Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Investigation of NO Formation Mechanism for Biodiesel and Its Blend with Methanol

2019-04-02
2019-01-0217
Biodiesel makes an attractive option to replace fossil diesel owing to its applicability in diesel engines without major modifications. An increase in NO emissions with biodiesel compared to diesel is a major concern for its wider use. Blending alcohols, such as methanol, with biodiesel is a potential remedy to mitigate NO formation, as suggested by experiments. However, computational investigations studying the effect of biodiesel-methanol blends on NO formation are scarce. A combined experimental and computational approach is adopted here to investigate the NO formation mechanism with neat biodiesel and biodiesel-methanol blend fueled light duty diesel engine. Firstly, a new compact kinetic model is utilized consisting of oxidation reactions for methyl butanoate and n-dodecane as a surrogate for biodiesel. A surrogate is defined to represent biodiesel based on a combined property and functional group based approach.
Technical Paper

Development of a Standalone Application in MATLAB to Generate Brake Performance Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0513
Predicting the brake performance and characteristics is a crucial task in the vehicle development activity. Performance prediction is a challenge because of the involvement of various parts in the brake assembly like booster, master cylinder, calipers, disc and drum brakes. Determination of these characteristics through vehicle level tests requires a lot of time and money. This performance prediction is achieved by theoretical calculations involving vehicle dynamics. The final output must satisfy the regulations. This project involves the creation of a standalone application using MATLAB to predict the various brake performances such as: booster characteristics, adhesion curves, deceleration and pedal effort curves, behavior of brakes during brake and booster failed conditions and braking force diagrams based on the given user inputs. Previously, MS Excel and an application developed in the TK Solver environment was used to predict the brake performance curves.
Technical Paper

Development of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Stack for a Range Extender for Electric Vehicles

2019-01-09
2019-26-0087
Severe air pollution in cities caused largely by vehicular emissions, which requires urgent remedial measures. As automobiles are indispensable modes of personal and public mobility, pre-emptive efforts are necessary to reduce the adverse effects arising from their operation. A significant improvement in air quality can be achieved through large-scale introduction of vehicles with extremely low emission such as hybrid-electric and zero emission vehicles. Range extension of electric vehicles (EVs) is also of utmost importance to alleviate the handicap of restricted mileage of purely plug-in EVs as compared to conventional vehicles. This paper presents development of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack used for the range extender electric vehicles. The Fuel cell stack for range extender vehicle operated in a dead end mode using hydrogen and air as open cathode.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Numerical Study of N-Dodecane/Butanol Blends for Compression Ignition Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0240
Alcohols are potential blending agents for diesel that can be effectively used in compression ignition engines. This work investigates the use of n-butanol as a blending component for diesel fuel using experiments and simulations. Dodecane was selected as a surrogate for diesel fuel and various concentrations of n-butanol were added to study ignition characteristics. Ignition delay times for different n-butanol/dodecane blends were measured using the ignition quality tester at KAUST (KR-IQT). The experiments were conducted at pressure of 21 and 18 bar, temperature ranging from 703-843 K and global equivalence ratio of 0.85. A skeletal mechanism for n-dodecane and n-butanol blends with 203 species was developed for numerical simulations. The mechanism was developed by combining n-dodecane skeletal mechanism containing 106 species and a detailed mechanism for all the butanol isomers.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Injector Location and Nozzle-Hole Orientation on Mixture Formation in a GDI Engine: A CFD Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-0201
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have gained popularity in the recent times because of lower fuel consumption and exhaust emissions compared to that of the conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engine. But, in these engines, the mixture formation plays an important role which affects combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine. The mixture formation, in turn, depends on many factors of which fuel injector location and orientation are most important parameters. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of fuel injector location and nozzle-hole orientation on the mixture formation, performance and emission characteristics of a GDI engine. The mixture stratification inside the combustion chamber is characterized by a parameter called “stratification index” which is based on average equivalence ratio at different zones in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cylinder Deactivation for Improved System Performance over Transient Real-World Drive Cycles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0880
Effective control of exhaust emissions from modern diesel engines requires the use of aftertreatment systems. Elevated aftertreatment component temperatures are required for engine-out emissions reductions to acceptable tailpipe limits. Maintaining elevated aftertreatment components temperatures is particularly problematic during prolonged low speed, low load operation of the engine (i.e. idle, creep, stop and go traffic), on account of low engine-outlet temperatures during these operating conditions. Conventional techniques to achieve elevated aftertreatment component temperatures include delayed fuel injections and over-squeezing the turbocharger, both of which result in a significant fuel consumption penalty. Cylinder deactivation (CDA) has been studied as a candidate strategy to maintain favorable aftertreatment temperatures, in a fuel efficient manner, via reduced airflow through the engine.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Conventional and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion Modes in a Small Single Cylinder Air-Cooled Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2365
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is one of the most promising low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies to achieve higher thermal efficiencies along with ultra low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter emissions. Small single cylinder diesel engines of air-cooled type are finding increasing applications in the agriculture pump-set and small utility power generation owing to their lower cost and fuel economy advantages. In the present work, a small single cylinder diesel engine is initially operated under conventional combustion mode at rated speed, varying load conditions to establish the base line reference data. Then, the engine is modified to operate under RCCI combustion mode with a newly designed cylinder head to accommodate a high pressure, fully flexible electronically controlled direct diesel fuel injection system, a low pressure gasoline port fuel injection system and an intake air pre heater.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Different Low Temperature Combustion Strategies in a Small Single Cylinder Diesel Engine under Low Load Conditions

