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Technical Paper

New Concept PFI-Atomizer Fueling System in a Small Single Cylinder SI Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2233
This paper presents results from tests using a fuel injection system which uses an ultrasonic atomizer paired with a port fuel injector (PFI). This concept was tested on a four stroke 200 cc spark-ignited two-wheeler engine. A throttle body with a PFI mounted on it was added to the air intake path of the engine, replacing the conventional carburetor. The ultrasonic disc was mounted in such a way, that the injected fuel from the PFI, falls directly on the face of the disc. The atomizer and the PFI were timed and synchronized appropriately using an Arduino® microcontroller, to promote atomization and vaporization of the fuel injected. The atomizer disc was excited using a high frequency oscillator circuit. The engine could be tested at various speeds and loads, corresponding to points which lie on the local drive duty cycle. The engine test results showed improvement in the engine exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

A Holistic Approach to Develop a Common Rail Single Cylinder Diesel Engine for Bharat Stage VI Emission Legislation

2020-04-14
2020-01-1357
The upcoming Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) emission legislation has put enormous pressure on the future of small diesel engines which are widely used in the Indian market. The present work investigates the emission reduction potential of a common rail direct injection single cylinder diesel engine by adopting a holistic approach of lowering the compression ratio, boosting the intake air and down-speeding the engine. Experimental investigations were conducted across the entire operating map of a mass-production, light-duty diesel engine to examine the benefits of the proposed approach and the results are quantified for the modified Indian drive cycle (MIDC). By reducing the compression ratio from 18:1 to 14:1, the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and soot emissions are reduced by 40% and 75% respectively. However, a significant penalty in fuel economy, unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are observed with the reduced compression ratio.
Technical Paper

A Computational Study on the Effect of Injector Location on the Performance of a Small Spark-Ignition Engine Modified to Operate under the Direct-Injection Mode

2020-04-14
2020-01-0286
In a direct-injection (DI) engine, charge motion and mixture preparation are among the most important factors deciding the performance and emissions. This work was focused on studying the effect of injector positioning on fuel-air mixture preparation and fuel impingement on in-cylinder surfaces during the homogeneous mode of operation in a naturally aspirated, small bore, 0.2 l, light-duty, air-cooled, four-stroke, spark-ignition engine modified to operate under the DI mode. A commercially available, six-hole, solenoid-operated injector was used. Two injector locations were identified based on the availability of the space on the cylinder head. One location yielded the spray-guided (SG) configuration, with one of the spray plumes targeted towards the spark plug. In the second location, the spray plumes were targeted towards the piston top in a wall-guided (WG) configuration so as to minimize the impingement of fuel on the liner.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Multiple Injection Strategies on Combustion Stability, Performance and Emissions in a Methanol-Diesel Dual Fuel Non-Road Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0308
In this work methanol was port injected while diesel was injected using a common rail system in a single cylinder non-road CI engine. Experiments were conducted with single (SPI) and double (DPI - pilot and main) injection of the directly injected diesel at 75% load and at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The effects of methanol to diesel energy share (MDES) and injection scheduling on combustion stability, efficiency and emissions were evaluated. Initially, in the SPI mode, the methanol to diesel Energy Share (MDES) was varied, while the injection timing of diesel was always fixed for best brake thermal efficiency (BTE). Increase in the MDES resulted in a reduction in NOx and smoke emissions because of the high latent heat of vaporization of methanol and the oxygen available. Enhanced premixed combustion led to a raise in brake thermal efficiency (BTE). Coefficient of variation of IMEP, peak pressure and BTE were deteriorated which limited the usable MDES to 43%.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Combustion Noise in a Small Common-Rail Direct-Injection Diesel Engine at Different Engine Operating Conditions

2020-04-14
2020-01-0419
Stringent emission regulations on one hand and increasing demand for better fuel economy along with lower noise levels on the other hand require adoption of advanced common-rail direct-injection technologies in diesel engines. In the present work, a small 0.9-l, naturally aspirated, two-cylinder, common-rail direct-injection diesel engine is used for the analysis of combustion noise at different engine operating conditions. Experiments are conducted at different loads and engine speeds, incorporating both single and multiple (i.e. pilot and main) injections along with different injection timings. In the case of multiple injections, the influence of pilot injection quantity is also evaluated on the combustion noise while maintaining the same load. In-cylinder pressure was recorded with the resolution of 0.1 crank angle degree, and it was used for the quantitative analysis of noise assessed from the resulting cylinder pressure spectra, and sound pressure level.
Technical Paper

