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Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Investigation of NO Formation Mechanism for Biodiesel and Its Blend with Methanol

2019-04-02
2019-01-0217
Biodiesel makes an attractive option to replace fossil diesel owing to its applicability in diesel engines without major modifications. An increase in NO emissions with biodiesel compared to diesel is a major concern for its wider use. Blending alcohols, such as methanol, with biodiesel is a potential remedy to mitigate NO formation, as suggested by experiments. However, computational investigations studying the effect of biodiesel-methanol blends on NO formation are scarce. A combined experimental and computational approach is adopted here to investigate the NO formation mechanism with neat biodiesel and biodiesel-methanol blend fueled light duty diesel engine. Firstly, a new compact kinetic model is utilized consisting of oxidation reactions for methyl butanoate and n-dodecane as a surrogate for biodiesel. A surrogate is defined to represent biodiesel based on a combined property and functional group based approach.
Technical Paper

Effects of Compression Ratio and Water Vapor Induction on the Achievable Load Limits of a Light Duty Diesel Engine Operated in HCCI Mode

2019-04-02
2019-01-0962
Among the various Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategies, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is most promising to achieve near zero oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter emissions owing to higher degree of homogeneity and elimination of diffusion phase combustion. However, one of its major limitations include a very narrow operating load range owing to misfire at low loads and knocking at high loads. Implementing HCCI in small light duty air cooled diesel engines pose challenges to eliminate misfire and knocking problems owing to lower power output and air cooled operation, respectively. In the present work, experimental investigations are done in HCCI mode in one such light duty production diesel engine most widely used in agricultural water pumping applications. An external mixture preparation based diesel HCCI is implemented in the test engine by utilizing a high-pressure port fuel injection system, a fuel vaporizer and an air preheater.
Technical Paper

Development of Improved Thermodynamic Model Using Cylinder Blow by and Double-Wiebe Functions for High Speed Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0244
In the present work, a tuned gas dynamics based blow by model was used for prediction of thermodynamic state variables till start of combustion in a high speed diesel engine. The burn rate fraction was determined from experimental pressure trace using Rassweiller-Withrow method. Furthermore, suitable single and double Wiebe parameters, consistent with the experimental combustion behavior were determined statistically. The comparison with experimental heat release and burn rate fraction confirmed the unsuitability of single Wiebe function for diesel combustion. A stochastic zero-dimensional thermodynamic model was used to predict pressure traces for various load/fueling conditions. The results exhibited a sub-15% error margin between predicted and experimental pressure traces across all crank angles and fuelling rates. Finally, the model constants are proposed as a function of non-dimensional fuelling rate.
Technical Paper

Use of Water-Butanol Blends in a Turbocharged Common Rail Dual Fuel Engine for Enhanced Performance and Reduce Smoke Levels

2018-04-03
2018-01-0251
Experiments were conducted on a turbocharged three cylinder automotive common rail diesel engine with port injection of butanol. This dual fuel engine was run with neat butanol and blends of water and butanol (up to 20% water by mass). Experiments were performed at a constant speed of 1800 rpm and a brake mean effective pressure of 11.8 bar (full load) at varying butanol to diesel energy share values while diesel was either injected as a single pulse or as twin pulses (Main plus Post). Open engine controllers were used for varying the injection parameters of diesel and butanol. Water butanol blends improved the brake thermal efficiency by a small extent because of better combustion phasing as compared to butanol without water. When the butanol to diesel energy share was high, auto-ignition of butanol occurred before the injection of diesel. This lowered the ignition delay of diesel and hence elevated the smoke level.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Conventional and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion Modes in a Small Single Cylinder Air-Cooled Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2365
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is one of the most promising low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies to achieve higher thermal efficiencies along with ultra low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter emissions. Small single cylinder diesel engines of air-cooled type are finding increasing applications in the agriculture pump-set and small utility power generation owing to their lower cost and fuel economy advantages. In the present work, a small single cylinder diesel engine is initially operated under conventional combustion mode at rated speed, varying load conditions to establish the base line reference data. Then, the engine is modified to operate under RCCI combustion mode with a newly designed cylinder head to accommodate a high pressure, fully flexible electronically controlled direct diesel fuel injection system, a low pressure gasoline port fuel injection system and an intake air pre heater.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Different Low Temperature Combustion Strategies in a Small Single Cylinder Diesel Engine under Low Load Conditions