2017-10-08
2017-01-2363
Advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) modes are most promising to reduce green house gas emissions owing to fuel economy benefits apart from simultaneously reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines. Various LTC strategies have been proposed so far and each of these LTC strategies have their own advantages and limitations interms of precise ignition control, achievable load range and higher unburned emissions. In the present work, a small single cylinder diesel engine is initially operated under conventional combustion mode at rated speed, varying load conditions to establish the base line reference data. Then, the engine is modified to operate under different LTC strategies including Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI).
Technical Paper

Near Nozzle Flow and Atomization Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuels

2017-10-08
2017-01-2327
Fuel atomization and air-fuel mixing processes play a dominant role on engine performance and emission characteristics in a direct injection compression ignition engine. Understanding of microscopic spray characteristics is essential to predict combustion phenomena. The present work investigated near nozzle flow and atomization characteristics of biodiesel fuels in a constant volume chamber. Waste cooking oil, Jatropha, and Karanja biodiesels were applied and the results were compared with those of conventional diesel fuel. The tested fuels were injected by a solenoid injector with a common-rail injection system. A high-speed camera with a long distance microscopic lens was utilized to capture the near nozzle flow. Meanwhile, Sauter mean diameter (SMD) was measured by a phase Doppler particle analyzer to compare atomization characteristics.
Technical Paper

A Composition Based Approach for Predicting Performance and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuelled Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2340
Biodiesel is a renewable, carbon neutral alternative fuel to diesel for compression ignition engine applications. Biodiesel could be produced from a large variety of feedstocks including vegetable oils, animal fats, algae, etc. and thus, vary significantly in their composition, fuel properties and thereby, engine characteristics. In the present work, the effects of biodiesel compositional variations on engine characteristics are captured using a multi-linear regression model incorporated with two new biodiesel composition based parameters, viz. straight chain saturation factor (SCSF) and modified degree of unsaturation (DUm). For this purpose, biodiesel produced from seven vegetable oils having significantly different compositions are tested in a single cylinder diesel engine at varying loads and injection timings. The regression model is formulated using 35 measured data points and is validated with 15 other data points which are not used for formulation.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization of Two Stage Spur Gearbox Using NSGA-II

