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Technical Paper

Characterization of RME, RME Aged and Mineral Diesel Fuel Injected by a Common Rail Apparatus for EURO5 Diesel Engines

2011-08-30
2011-01-1938
Alternative diesel fuels from renewable sources (biodiesels) have increased significantly interest due to their potential CO₂ emission benefits, capability to reduce unburned hydrocarbons and particulate matter emissions, biodegradability and non-toxicity. Biodiesels undergo ageing effects due to autoxidation processes of their molecular chains. Ageing leads to a variety of decomposition products like peroxides, alcohols, aldehydes and carboxylic acids. They are detectable as alterations of chemical properties, odor and taste (rancidity). The characteristics of Rapeseed Methylester (RME), RME aged and diesel sprays have been analyzed for different injection strategies in engines. The tests have been performed on a Bosch second generation common rail solenoid-driven fuel injection system capable of 160 MPa maximum injection pressure, fitted on EURO5 diesel engine for passenger car applications.
Technical Paper

Numerical simulations of Diesel engine combustion by means of OpenFOAM CFD ToolBox

2009-09-13
2009-24-0002
The present work is focused on multidimensional simulations of combustion in Diesel engines, using detailed kinetics reaction schemes. The selected reaction mechanism is the scheme developed by Liu et al. [1].The simulations are performed through the open source CFD Toolbox OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation). OpenFoam uses finite volume methods to solve systems of partial differential equations ascribed on any 3D unstructured mesh of polyhedral cells. A preliminary analysis relevant for diesel combustion studies is performed in constant volume homogeneous conditions. Here the treatment of the stiff ordinary differential equations arising from the usage of detailed kinetics reaction mechanisms and the performance of different solvers are investigated. The CVODE package has been integrated in OpenFOAM, as an alternative solver to the one provided by the original version of the code.
Technical Paper

Combustion Noise Prediction in a Small Diesel Engine Finalized to the Optimization of the Fuel Injection Strategy

2009-05-19
2009-01-2077
The paper illustrates both numerical and experimental methodologies aiming to characterize performances and overall noise radiated from a light duty diesel engine. The main objective was the development of accurate models to be included within an optimization procedure, able to define an optimal injection strategy for a common rail engine. The injection strategy was selected to contemporary reduce the fuel consumption and the combustion noise. To this aim, an experimental investigation was firstly carried out measuring engine performances and noise emissions at different operating conditions. Contemporary, a one-dimensional (1D) simulation of the engine under investigation was performed, finalized to predict the in-cylinder pressure cycles and the overall engine performances. The 1D model was validated with reference to the measured data. In order to assess the combustion noise, an innovative study, mainly based on the decomposition of the in-cylinder pressure signal, was utilized.
Technical Paper

Implementation and Validation of a n-Heptane Kinetic Combustion Model for 3D-CFD Codes by Means of Numerical Calculations and Single Cylinder Engine Experiments

2009-04-20
2009-01-0708
An integrated numerical-experimental research activity has been carried out, in order to investigate the reliability of a modified, parallel version of KIVA3V, coupled with detailed kinetics, as an additional tool for the analysis of experimental results. In the proposed approach, fixed chemical species included in the reaction mechanism are used as markers for selection of the numerical methods to be used, aiming at exploiting, in every phase of the calculation, the most suitable solver. For validation purposes, pure n-Heptane was chosen as representative fuel model, both in experiments and computations. Calculated values are compared with experimental data collected on a single-cylinder diesel engine fuelled with pure n-heptane, in order to allow the direct use of a reaction mechanism for a single-component fuel.
Technical Paper

Compression Ratio Influence on the Performance of an Advanced Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine Operating in Conventional and Low Temperature Combustion Mode