Analysis of In-Cylinder Flow and Cycle-to-Cycle Flow Variations in a Small Spark-Ignition Engine at Different Throttle Openings

2020-04-14
2020-01-0793
Flow variations from one cycle to the next significantly influence the mixture formation and combustion processes in engines. Therefore, it is important to understand the fluid motion and its cycle-to-cycle variations (CCVs) inside the engine cylinder. Researchers have generally investigated the cycle-to-cycle flow variations in moderate- to large-sized engines. In the present work, we have performed the flow measurement and analysis in a small spark-ignition engine. Experiments are conducted in an optically accessible, single-cylinder, port-fuel-injection engine with displacement volume of 110 cm3 at different throttle openings (i.e. 50% and WOT) using particle image velocimetry. Images are captured at different crank angle positions during both intake and compression strokes over a tumble measurement plane, bisecting the intake and exhaust valves and passing through the cylinder axis.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion Stability and Particle Emission from CNG/Diesel RCCI Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0810
This paper presents the experimental investigation of combustion stability and nano-particle emissions from the CNG-diesel RCCI engine. A modified automotive diesel engine is used to operate in RCCI combustion mode. An open ECU is used to control the low and high reactivity fuel injection events. The engine is tested for fixed engine speed and two different engine load conditions. The tests performed for various port-injected CNG masses and diesel injection timings, including single and double diesel injection strategy. Several consecutive engine cycles are recorded using in-cylinder combustion pressure measurement system. Statistical and return map techniques are used to investigate the combustion stability in the CNG-diesel RCCI engine. Differential mobility spectrometer is used for the measurement of particle number concentration and particle-size and number distribution. It is found that advanced diesel injection timing leading to higher cyclic combustion variations.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Investigation of NO Formation Mechanism for Biodiesel and Its Blend with Methanol

2019-04-02
2019-01-0217
Biodiesel makes an attractive option to replace fossil diesel owing to its applicability in diesel engines without major modifications. An increase in NO emissions with biodiesel compared to diesel is a major concern for its wider use. Blending alcohols, such as methanol, with biodiesel is a potential remedy to mitigate NO formation, as suggested by experiments. However, computational investigations studying the effect of biodiesel-methanol blends on NO formation are scarce. A combined experimental and computational approach is adopted here to investigate the NO formation mechanism with neat biodiesel and biodiesel-methanol blend fueled light duty diesel engine. Firstly, a new compact kinetic model is utilized consisting of oxidation reactions for methyl butanoate and n-dodecane as a surrogate for biodiesel. A surrogate is defined to represent biodiesel based on a combined property and functional group based approach.
Technical Paper

Effects of Compression Ratio and Water Vapor Induction on the Achievable Load Limits of a Light Duty Diesel Engine Operated in HCCI Mode

2019-04-02
2019-01-0962
Among the various Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategies, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is most promising to achieve near zero oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter emissions owing to higher degree of homogeneity and elimination of diffusion phase combustion. However, one of its major limitations include a very narrow operating load range owing to misfire at low loads and knocking at high loads. Implementing HCCI in small light duty air cooled diesel engines pose challenges to eliminate misfire and knocking problems owing to lower power output and air cooled operation, respectively. In the present work, experimental investigations are done in HCCI mode in one such light duty production diesel engine most widely used in agricultural water pumping applications. An external mixture preparation based diesel HCCI is implemented in the test engine by utilizing a high-pressure port fuel injection system, a fuel vaporizer and an air preheater.
Technical Paper

