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Technical Paper

A Trend Line Analysis of the Insertion Loss Test Data and Application to Sound Transmission Loss Simulation

2022-06-15
2022-01-0959
In this paper, an application process is studied at which insertion loss (IL) test data of sound barrier assemblies are utilized for the sound transmission loss (STL) simulation of the trimmed dash structure. The considered sound barrier assemblies were composed of a felt layer, a mass layer, and a decoupler layer. Flat samples of sound barrier assemblies with several different thicknesses were prepared, and ILs of them were measured by using a sound transmission loss facility. Flat samples were assumed to have mass-spring resonance frequencies. The mass was set as the area mass of the sound barrier layer of the felt layer and the mass layer. The spring constant of the decoupler layer was assumed as the multiplication of that of an air spring and a spring correction factor. At the beginning, the spring correction factor was assumed to be 1, and the measured IL data vs frequencies are converted to IL data vs frequency ratios, frequency f over the resonance frequency fres.
Technical Paper

High-bandwidth Mechanical Hardware-in-the-Loop Emulation of Structural Dynamics for More Efficient NVH Development and Testing

2022-06-15
2022-01-0953
Numerical simulations offer a wide range of benefits. Therefore, they are widely used in research and development. One of the biggest benefits is the possibility of automated parameter variation. This allows testing different scenarios in a very short period of time. Nevertheless, physical experiments in the laboratory or on a test rig are still necessary and will still be necessary in the future. The physical experiments offer benefits e.g. for very complex and/or nonlinear systems and are needed for the validation of numerical models. In order to enhance the quality of experimental NVH investigations and to make use of the benefits numerical simulation during experimental investigations at the same time, numerical models can be integrated into physical test rigs by means of the mechanical hardware-in-the-loop (mHIL) method (also referred to as real-time dynamic substructuring, hybrid testing or active control of impedance).
Technical Paper

A Study on the Sound Transmission Loss of Split HVAC for Electric Vehicles.

2022-06-15
2022-01-0981
Generally, the HVAC system of a vehicle is composed of Blower unit assembly and Heater unit assembly, and is located at the interior compartment’s side of the dash panel for IC (internal combustion engine) vehicles. Electric vehicles have large space in the PE (power electric) room. This allows HVAC to be pushed to PE room side by placing the Blower unit at the PE room to make the cockpit slim and expand the interior space. However, this new HVAC structure, called the Split HVAC System, is passing through the dash, and allowing the PE noise to transmit to the interior relatively easily. In this paper, a study was performed to enhance the sound transmission of a Split HVAC. A hybrid (FEM+SEA) analysis was performed using VA One, a vibro-acoustic analysis software, in order to simulate the STL up to the high frequency range (~4 kHz) by reflecting the structural and acoustical characteristics of the split HVAC.
Technical Paper

Efficient prediction and analysis of the noise radiated by an electric powertrain

2022-06-15
2022-01-0931
Reducing the emitted noise from vehicles is a primary issue for automotive OEMs due to the constant evolution of the noise regulations. In the context of electric powertrains, virtual prototyping has proven to be a cost-efficient alternative to the build-test process, especially in early design stage and/or if optimization is targeted. Due to the multiphysics nature of the model, the full simulation chain involves multiple components, each having its own specific modelling attributes. The difficulty then resides in the parts assembly, solving issues like mesh-to-mesh projections, time to frequency-domain transformation, 2d-axisymmetric to 3d mapping, data formatting and management, unit and local coordinate systems,… This paper presents an environment that allows for the prediction and analysis of the noise radiated by electric automotive powertrains.
Technical Paper

A Development of SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) Model and Its Applications

2022-03-29
2022-01-0557
A physics-based model for SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) was developed based on five independent SGB (Synthetic Gas Bench) tests. There are NH3 adsorption & desorption test, NO oxidation test, NH3 oxidation test, SCR reaction (NOx & NH3) test and SV (Space Velocity) test. To validate the accuracy of SCR model’s prediction, transient reactor tests were conducted at four different input conditions. A newly developed SCR model showed more than 90% prediction accuracy in transient test conditions in view of cumulative NOx. Validation of SCR model was conducted on 1.6L light duty diesel vehicle in the WLTC (Worldwide Harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle). Based upon this SCR model, vehicle level SCR calibrations used for urea dosing control were made and validated in the emission test cycles like WLTC.
Technical Paper

