabler for more sophisticated aerodynamic benchmarking and research, remains limited. This paper presents a comprehensive set of wind tunnel test data of the notchback version of the Ford Open Cooling DrivAer, including aerodynamic force measurements, detailed surface pressure measurements and flow field measurements at 3 cross-sections in the vicinity of the model. In addition, the paper will discuss the sensitivity of the experimental data to wind tunnel repeatability and facility-to-facility variations.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Driver IC in LED Rear Combination Lamp for Circuit Standardization

2021-04-06
2021-01-0850
Today, many automakers are using LED lamp sources in exterior lamps to establish brand awareness and introduce specialized lamp designs. These eye-catching LED lamp source solutions require many control functions as the lamp functions are diversified and advanced, and accordingly the requirements for standardization and optimization of controllers are increasing. In particular, our LED rear combination lamps have a variety of LED loads according to the design of the lamp model, the installation position, and the diagnostic regulations, so that the design complexity and the number of specifications of the controller are increased [4]. In recent years, more and more aesthetic designs and new technologies are used by various automakers to optimize their controllers in cooperation with global partners to optimize costs [1].
Technical Paper

A Performance Design of Constant Pressure Type Exhaust Brake

2021-04-06
2021-01-0398
In commercial vehicles, the exhaust brake assists the service brake to share the excess load and is used as an auxiliary brake to assist with the safety of the engine and the service brake on downhill slopes. To meet the customer's demand for auxiliary brakes, the specification of auxiliary brakes must be determined at the product proposal stage. In this study, performance design was conducted to derive exhaust brake specifications that fit the customer's requirements. For performance design, a system model was created and key design factors with high performance contribution were extracted. Optimal specifications were derived from parameter studies for key design factors. Additionally, performance analysis was performed with design tolerances using the performance design model. Performance was verified through actual vehicle evaluation and design specifications were confirmed.
Technical Paper

Study on Selective Electroplating for Pattern/Lighting on Plastic

2021-04-06
2021-01-0367
For making metal touch feeling and lighting simultaneously, selective electroplating is widely applied in button, panel and etc. in interior/exterior parts of automotive. In this paper, new selective electroplating with printing are suggested as an alternative manufacturing process of two shot molding, PC (Polycarbonate) and ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene). Manufacturing process of selective electroplating with printing is as follows: For preventing to plate metal layer in area of letter or symbol, masking ink is printed on parts, button, panel, etc., with electroplatable PC+ABS. After conventional electroplating process, the part has electroplated metal layer except for the printed area. It had been studied the composition of ink and PC+ABS for obtaining skip plating and light transmittance on printed area.
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