2017-10-08
2017-01-2363
Advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) modes are most promising to reduce green house gas emissions owing to fuel economy benefits apart from simultaneously reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines. Various LTC strategies have been proposed so far and each of these LTC strategies have their own advantages and limitations interms of precise ignition control, achievable load range and higher unburned emissions. In the present work, a small single cylinder diesel engine is initially operated under conventional combustion mode at rated speed, varying load conditions to establish the base line reference data. Then, the engine is modified to operate under different LTC strategies including Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Lanthanum Based Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for Emission Reduction with and without Ceria Support

2016-02-01
2016-28-0023
Diesel particulates are mainly composed of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) with traces of metals, sulfates and ash content. Organic fraction of the particulate are considered responsible for its carcinogenic effects. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is an important after-treatment device for reduction of organic fraction of particulates. In this study, two non-noble metal based DOCs (with different configurations) were prepared and evaluated for their performance. Lanthanum based perovskite (LaMnO3) catalyst was used for the preparation of DOCs. One of the DOC was coated with support material ceria (5%, w/w), while the other was coated without any support material. Prepared DOCs were retrofitted in a four cylinder water cooled diesel engine. Various emission parameters such as particulate mass, particle number-size distribution, regulated and unregulated emissions, EC/OC etc., were measured and compared with the raw exhaust gas emissions from the prepared DOCs.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Air-Flow Characteristics Using Tomographic PIV at Different Engine Speeds, Intake Air Temperatures and Intake Valve Deactivation in a Single Cylinder Optical Research Engine

2016-02-01
2016-28-0001
Fuel-air mixing is the main parameter, which affects formation of NOx and PM during CI combustion. Hence better understanding of air-flow characteristics inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine became very important. In this study, in-cylinder air-flow characteristics of four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). For visualization of air-flow pattern, fine graphite particles were used for flow seeding. To investigate the effect of different operating parameters, experiments were performed at different engine speeds (1200 rpm and 1500 rpm), intake air temperatures (room temperature and 50°C) and intake port configurations (swirl port, tangential port and combined port). Intake air temperature was controlled by a closed loop temperature controller and intake ports were deactivated by using a customized aluminum gasket.
Technical Paper

Reducing NO in a Biodiesel Fueled Compression Ignition Engine - An Experimental Study

2015-09-06
2015-24-2483
The replacement of fossil diesel with neat biodiesel in a compression ignition engine has advantage in lowering unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. However, the injection advance experienced with biodiesel fuel with respect to diesel injection setting increases oxides of nitrogen emission. In this study, the biodiesel-NO control is attempted using charge and fuel modification strategies with retarded injection timing. The experiments are performed at maximum torque speed and higher loads viz. from 60% up to full load conditions maintaining same power between diesel and biodiesel while retarding the timing of injection by 3 deg. crank angle. The charge and fuel modifications are done by recycling 5% by volume of exhaust gas to the fresh charge and 10% by volume of methanol to Karanja biodiesel.
Technical Paper

Study on Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Flame Characteristics

2015-04-14
2015-01-0749
In gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, air-fuel mixture homogeneity plays a major role on engine performance, especially in combustion and emission characteristics. The performance of the engine largely depends on various engine operating parameters viz., start of injection, duration of injection and spark timing. In order to achieve faster results CFD is becoming a handy tool to optimize and understand the effect of these parameters. Therefore, this study aims on evaluating the two injection parameters viz., single and split injection to evaluate different flame characteristics. Novelty in this study is to define five different parameters which are called α, β, γ, δ and η the details of which are explained in the paper. In order to understand the flame characteristics, these five parameters are found to be very useful. In the present study, a single-cylinder, two-valve, four- stroke engine which is used in two-wheelers in India is considered for carrying out the CFD analysis.
Journal Article

Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry for Flow Analysis in a Single Cylinder Optical Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0599
Better understanding of flow phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine and accurate measurement of flow parameters is necessary for engine optimization i.e. enhancing power output, fuel economy improvement and emissions control. Airflow structures developed inside the engine combustion chamber significantly influence the air-fuel mixing. In this study, in-cylinder air flow characteristics of a motored, four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed Tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Single cylinder optical engine provides full optical access of combustion chamber through a transparent cylinder and flat transparent piston top. Experiments were performed in different vertical planes at different engine speeds during the intake and compression stroke under motoring condition. For visualization of air flow pattern, graphite particles were used for flow seeding.
Technical Paper

Transient Spray Characteristics of Air Assisted Fuel Injection

2015-04-14
2015-01-0920
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology is already in use in four wheeler applications owing to the additional benefits in terms of better combustion and fuel economy. The air-assisted in-cylinder injection is the emerging technology for gasoline engines which works with low pressure injection systems unlike gasoline direct injection (GDI) system. GDI systems use high pressure fuel injection, which provides better combustion and reduced fuel consumption. It envisages small droplet size and low penetration rate which will reduce wall wetting and hydrocarbon emissions. This study is concerned with a CFD analysis of an air-assisted injection system to evaluate mixture spray characteristics. For the analysis, the air injector fitted onto a constant volume chamber (CVC) maintained at uniform pressure is considered. The analysis is carried out for various CVC pressures, mixture injection durations and fuel quantities so as to understand the effect on mixture spray characteristics.
Technical Paper

Noise, Vibrations and Combustion Investigations of Preheated Jatropha Oil in a Single Cylinder Genset Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1668
High viscosity of vegetable oil causes ignition problems when used in compression ignition engines. There is a need to reduce the viscosity before using it as engine fuel. Preheating and pre-treating of vegetable oils using waste heat of exhaust gases is one of the techniques, which reduces the viscosity and makes it possible to use it as alternate fuel for some niche applications, without requiring major modifications in the engine hardware. Several applications such as decentralized power generation, agricultural engines, and water pumping engines, can use vegetable oils as an alternative fuel. In present investigation, performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of an engine using preheated 20% blend of Jatropha oil with mineral diesel (J20) has been evaluated at a constant speed (1500 rpm) in a single cylinder four stroke direct injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Effect Of Swirl and Tumble on the Stratified Combustion of a DISI Engine - A CFD Study

2011-04-12
2011-01-1214
Of late direct injection engines are replacing carburetted and port injected engines due to their high thermal efficiency and fuel economy. One of the reasons for the increased fuel economy is the ultra lean mixture with which the engine operates under low loads. Under the low load conditions, the air fuel ratio of the mixture near the spark plug is close to stoichiometric values while the overall mixture is lean, which is called stratified mixture. In order to achieve this, proper air motion during the late stages of compression is a must. Quality of the mixture depends on the time of injection as well as the type of fuel injector and mixture preparation strategy used. Engines employing air guided mixture preparation are considered as the second generation engines. For understanding the efficient mixture preparation method, three types of flow structures like base (low tumble), high tumble and inclined swirl are created inside the engine cylinder using shrouds on the intake valves.
Technical Paper

Non-Reacting and Reacting Flow Analysis in an Aero-Engine Gas Turbine Combustor Using CFD

2007-04-16
2007-01-0916
A gas turbine combustion system is an embodiment of all complexities that engineering equipment can have. The flow is three dimensional, swirling, turbulent, two phase and reacting. The design and development of combustors, until recent past, was an art than science. If one takes the route of development through experiments, it is quite time consuming and costly. Compared to the other two components viz., compressor and turbine, the combustion system is not yet completely amenable to mathematical analysis. A gas turbine combustor is both geometrically and fluid dynamically quite complex. The major challenge a combustion engineer faces is the space constraint. As the combustion chamber is sandwiched between compressor and turbine there is a limitation on the available space. The critical design aspect is in facing the aerodynamic challenges with minimum pressure drop. Accurate mathematical analysis of such a system is next to impossible.
Technical Paper

Theoretical and Experimental Investigation on Current Generation Pd/Rh Catalytic Converter

