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Technical Paper

Role of Attapulgite on Altering the Performance Properties of Cu-Free Brake-Pads

Abstract: Attapulgite, a unique clay mineral is a crystalloid hydrous magnesium-aluminium silicate, composed of silicon oxide, aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide, iron oxide etc. having formula Mg5Si8O20(HO)2(OH2)4•4H2O. Its structure is somewhat between laminated and chain structure having very high surface area and porosity. Its magnesium silicate structure resembles a brick wall with every second brick missing. This leaves elongated porous channels that are highly absorbent. Its fibers were proven to be excellent substitute for asbestos in brake-pads. Hardly anything in details is reported on its exact role in controlling tribo-properties of friction materials (FMs) especially Cu-free FMs. Hence, in this work a series of brake-pads with five types was formulated and developed with increasing amount of attapulgite (0, 5, 10 and 15 wt. %) by compensating with inert barite particles in Cu-free FMs.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Lanthanum Based Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for Emission Reduction with and without Ceria Support

Diesel particulates are mainly composed of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) with traces of metals, sulfates and ash content. Organic fraction of the particulate are considered responsible for its carcinogenic effects. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is an important after-treatment device for reduction of organic fraction of particulates. In this study, two non-noble metal based DOCs (with different configurations) were prepared and evaluated for their performance. Lanthanum based perovskite (LaMnO3) catalyst was used for the preparation of DOCs. One of the DOC was coated with support material ceria (5%, w/w), while the other was coated without any support material. Prepared DOCs were retrofitted in a four cylinder water cooled diesel engine. Various emission parameters such as particulate mass, particle number-size distribution, regulated and unregulated emissions, EC/OC etc., were measured and compared with the raw exhaust gas emissions from the prepared DOCs.
Technical Paper

Compression and Energy Absorption of Aluminum Alloy AA6061 and AA7005 Tubes Using Experimental and Simulation Methods

There is a growing need for improved conceptual vehicle designs along with alternative materials to reduce the damage to the passengers and structures in aerospace and automotive industries. The energy absorption characteristics of materials play a major role in designing a safe vehicle for transport. In this paper, compression behavior and energy absorption of aluminum alloy AA6061 and AA7005 tubes in T4 and T6 conditions are investigated by experimental and numerical methods. The AA7005 and AA6061 tubes are solution heat treated and then aged to achieve the final strength in T6 condition. Experimental compression test results have shown improved energy absorption of tubes in T6 condition compared to tubes in T4 condition. There is less variation of energy among the tested samples. The mean load is compared with the results obtained from analytical formulae. Tensile properties have been obtained from tensile tests using UTM for both AA6061 and AA7005 tubes.
Technical Paper

Effect of Crystallographic Texture on Formability of Some FCC Metals and Alloys

Formability of metals and alloys in general and aluminium alloys and steels in particular is of paramount importance in sheet metal forming in automobile industry. It is well understood that the evolution of preferred crystallographic orientation of crystallites or texture during prior thermo-mechanical processing of sheets plays an important role in determining formability. The formability of sheet is measured in terms of the Lankford parameter or the plastic strain ratio which is defined as the ratio of strain in width direction to that in the thickness direction (R = εw/εt). The variation of Lankford parameter with the rolling direction and standard and ΔR value is widely used in industry as a standard for estimating the formability of the rolled sheets.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Strength and Ductility of Al-6061 Alloy by Various Post-Rolling Ageing Treatments

The effect of different cold- rolling and cryo-rolling routes on the strength and ductility of Al-6061 alloy was thoroughly investigated. Rolling decreased the grain size and increased the strength according to the Hall-Petch relationship. However subjecting the samples to ageing at different temperatures and for different time period increased the strength and improved the ductility. The ductility was improved due to the rearrangement and even decrease in dislocation density due to recovery and recrystallization during ageing while the strength was maintained due to ageing. Evolution of microstructure was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy. Preliminary hardness measurements coupled with tensile tests indicate the improvement of both yield strength and ductility. The disparity in ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and the elongation to failure with different ageing temperatures and for different time period is determined and discussed.
Technical Paper

Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Austempered and as-cast Ausferritic Gray Cast Irons

The mechanical and wear behaviour of an alloyed gray cast iron with ausferrite microstructure directly obtained on solidification has been compared with austempered alloyed gray iron. As-cast ausferritic gray iron shows finer ausferrite and graphite flake morphology compared to austempered alloy. The volume of retained austenite is about 30% higher in as-cast ausferritic iron due to higher amount of alloying additions. The mechanical and wear properties of as-cast ausferritic iron are almost similar to austempered alloy.
Technical Paper

Theoretical and Experimental Investigation on Current Generation Pd/Rh Catalytic Converter

Performance of a Current generation catalytic converter using Pd/Rh (10:1) as binary catalyst impeded on an ultra thin ceramic substrate and alumina wash coat is modeled for performance prediction and parametric optimization. Kinetic rates for the catalyst are reduced after conducting series of experiments on a passenger car engine. A new concept in mass transfer coefficient is introduced for improving accuracy of the model prediction. In order to take care of the precious metal resources and to become independent of precious metal price fluctuation, a new pattern of loading of precious metal is suggested for optimum performance and metal savings about 46 percent was observed. Experimental investigations were carried out to validate the established kinetic rates over a wide range operation of the engine and for the model validation. Satisfactory agreements are observed for the model prediction and experimental results.
Technical Paper

NOx Reduction in SI Engine Exhaust Using Selective Catalytic Reduction Technique

Copper ion-exchanged X-zeolite with urea infusion was tested for nitrogen oxide (NOx)conversion efficiency in this study. Temperature datapoints were obtained to arrive at peak activation temperatures. Variation of the air/fuel ratio showed the widening of the λ-window(the range of air-fuel ratios over which the NOx conversion efficiency is considerable); a maximum of 62% NOx conversion efficiency was obtained in the lean-burn range. Effects of space velocity variations were also observed. In order to minimise the deactivation of zeolite caused by water, ammonium carbonate and ammonium sulphate were deposited on the copper ion-exchanged X-zeolite and the corresponding NOx conversion efficiencies measured. Ammonia slip (leakage of unreacted ammonia), a prospective pollution hazard, was observed to be more in case of urea infusion than ammonium salt deposition at higher temperatures.
Technical Paper

Development and Performance Studies on Ion-Exchanged X-Zeolites as Catalysts for SI Engine Emission Control

Three catalysts based on X-zeolite have been developed by exchanging its Na+ ion with Copper, Nickel and Vanadium metal ions and tested in a stationary SI engine exhaust to observe their potentialities for NOx and CO controlling. The catalyst Cu-X, in comparison to Ni-X and V-X, exhibits much better NOx and CO reduction performance at any temperature. Maximum NOx conversion efficiencies achieved with Cu-X, Ni-X and V-X are 62.2%, 59.7% and 56.1% respectively. Unlike noble metals, the doped X-zeolite catalysts, studied here, maintain their peak NOx reduction performance through a wider range of A/F ratio. Back pressure developed across the catalyst bed is found to be well within the acceptable limits.