Development of a Standalone Application in MATLAB to Generate Brake Performance Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0513
Predicting the brake performance and characteristics is a crucial task in the vehicle development activity. Performance prediction is a challenge because of the involvement of various parts in the brake assembly like booster, master cylinder, calipers, disc and drum brakes. Determination of these characteristics through vehicle level tests requires a lot of time and money. This performance prediction is achieved by theoretical calculations involving vehicle dynamics. The final output must satisfy the regulations. This project involves the creation of a standalone application using MATLAB to predict the various brake performances such as: booster characteristics, adhesion curves, deceleration and pedal effort curves, behavior of brakes during brake and booster failed conditions and braking force diagrams based on the given user inputs. Previously, MS Excel and an application developed in the TK Solver environment was used to predict the brake performance curves.
Journal Article

Development of 2 Speed Automatic Transmission for Battery Electric Two Wheelers

2019-01-09
2019-26-0109
Improving vehicle performance in terms of both torque and power is a strong customer need in both conventional and electric vehicles. In this work, different two speed automatic transmission (AT) concepts are developed to improve the energy efficiency and performance of battery electric two wheelers. Developed transmission systems are simple, compact and cost effective and results in relatively high energy efficiency of an electric motor. The unique shift control strategy ensures motor to operate at higher efficiency zones to minimize the overall energy consumption. Virtual simulations of electric vehicle were carried out for different driving conditions and optimal transmission ratios were determined. Mechanical behaviors such as gear shift characteristics, linear and angular velocities, inertial forces of each components are analyzed by using Multi body dynamics simulation. Forces predicted here are further used for durability studies of these components.
Technical Paper

Parametric Investigations on the Performance of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in a Light Duty Diesel Engine - An Experimental and Modelling Study

2019-01-09
2019-26-0299
In order to comply with the stringent future emission mandates of automotive diesel engines it is essential to deploy a suitable combination of after treatment devices like diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF) and DeNox converter (Lean NOx Trap (LNT) or Selective Catalytic reduction (SCR) system). Since arriving at a suitable strategy through experiments will involve deploying a lot of resources, development of well-tuned simulation models that can reduce time and cost is important. In the first phase of this study experiments were conducted on a single cylinder light duty diesel engine fitted with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) at thirteen steady state mode points identified in the NEDC (New European Driving cycle) cycle. Inlet and exit pressures and temperatures, exhaust emission concentrations and catalyst bed temperature were measured. A one dimensional simulation model was developed in the commercial software AVL BOOST.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Numerical Study of N-Dodecane/Butanol Blends for Compression Ignition Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0240
Alcohols are potential blending agents for diesel that can be effectively used in compression ignition engines. This work investigates the use of n-butanol as a blending component for diesel fuel using experiments and simulations. Dodecane was selected as a surrogate for diesel fuel and various concentrations of n-butanol were added to study ignition characteristics. Ignition delay times for different n-butanol/dodecane blends were measured using the ignition quality tester at KAUST (KR-IQT). The experiments were conducted at pressure of 21 and 18 bar, temperature ranging from 703-843 K and global equivalence ratio of 0.85. A skeletal mechanism for n-dodecane and n-butanol blends with 203 species was developed for numerical simulations. The mechanism was developed by combining n-dodecane skeletal mechanism containing 106 species and a detailed mechanism for all the butanol isomers.
Technical Paper

Development of Improved Thermodynamic Model Using Cylinder Blow by and Double-Wiebe Functions for High Speed Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0244
In the present work, a tuned gas dynamics based blow by model was used for prediction of thermodynamic state variables till start of combustion in a high speed diesel engine. The burn rate fraction was determined from experimental pressure trace using Rassweiller-Withrow method. Furthermore, suitable single and double Wiebe parameters, consistent with the experimental combustion behavior were determined statistically. The comparison with experimental heat release and burn rate fraction confirmed the unsuitability of single Wiebe function for diesel combustion. A stochastic zero-dimensional thermodynamic model was used to predict pressure traces for various load/fueling conditions. The results exhibited a sub-15% error margin between predicted and experimental pressure traces across all crank angles and fuelling rates. Finally, the model constants are proposed as a function of non-dimensional fuelling rate.
Technical Paper

Use of Water-Butanol Blends in a Turbocharged Common Rail Dual Fuel Engine for Enhanced Performance and Reduce Smoke Levels