2017-07-10
2017-28-1939
Minimum weight and high-efficiency gearboxes with the maximum service life are the prime necessity of today’s high-performance power transmission systems such as automotive and aerospace. Therefore, the problem to optimize the gearboxes is subjected to a considerable amount of interest. To accomplish these objectives, in this paper, two generalized objective functions for two stage spur-gearbox are formulated; first objective function aims to minimize the volume of gearbox material, while the second aims to maximize the power transmitted by the gearbox. For the optimization purpose, regular mechanical and critical tribological constraints (scuffing and wear) are considered. These objective functions are optimized to obtain a Pareto front for the two-stage gearbox using a specially formulated discrete version of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) code written MATLAB. Two cases are considered, in the first with the regular mechanical constraints.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Air-Flow Characteristics Using Tomographic PIV at Different Engine Speeds, Intake Air Temperatures and Intake Valve Deactivation in a Single Cylinder Optical Research Engine

2016-02-01
2016-28-0001
Fuel-air mixing is the main parameter, which affects formation of NOx and PM during CI combustion. Hence better understanding of air-flow characteristics inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine became very important. In this study, in-cylinder air-flow characteristics of four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). For visualization of air-flow pattern, fine graphite particles were used for flow seeding. To investigate the effect of different operating parameters, experiments were performed at different engine speeds (1200 rpm and 1500 rpm), intake air temperatures (room temperature and 50°C) and intake port configurations (swirl port, tangential port and combined port). Intake air temperature was controlled by a closed loop temperature controller and intake ports were deactivated by using a customized aluminum gasket.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Microscopic Spray Characteristics of a GDI Injector Using Phase Doppler Interferometry

2016-02-01
2016-28-0006
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine is known for its higher power and higher thermal efficiency. Researchers are steadily determining and resolving the problems of fuel injection in a GDI engine. In order to meet the stringent emission norms such as PM and NOx emitted by a GDI engine, it is necessary to investigate the microscopic spray characteristics and fuel-air mixing process. This paper aims to share the fundamental knowledge of the interacting mixture preparation mechanisms at the wide range of fuel injection pressures. The investigations were carried out at five different fuel injection pressures viz: 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 bar, for 24 mg fuel per injection. A high speed CCD camera was used to determine the macroscopic spray characteristics of the GDI injector. It was found that spray penetration length increased with increasing fuel injection pressure. Phase Doppler Interferometry (PDI) was used to determine the droplet size and droplet velocity for different test fuels.
Technical Paper

Reducing NO in a Biodiesel Fueled Compression Ignition Engine - An Experimental Study

2015-09-06
2015-24-2483
The replacement of fossil diesel with neat biodiesel in a compression ignition engine has advantage in lowering unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. However, the injection advance experienced with biodiesel fuel with respect to diesel injection setting increases oxides of nitrogen emission. In this study, the biodiesel-NO control is attempted using charge and fuel modification strategies with retarded injection timing. The experiments are performed at maximum torque speed and higher loads viz. from 60% up to full load conditions maintaining same power between diesel and biodiesel while retarding the timing of injection by 3 deg. crank angle. The charge and fuel modifications are done by recycling 5% by volume of exhaust gas to the fresh charge and 10% by volume of methanol to Karanja biodiesel.
Journal Article

Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry for Flow Analysis in a Single Cylinder Optical Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0599
Better understanding of flow phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine and accurate measurement of flow parameters is necessary for engine optimization i.e. enhancing power output, fuel economy improvement and emissions control. Airflow structures developed inside the engine combustion chamber significantly influence the air-fuel mixing. In this study, in-cylinder air flow characteristics of a motored, four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed Tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Single cylinder optical engine provides full optical access of combustion chamber through a transparent cylinder and flat transparent piston top. Experiments were performed in different vertical planes at different engine speeds during the intake and compression stroke under motoring condition. For visualization of air flow pattern, graphite particles were used for flow seeding.
Technical Paper