2002-03-04
2002-01-0905
Performance of a Current generation catalytic converter using Pd/Rh (10:1) as binary catalyst impeded on an ultra thin ceramic substrate and alumina wash coat is modeled for performance prediction and parametric optimization. Kinetic rates for the catalyst are reduced after conducting series of experiments on a passenger car engine. A new concept in mass transfer coefficient is introduced for improving accuracy of the model prediction. In order to take care of the precious metal resources and to become independent of precious metal price fluctuation, a new pattern of loading of precious metal is suggested for optimum performance and metal savings about 46 percent was observed. Experimental investigations were carried out to validate the established kinetic rates over a wide range operation of the engine and for the model validation. Satisfactory agreements are observed for the model prediction and experimental results.
Technical Paper

NOx Reduction in SI Engine Exhaust Using Selective Catalytic Reduction Technique

1998-02-23
980935
Copper ion-exchanged X-zeolite with urea infusion was tested for nitrogen oxide (NOx)conversion efficiency in this study. Temperature datapoints were obtained to arrive at peak activation temperatures. Variation of the air/fuel ratio showed the widening of the λ-window(the range of air-fuel ratios over which the NOx conversion efficiency is considerable); a maximum of 62% NOx conversion efficiency was obtained in the lean-burn range. Effects of space velocity variations were also observed. In order to minimise the deactivation of zeolite caused by water, ammonium carbonate and ammonium sulphate were deposited on the copper ion-exchanged X-zeolite and the corresponding NOx conversion efficiencies measured. Ammonia slip (leakage of unreacted ammonia), a prospective pollution hazard, was observed to be more in case of urea infusion than ammonium salt deposition at higher temperatures.
Technical Paper

Comparative Studies on the Idling Performance of a Three Cylinder Passenger Car Engine Fitted with a Carburettor and a Single Point Electronic Gasoline Fuel Injection System

1997-05-01
971615
Experimental investigations relating to the performance and emission characteristics under idling conditions of a three cylinder passenger car spark ignition engine operating on a conventional carburettor and a developed single point gasoline fuel injection system are described in this paper. The idling performance at different engine speeds was studied by carrying out comprehensive engine testing on a test bed in two phases. In the first phase, experiments were conducted on an engine fitted with a conventional carburettor whilst they were extended to the engine provided with a developed electronic single point fuel injection (SPI) system, whose fuel spray was directed against the direction of air flow. The injection timing of the SPI system was varied from 82 deg. before inlet valve opening (or 98 deg. before top dead center) to 42 deg. after inlet valve opening (or 26 deg. after top dead center).
Technical Paper

Development and Performance Studies on Ion-Exchanged X-Zeolites as Catalysts for SI Engine Emission Control

1997-05-01
971652
Three catalysts based on X-zeolite have been developed by exchanging its Na+ ion with Copper, Nickel and Vanadium metal ions and tested in a stationary SI engine exhaust to observe their potentialities for NOx and CO controlling. The catalyst Cu-X, in comparison to Ni-X and V-X, exhibits much better NOx and CO reduction performance at any temperature. Maximum NOx conversion efficiencies achieved with Cu-X, Ni-X and V-X are 62.2%, 59.7% and 56.1% respectively. Unlike noble metals, the doped X-zeolite catalysts, studied here, maintain their peak NOx reduction performance through a wider range of A/F ratio. Back pressure developed across the catalyst bed is found to be well within the acceptable limits.
Technical Paper

Spark-Assisted Alcohol Operation in a Low Heat Rejection Engine

1995-02-01
950059
This work demonstrates how the performance of a standard spark-assisted alcohol engine can be improved by using the Low Heat Rejection (LHR ) concept. The improved combustion is attained by better using the greater heat energy in the combustion chamber of a LHR engine - in this case for the faster vaporisation and better mixing of the alcohol fuels. For this program the LHR engine used has a single cylinder diesel and alcohols sued as sole fuels were ethanol and methanol. For spark assistance an extended electrode spark plug was used and location and projection were optimised for best results. These configurations were evaluated for performance and emissions with and without LHR implementation. The results show that the engine with LHR, ethanol fuel and spark assistance has the highest brake thermal efficiency with the lowest emissions.
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