Development of a Prediction Model for Tire Tread Pattern Noise Based on Convolutional Neural Network with RMSProp Algorithm

2022-03-29
2022-01-0883
Tire tread pattern noise is a major source of road noise generated by motor vehicles. Recently, noise control technology has been developing, and low-noise motor vehicles, such as electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles, have been commercialized. The importance of low-noise tires has increased since regulations R117 for tire noise and R51.03 for motor vehicle noise have been strengthened. To evaluate the tire noise in the development stage of motor vehicles, finished products of tires are required; hence, financial and time costs should be invested. Therefore, it is highly useful to predict tire noise levels in the early stages. Recently, a technology to predict the tire pattern noise using a supervised training method of artificial neural network (ANN) has been developed. The tire tread depth is estimated using the shading of the full image of the actual tire, and the leading edge of the contact patch is calculated using tire contact patch images.
Technical Paper

Development of the Frontal Crash Performance of Vehicle by Simplified Crash Model

2022-03-29
2022-01-0870
This study presents a design methodology to predict the crash behavior of mid-size sedan with a simplified crash model. Without detailed conventional finite element, the simplified crash model can be adopted in the early stage of the vehicle design. Designing vehicle structure to satisfy crash performance target is highly complex problem in the early design stage, because of the nonlinear mechanical behavior, high number of degrees-of-freedom, lack of information and boundary conditions changing over the following development process. In this study, the front structure of the vehicle is divided into load-carrying members and the rigid element through the analysis of load-carrying mechanism, and its physical property (force-displacement relation) is parameterized as the property of the non-linear discrete beam element of the LS-DYNA. The effectiveness of the proposed research is shown by the example of the mid-size sedan.
Technical Paper

A Development of Spindle Drive Power Trunk Lid System with Optimizing Operation Noise

2022-03-29
2022-01-0758
The power trunk lid system is a device that automatically opens and closes the trunk lid by motor, for the purpose to improve user’s convenience. This technology was applied only to high-end large cars such as Equus and Genesis. But as preference for high convenience features increases, the scope of application is gradually expanding to semi-large and mid-sized cars. Therefore, the necessity of securing profitability through cost reduction was emerged, and it made us to develop the power trunk lid system by spindle drives. Compared to the conventional swing arm drive type, the spindle drive type may achieve cost savings, lightness and easy of assembly by optimizing the required motor specifications. However, since it uses a planetary gear with high gear ratio and the high rotation speed of the motor, operating noise is relatively large.
Technical Paper

Lateral Control of a Commercial Vehicle Using Feedback Augmented Disturbance Observer

2022-03-29
2022-01-0093
In the path following problem, a commercial vehicle has a delay of a hydraulic steering actuator and slow steering response accordingly. In addition, there are disturbances due to the harsh driving conditions of commercial vehicles. These disturbances may include uncertainties about actuator dynamic delay, modeling error and steering angle sensor offset. Designing a lateral controller with good performance that can overcome this problem is the key to successfully carrying out autonomous driving of commercial vehicles. Usually, it is difficult to consider disturbances with uncertainties in the geometric based control methods. Therefore, this paper proposed a lateral controller using feedback augmented disturbance observer for the commercial vehicle. First, a dynamics was modeled which can describe delay of the hydraulic actuator of the commercial vehicle. After that, a lateral controller was designed based on this dynamics model.
Technical Paper

Development of Vehicle Thermal Management Model for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Electric Vehicle

2022-03-29
2022-01-0201
Recently, automobile manufacturers are interested in the development of battery electric vehicle (BEV) having a longer mileage to satisfy customer needs. The BEV with high efficiency depends on the temperature of the electric components. Hence it is important to study the effect of the cooling system in electric vehicle in order to optimize efficiency and performance. In this study, we present a 1-D vehicle thermal management (VTM) simulation model. The individual vehicle subsystems were modeled including cooling, power electric (PE), mechanical, and control components. Each component was integrated into a single VTM model and it would be used to calculate energy transfer among electrical, thermal, and mechanical energy. As a result, this simulation model predicts a plenty of information including the state of each component such as temperature, energy consumption, and operating point about electric vehicle depending on driving cycles and environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

