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Journal Article

Increasing Power Density in HSDI Engines as an Approach for Engine Downsizing

In the context of CO₂ emission regulations and increase of energy prices, the downsizing of engine displacement is a widely discussed solution that allows a reduction of fuel consumption. However, high power density is required in order to maintain the power output and a good driveability. This study demonstrates the potential to strongly increase the specific power of High Speed Diesel Injection (HSDI) diesel engines. It includes the technological requirements to achieve high specific power and the optimal combination of engine settings to maximize specific power. The results are based on experimental work performed with a prototype single-cylinder engine (compression ratio of 14). Tests were conducted at full load, 4000 rpm. Part load requirements are also taken into account in the engine definition to be compatible with the targets of new emission standards.
Journal Article

Study of Air Entrainment of Multi-hole Diesel Injection by Particle Image Velocimetry - Effect of Neighboring Jets Interaction and Transient Behavior After End of Injection.

The air entrainment of multi-hole diesel injection is investigated by high speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) using a multi-hole common rail injector with an injection pressure of 100 MPa. The sprays are observed in a high pressure, high temperature cell that reproduces the thermodynamic conditions which exist in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine during injection. Typical ambient temperature of 800K and ambient density of 25 kg/m3 are chosen. The air entrainment is studied with the PIV technique, giving access to the velocity fields in the surrounding air and/or in the interior of two neighboring jets. High acquisition rate of 5000 Hz, corresponding to 200 μs between two consecutive image pairs is obtained by a high-speed camera coupled with a high-speed Nd:YLF laser. The effect of neighboring jets interaction is studied by comparing four injectors with different numbers of holes (4, 6, 8 and 12) with similar static mass flow rate per hole.
Technical Paper

Study of the Correlation Between Mixing and Auto-Ignition Processes in High Pressure Diesel Jets

A tracer laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique for the visualisation of fuel distribution in the presence of oxygen was developed and then used sequentially with high speed chemiluminescence imaging to study the correlation between the mixing and auto-ignition processes of high pressure Diesel jets. A single hole common rail Diesel injector allowing high injection pressures up to 150MPa was used. The reacting fuel spray was observed in a high pressure, high temperature cell that reproduces the thermodynamic conditions which exist in the combustion chamber of a Diesel engine during injection. Both free jet and flat wall impinging jet configurations were studied. Several tracers were first considered with the objective of developing a tracer-LIF technique in the presence of oxygen. 5-nonanone was selected for its higher fluorescence efficiency.
Technical Paper

Formulation of a One-Component Fuel Lumping Model to Assess the Effects of Fuel Thermodynamic Properties on Internal Combustion Engine Mixture Preparation and Combustion

A lumping model has been formulated to calculate the thermodynamic properties required for internal combustion engine multidimensional computations, including saturation pressure, latent heat of vaporization, liquid density, surface tension, viscosity, etc. This model consists firstly in reducing the analytical data to a single (i.e. pure) pseudo-component characterized by its molecular weight, critical pressure and temperature, and acentric factor. For a gasoline fuel, the required analytical data are those provided by gas chromatography. For a Diesel fuel, the required data are a true boiling point (TBP) distillation curve and the fuel density at a single temperature. This model provides a valuable tool for studying the effects of fuel physical properties upon the behavior of a vaporizing spray in a chamber, as well as upon direct injection gasoline and Diesel engines using the multidimensional (3D) KMB code.
Technical Paper

Performances and Durability of DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) Tested on a Fleet of Peugeot 607 Taxis First and Second Test Phases Results

The use of Diesel engines has strongly increased during the last years and now represents 30% of the sales in Europe and up to 50% of the number of cars in circulation for some countries. This success is linked not only to the economical aspect of the use of such vehicles, but also to the recent technological improvements of these engines. The new technical solutions (high pressure direct injection, turbocharging…) have indeed allowed the increase of these engine performances while decreasing their fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and noise level. From an environmental point of view, Diesel engines are nevertheless penalized by their particulate and NOx emissions. The study and the treatment of the particulate, highly criticized for their potential impact on health, are the subject of numerous works of characterization and developments. PSA Peugeot-Citroën has recently launched its particulate filter technology on several types of vehicles.
Technical Paper

An Unstructured Parallel Solver for Engine Intake and Combustion Stroke Simulation

KIFP, an hexahedral unstructured version of KIVA-MB (KMB), the current CFD code for engines at IFP, has been developed. Based on KIVA algorithms (finite volume on staggered grids, time-splitting, SIMPLE loop, sub-cycled advection…), the new solver has been built step by step with a strong control on the numerical results. This paper shows the different phases of this work. The numerical approaches and developments are discussed. Several moving grids algorithms have been tested without the flow and results are presented. The flow with its physical properties has been implemented step by step. Some academic examples are shown and compared with KMB or analytical results, like scalar advection or multi-species diffusion. Better precision and convergence in the physical fields are observed. Iterative loops and advective sub-cycles are also reduced thanks to the unstructured formalism. Super-scalar machines being widely used and developed, KIFP is dedicated for them.
Technical Paper

Comparison and Coupling of Homogeneous Reactor and Flamelet Library Soot Modeling Approaches for Diesel Combustion

Soot models applied to Diesel combustion can be grouped into two classes, one based on the flamelet concept and the other based on the homogeneous reactor concept. The first assumes that the laminar diffusion flame structure of the reaction zone, in the mixture fraction space, is preserved while convected and strained by the turbulent flow. The second assumes that the properties of the reaction zone are locally homogeneous. Thus the aerodynamic and chemical reaction interactions are modeled with opposing assumptions: the first assumes fast chemistry, the second fast mixing. In this work, we first compare results obtained with a flamelet library approach to those with a homogeneous reactor approach. Recognizing that both types of models apply in different regions of Diesel combustion, we then propose a new approach for soot modeling in which they are coupled.
Technical Paper

Strategies for the Control of Particulate Trap Regeneration

The reduction of particulate emissions from Diesel engines is a key issue to meet future emission standards. Particulate traps represent an attractive solution to the problem of this source of pollution. However, they have the disadvantage of requiring periodic and safe regeneration to release exhaust back pressure and to recover filtration efficiency. Natural regeneration of the particulate filter may occur. Nevertheless, with light-duty vehicles and their low level of exhaust gas temperature, it may be necessary to facilitate or force the regeneration. The objective of this work is to give an overview of the possibilities offered by the engine management system to increase significantly exhaust gas temperatures. Thus, different engine tunes, through injection timing, boost pressure or EGR rate, may be sufficient to ensure safe regeneration of the trap.
Technical Paper

High Pressure Diesel Spray and Combustion Visualization in a Transparent Model Diesel Engine

A database of information concerning the spray development and pollutant formation in common-rail, direct-injection Diesel engine is constructed using a transparent model Diesel engine. Spray development is investigated using optical diagnostics: Mie scattering and Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence (LIEF) make possible qualitative visualization of liquid and vapor phases. The injection pressure/nozzle hole diameter is found to be the most important parameter (in the parameter range used for the study): it reduces the liquid penetration length and improves the mixing of vapor fuel. Direct imaging of combustion development shows the influence of different engine parameters on flame location. Comparison with measured vapor distributions shows the effect of thermal expansion on the vapor plume before any light from combustion is visible. Soot formation is investigated using Laser Induced Incandescence imaging.