2018-04-03
2018-01-0251
Experiments were conducted on a turbocharged three cylinder automotive common rail diesel engine with port injection of butanol. This dual fuel engine was run with neat butanol and blends of water and butanol (up to 20% water by mass). Experiments were performed at a constant speed of 1800 rpm and a brake mean effective pressure of 11.8 bar (full load) at varying butanol to diesel energy share values while diesel was either injected as a single pulse or as twin pulses (Main plus Post). Open engine controllers were used for varying the injection parameters of diesel and butanol. Water butanol blends improved the brake thermal efficiency by a small extent because of better combustion phasing as compared to butanol without water. When the butanol to diesel energy share was high, auto-ignition of butanol occurred before the injection of diesel. This lowered the ignition delay of diesel and hence elevated the smoke level.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Injector Location and Nozzle-Hole Orientation on Mixture Formation in a GDI Engine: A CFD Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-0201
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have gained popularity in the recent times because of lower fuel consumption and exhaust emissions compared to that of the conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engine. But, in these engines, the mixture formation plays an important role which affects combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine. The mixture formation, in turn, depends on many factors of which fuel injector location and orientation are most important parameters. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of fuel injector location and nozzle-hole orientation on the mixture formation, performance and emission characteristics of a GDI engine. The mixture stratification inside the combustion chamber is characterized by a parameter called “stratification index” which is based on average equivalence ratio at different zones in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cylinder Deactivation for Improved System Performance over Transient Real-World Drive Cycles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0880
Effective control of exhaust emissions from modern diesel engines requires the use of aftertreatment systems. Elevated aftertreatment component temperatures are required for engine-out emissions reductions to acceptable tailpipe limits. Maintaining elevated aftertreatment components temperatures is particularly problematic during prolonged low speed, low load operation of the engine (i.e. idle, creep, stop and go traffic), on account of low engine-outlet temperatures during these operating conditions. Conventional techniques to achieve elevated aftertreatment component temperatures include delayed fuel injections and over-squeezing the turbocharger, both of which result in a significant fuel consumption penalty. Cylinder deactivation (CDA) has been studied as a candidate strategy to maintain favorable aftertreatment temperatures, in a fuel efficient manner, via reduced airflow through the engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Injection Parameters on Performance and Emission Characteristics in HCCI Engine - A CFD Study

2017-11-05
2017-32-0096
Today, homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are becoming very popular because of their potential to reduce soot and nitric oxides (NOx) emissions simultaneously. But, their performance and emission characteristics are very much dependent upon fuel injection strategy and parameters. However, they also have many challenges viz., improper combustion phasing, high rate of pressure rise and narrow operating range. Therefore, addressing them is very essential before making them a commercial success. This study focuses on evaluating the effect of fuel injection strategy and parameters on the performance and emission characteristics of a HCCI engine by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. In this study, a four-stroke engine operating in the HCCI mode is considered and the CFD analysis is carried out by using the CONVERGE.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Different Low Temperature Combustion Strategies in a Small Single Cylinder Diesel Engine under Low Load Conditions

2017-10-08
2017-01-2363
Advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) modes are most promising to reduce green house gas emissions owing to fuel economy benefits apart from simultaneously reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines. Various LTC strategies have been proposed so far and each of these LTC strategies have their own advantages and limitations interms of precise ignition control, achievable load range and higher unburned emissions. In the present work, a small single cylinder diesel engine is initially operated under conventional combustion mode at rated speed, varying load conditions to establish the base line reference data. Then, the engine is modified to operate under different LTC strategies including Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI).
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Conventional and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion Modes in a Small Single Cylinder Air-Cooled Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2365
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is one of the most promising low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies to achieve higher thermal efficiencies along with ultra low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter emissions. Small single cylinder diesel engines of air-cooled type are finding increasing applications in the agriculture pump-set and small utility power generation owing to their lower cost and fuel economy advantages. In the present work, a small single cylinder diesel engine is initially operated under conventional combustion mode at rated speed, varying load conditions to establish the base line reference data. Then, the engine is modified to operate under RCCI combustion mode with a newly designed cylinder head to accommodate a high pressure, fully flexible electronically controlled direct diesel fuel injection system, a low pressure gasoline port fuel injection system and an intake air pre heater.
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