A Conceptual Analysis in the Early Design Stage for the Road-Noise Reduction using FRF-Based Substructuring

2022-03-29
2022-01-0312
NVH analysis based on numerical simulations before actual test vehicle is available becomes common process in the automotive industry. Furthermore, the latest work scope is extending even to conceptual study in the very early design stage, beyond traditional numerical simulations simply using 3-D CAD data. In case when reasonable information is provided at this very early vehicle development stage, a better decision on the design concept would be possible, and subsequent design process can be carried out in more efficient manner. The core of this trend is that it allows us to predict vehicle performance at the conceptual design stage without 3-D CAD data, and then, with this prediction, to suggest meaningful design directions for next stage. From this point of view, FRF-Based Substructuring (FBS) methodology has potential to be used as an appropriate tool for this purpose.
Technical Paper

Efficient Acoustic Trim Components Results Recovery for Industrial Finite Elements Models

2022-03-29
2022-01-0309
In the automotive industry, acoustic trim components are playing an essential role in vehicle Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH). They act in three different ways: reducing the structure vibration, absorbing incident acoustic waves and reducing both the structure-borne and air-borne noise transmission. Mastering acoustic trims is key for interior acoustic comfort, a major differentiator in terms of customer appreciation. An elegant and efficient way to solve trimmed vehicle models numerically is the well documented and widely used Reduced Impedance Matrix (RIM) method. It solves the structure and cavity in modal coordinates, while the acoustic trim components are solved in physical coordinates where their complex damping behavior can be fully captured. This method is very accurate to compute structure and cavity results but couldn’t initially recover data such as pressure or displacement inside the acoustic trim parts.
Technical Paper

Body Cross-Sectional Stiffness Criteria for the Optimal Development of the BIW Weight and Torsional Stiffness

2021-04-06
2021-01-0797
Body-in-white plays a key role in protecting passengers in the event of collision between vehicles, and also endures external forces during cornering in a vehicle. Stiffness of body-in-white is the basic characteristic of a car body, and it is closely related to the full-vehicle-level performance such as body durability, ride and handling, etc. There have been many attempts to correlate body stiffness to full-vehicle-level performance, and studying the relationship between torsional body stiffness and durability has been the popular topic among others. In general, it is believed to be true that bodies with high torsional stiffness exhibit good durability performance, and in many cases this assumption seems to be verified. However, not all cases are true to this assumption. In this paper, relationship between torsional body stiffness and body durability has been closely studied.
Journal Article

On the Aerodynamics of the Notchback Open Cooling DrivAer: A Detailed Investigation of Wind Tunnel Data for Improved Correlation and Reference

2021-04-06
2021-01-0958
Since the introduction of the DrivAer in 2012 this model has become the standard generic aerodynamic benchmark and aerodynamic research model used by automotive OEMs, software vendors and researchers. In 2017, the relevance of the DrivAer has been furthered by the inclusion of a simplified engine bay. Whilst the DrivAer has become the popular standard, the availability of detailed wind tunnel test data, a key enabler for more sophisticated aerodynamic benchmarking and research, remains limited. This paper presents a comprehensive set of wind tunnel test data of the notchback version of the Ford Open Cooling DrivAer, including aerodynamic force measurements, detailed surface pressure measurements and flow field measurements at 3 cross-sections in the vicinity of the model. In addition, the paper will discuss the sensitivity of the experimental data to wind tunnel repeatability and facility-to-facility variations.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Driver IC in LED Rear Combination Lamp for Circuit Standardization

2021-04-06
2021-01-0850
Today, many automakers are using LED lamp sources in exterior lamps to establish brand awareness and introduce specialized lamp designs. These eye-catching LED lamp source solutions require many control functions as the lamp functions are diversified and advanced, and accordingly the requirements for standardization and optimization of controllers are increasing. In particular, our LED rear combination lamps have a variety of LED loads according to the design of the lamp model, the installation position, and the diagnostic regulations, so that the design complexity and the number of specifications of the controller are increased [4]. In recent years, more and more aesthetic designs and new technologies are used by various automakers to optimize their controllers in cooperation with global partners to optimize costs [1].
Technical Paper