2008-06-23
2008-01-1678
The present paper describes a detailed experimental analysis on the effect of the compression ratio on the performance of a single-cylinder research diesel engine operating with both conventional combustion and Low Temperature Combustion mode for low NOx emissions. The single-cylinder engine was developed with the same combustion system architecture of the four-cylinder FIAT 1.9 liter Multi-Jet. Starting from an engine configuration with a compression ratio of 16.5, the compression ratio was reduced to 14.5. For both the geometric configurations, engine performance was evaluated in terms of thermodynamic parameters, emissions and fuel consumption in some operating test points representative of the engine behavior running on the NEDC cycle.
Technical Paper

Effects of Highly Cooled EGR on Modern Diesel Engine Performance at Low Temperature Combustion Condition

2007-09-16
2007-24-0014
The present paper is focused on the application of the Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) systems to modern diesel engines. Aim of the work was to assess the possibility to optimize LTC systems performances in terms of both engine efficiency and pollutant emissions. In particular, the results of a study of the effects of highly cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on a diesel engine running at LTC condition, will be presented and discussed. The engine employed for the experimental activity was a FIAT JTD 4 cylinder CR diesel engine, EURO 4 version. The EGR layout was modified with respect to the production one, in order to obtain lower temperatures of the recirculated exhaust gases. The performed tests evidence the advantages offered by the strong EGR cooling (and so the lower intake air temperature) in reducing NOx emissions, leaving very low Soot emissions, typical of premixed low temperature combustion.
Technical Paper

Numerical Evaluation of Direct Injection of Urea as NOx Reduction Method for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0909
The effect of ammoniac deoxidizing agent (Urea) on the reduction of NOx produced in the Diesel engine was investigated numerically. Urea desolved in water was directly injected into the engine cylinder during the expansion stroke. The NOx deoxidizing process was described using a simplified chemical kinetic model coupled with the comprehensive kinetics of Diesel oil surrogate combustion. If the technology of DWI (Direct Water Injection) with the later injection timing is supposed to be used, the deoxidizing reactants could be delivered in a controlled amount directly into the flame plume zones, where NOx are forming. Numerical simulations for the Isotta Fraschini DI Diesel engine are carried out using the KIVA-3V code, modified to account for the “co-fuel” injection and reaction with combustion products. The results showed that the amount of NOx could be substantially reduced up to 80% with the injection timing and the fraction of Urea in the solution optimized.
Technical Paper

3D Simulations by a Detailed Chemistry Combustion Model and Comparison With Experiments of a Light-Duty, Common-Rail D.I. Diesel Engine

2005-09-11
2005-24-057
The present paper reports the results of the numerical simulations carried out by means of a modified version of the KIVA-3V code and of the comparison with experimental results obtained by using different optical techniques in a single-cylinder optically accessible diesel engine. The engine is equipped with a commercial four valves cylinder head and a second-generation, Common-Rail injection system. A detailed kinetic model consisting of 283 reactions involving 69 species is applied to simulate the combustion process and the soot and NOx formation. The fuel surrogate model consisting of two constituent components, n-heptane and toluene, approximating the physical and ignition properties of the diesel oil, is considered. The Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) assumption is adopted to maintain the computational cost within acceptable limits.
Technical Paper

Some Insight on Premixed Combustion in Diesel Engine With Late Injection: The Influence of Air and Injection Parameters

2005-09-11
2005-24-047
Aim of the present paper was an evaluation of the importance of some engine parameters (intake gas flow and injection parameters) on the approach of Premixed Low Temperature Combustion (PLTC) conditions with the same efficiency of a conventional diesel cycle and ultra-low pollutant emissions. The results have demonstrated that the control of PLTC mode is very difficult and the engine parameters play a critical role on the exhaust pollutant emissions, indicating that further massive research activities are needed to reach reliable practical applications.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Modeling of Advanced Diesel Combustion System by Parallel Chemistry