Unregulated and Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Fuelled CRDI SUV Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0889
Use of biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oil as an alternative fuel to mineral diesel is attractive economically and environmentally. Diesel engines emit several harmful gaseous emissions and some of them are regulated worldwide, while countless others are not regulated. These unregulated species are associated with severe health hazards. Karanja biodiesel is a popular alternate fuel in South Asia and various governments are considering its large-scale implementation. Therefore it is important to study the possible adverse impact of this new alternate fuel. In this study, unregulated and regulated emissions were measured at varying engine speeds (1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm) for various engine loads (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% rated load) using 20% Karanja biodiesel blend (KB20) and diesel in a 4-cylinder 2.2L common rail direct injection (CRDI) sports utility vehicle (SUV) engine.
Technical Paper

Transient Spray Characteristics of Air Assisted Fuel Injection

2015-04-14
2015-01-0920
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology is already in use in four wheeler applications owing to the additional benefits in terms of better combustion and fuel economy. The air-assisted in-cylinder injection is the emerging technology for gasoline engines which works with low pressure injection systems unlike gasoline direct injection (GDI) system. GDI systems use high pressure fuel injection, which provides better combustion and reduced fuel consumption. It envisages small droplet size and low penetration rate which will reduce wall wetting and hydrocarbon emissions. This study is concerned with a CFD analysis of an air-assisted injection system to evaluate mixture spray characteristics. For the analysis, the air injector fitted onto a constant volume chamber (CVC) maintained at uniform pressure is considered. The analysis is carried out for various CVC pressures, mixture injection durations and fuel quantities so as to understand the effect on mixture spray characteristics.
Technical Paper

Noise, Vibrations and Combustion Investigations of Preheated Jatropha Oil in a Single Cylinder Genset Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1668
High viscosity of vegetable oil causes ignition problems when used in compression ignition engines. There is a need to reduce the viscosity before using it as engine fuel. Preheating and pre-treating of vegetable oils using waste heat of exhaust gases is one of the techniques, which reduces the viscosity and makes it possible to use it as alternate fuel for some niche applications, without requiring major modifications in the engine hardware. Several applications such as decentralized power generation, agricultural engines, and water pumping engines, can use vegetable oils as an alternative fuel. In present investigation, performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of an engine using preheated 20% blend of Jatropha oil with mineral diesel (J20) has been evaluated at a constant speed (1500 rpm) in a single cylinder four stroke direct injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Compression and Energy Absorption of Aluminum Alloy AA6061 and AA7005 Tubes Using Experimental and Simulation Methods

2015-01-14
2015-26-0169
There is a growing need for improved conceptual vehicle designs along with alternative materials to reduce the damage to the passengers and structures in aerospace and automotive industries. The energy absorption characteristics of materials play a major role in designing a safe vehicle for transport. In this paper, compression behavior and energy absorption of aluminum alloy AA6061 and AA7005 tubes in T4 and T6 conditions are investigated by experimental and numerical methods. The AA7005 and AA6061 tubes are solution heat treated and then aged to achieve the final strength in T6 condition. Experimental compression test results have shown improved energy absorption of tubes in T6 condition compared to tubes in T4 condition. There is less variation of energy among the tested samples. The mean load is compared with the results obtained from analytical formulae. Tensile properties have been obtained from tensile tests using UTM for both AA6061 and AA7005 tubes.
Technical Paper

Effect Of Swirl and Tumble on the Stratified Combustion of a DISI Engine - A CFD Study

2011-04-12
2011-01-1214
Of late direct injection engines are replacing carburetted and port injected engines due to their high thermal efficiency and fuel economy. One of the reasons for the increased fuel economy is the ultra lean mixture with which the engine operates under low loads. Under the low load conditions, the air fuel ratio of the mixture near the spark plug is close to stoichiometric values while the overall mixture is lean, which is called stratified mixture. In order to achieve this, proper air motion during the late stages of compression is a must. Quality of the mixture depends on the time of injection as well as the type of fuel injector and mixture preparation strategy used. Engines employing air guided mixture preparation are considered as the second generation engines. For understanding the efficient mixture preparation method, three types of flow structures like base (low tumble), high tumble and inclined swirl are created inside the engine cylinder using shrouds on the intake valves.
X