A Performance Design of Constant Pressure Type Exhaust Brake

2021-04-06
2021-01-0398
In commercial vehicles, the exhaust brake assists the service brake to share the excess load and is used as an auxiliary brake to assist with the safety of the engine and the service brake on downhill slopes. To meet the customer's demand for auxiliary brakes, the specification of auxiliary brakes must be determined at the product proposal stage. In this study, performance design was conducted to derive exhaust brake specifications that fit the customer's requirements. For performance design, a system model was created and key design factors with high performance contribution were extracted. Optimal specifications were derived from parameter studies for key design factors. Additionally, performance analysis was performed with design tolerances using the performance design model. Performance was verified through actual vehicle evaluation and design specifications were confirmed.
Journal Article

Analysis of Formaldehyde Scavenger and Its Reaction Products in POM Using Mass Spectrometry

2021-04-06
2021-01-0360
To meet the indoor air quality guideline of newly manufactured vehicles in Korea, China, and other countries, low formaldehyde grade POM (Polyoxymethylene) is used for interior parts essentially. In this paper, formaldehyde scavengers from of 2 commercial low formaldehyde grade POM pellets were identified by LC-MS (Liquid chromatograph-Mass spectrometer) as sebacic dihydrazide and dodecanedioic dihydrazide respectively. The reaction products between formaldehyde and formaldehyde scavengers were also detected, which were converted from hydrazide to hydrazone. So, this kind of additive would be gradually consumed by repetitive molding process or exposure to heat according to formaldehyde emission increase. We are expecting to apply this analytical method and result for quality control and benchmark of low formaldehyde grade POM.
Technical Paper

Integrated Control of In-Wheel Motor and Electronic Limited Slip Differential for Lateral Stability and Maneuverability

2021-04-06
2021-01-0974
This paper presents an integrated control of in-wheel motor (IWM) and electronic limited slip differential (eLSD) to enhance the vehicle lateral stability and maneuverability. The two actuators are utilized in the proposed controller to achieve separate purposes. The IWM controller is designed to modify the understeer gradient for enhanced handling characteristic and maneuverability. The eLSD controller is devised to improve the lateral stability to prevent oversteer in a severe maneuver. The proposed controller consists of a supervisor, upper-level controller and lower-level controller. The supervisor determines a target motion based on a target understeer gradient for IWM control and a yaw rate reference for eLSD control. The upper-level controller generates a desired yaw moment for the target motion. In the lower-level controller, the desired yaw moment is converted to the control inputs for IWMs in the two front wheels and eLSD at the rear axle.
Technical Paper

Robust Control of Commercial Vehicle’s Speed Using Disturbance Observer

2021-04-06
2021-01-0966
This paper proposes a speed controller using a disturbance observer to regulate the speed of a commercial vehicles, and presents vehicle test results to evaluate the performance of the proposed controller. Most ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) and automated driving systems need to reliably regulate the vehicle's speed under any circumstances. A conventional PID controller is commonly used to control the vehicle speed, but performance of it varies depending on changes in external conditions. Commercial vehicles are even more susceptible to these changes than passenger cars and more difficult to obtain an accurate plant model. Considering these features, a speed controller using a disturbance observer is designed for commercial vehicles. The proposed controller treats changes in external conditions as disturbances. The modeling uncertainty is also treated as a disturbance.
Technical Paper

Appropriate Damping Loss Factor of Vehicle Interior Cavity for Valid Application of Statistical Energy Analysis

2020-09-30
2020-01-1524
It is known that SEA is a rapid and simple methodology for analyzing complex vibroacoustic systems. However, the SEA principle is not always valid and one has to be careful about the physical conditions at which the SEA principle is acceptable. In this study, the appropriate damping loss factor of the vehicle interior cavity is studied in the viewpoint of the modal overlap factor of the cavity and the decay per mean free path (DMFP) of the cavity. Virtual SEA tests are performed with an FE model combination, which is suggested by a previous study of Stelzer et al. for the simulation of the sound transmission loss (STL) of vehicle panel structure. The FE model combination is consisting of the body in white (BIW), an acoustical-excited hemisphere-shaped exterior cavity, and the interior cavity. It is found that the DMFP of the interior cavity is appropriate between 0.5 ~ 1 dB for applying SEA principle.
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