2005-04-11
2005-01-0201
In the present paper the combustion process in a modern second generation Common Rail Diesel engine for light duty application is experimentally and numerically investigated. An improved version of the KIVA3V-Release 2 code was used for the simulations. To model the combustion process, a detailed kinetic scheme involving 57 species and 290 equations, based on the n-heptane combustion, was used, interfacing the KIVA3V code with the CHEMKIN-II chemistry package. The full set of equations is concurrently solved in each computational cell by different solvers with the final aim of obtaining a locally adaptative code: local choices are undertaken in terms of time steps as well as in terms of the employed solvers. To reduce computational time, the code was parallelized: this parallelization is mainly focused on the chemical subroutines, considering that they are responsible for more than the 95% of the computing.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Detection of NOx and Particulate in Exhaust of a CR Diesel Engine by UV-Visible Spectroscopy

2003-03-03
2003-01-0786
Non-intrusive diagnostic techniques based on broadband (190-550 nm) extinction and scattering spectroscopy were applied to undiluted exhaust Common Rail (CR) diesel engine. The influence of engine speed and load on soot mass concentration, size distribution of emitted particles and NOx concentration was analysed. NOx concentration was evaluated by “in situ” ultraviolet-visible absorption measurements and compared with those obtained by conventional analyser. The extinction and scattering spectra were compared with those evaluated by the Lorenz-Mie model for spherical particles in order to retrieve the size, the number concentration of the emitted particles and particulate mass.
Technical Paper

Spectral Analysis of Combustion Process of Common Rail Diesel Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1634
Polychromatic extinction and chemiluminescence techniques, from ultraviolet to visible, were applied in an optical diesel engine, in order to analyze the temporal and spatial evolution of a high pressure fuel jet interacting with a swirling air motion. A fully flexible Common Rail fuel injection system equipped with a single hole nozzle was used. The experiments were performed at fixed engine speed and air/fuel ratio for three injection strategies. The first one consisted of a main injection to compare with those operating at low pressure injection. The other ones were based on a pilot and main injections, typical of current direct injection diesel engines, with different dwell time. A detailed investigation of the mixture formation process inside the combustion chamber during the ignition delay time was performed. The liquid and vapor fuel distribution in the combustion chamber was obtained analyzing the polychromatic extinction spectra.
Technical Paper

Absolute NO and OH Concentrations During Diesel Combustion Process by Multiwavelength Absorption Spectroscopy

2002-03-04
2002-01-0892
Conventional methods to measure gas concentrations and, in particular, NO are typically based on sampling by valve, sample treatment and subsequent analysis. These methods suffer low spatial and temporal resolution. The introduction of high energy lasers in combination with fast detection systems allowed to detect the NO distribution inside optically accessible Diesel engines. In this paper, a high spatial and temporal resolution in-situ technique based on ultraviolet - visible absorption spectroscopy is proposed. The characterization of the combustion process by the detection of gaseous compounds from the start of combustion until the exhaust phase was performed. In particular, this technique allows the simultaneous detection of NO and OH absolute concentrations inside an optically accessible Diesel combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

In-cylinder optical analysis of CRDI diesel engine combustion

2001-09-23
2001-24-0027
The optimization of diesel engine performance and emissions can be achieved through a better understanding of the in-cylinder combustion process. Advanced non-intrusive optical techniques are providing new tools for investigating the thermo-fluid dynamics processes as well as they are contributing to develop predictive models for DI diesel combustion. High-speed images of spray and flame evolution as well as UV-visible chemiluminescence measurements were carried out in an optical 0.5-liter, single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct- injection diesel engine equipped with a prototype four valves cylinder head and a fully flexible CR injection system. In order to evaluate the effect of different injection strategies on the combustion process, measurements were performed varying injection parameters. The ignition location and time were individuated by combustion visualization and detection of radical species, obtained by chemiluminescence measurements.
Technical Paper

Further knowledge on effects of fuels quality changes on emission potential of common-rail D.I. diesel engine

2001-09-23
2001-24-0042
This paper reports some results on the emission performance of a CR DI diesel engine burning five model diesel fuels. The fuels were prepared by Agip Petroli S.p.A within the PNRA research program, sponsored by Italian Ministry of Environment and were a base fuel, a synthetic fuel and three oxygenated fuels. The engine employed in the tests was a prototype derived from Fiat M724 1910 cc, installed on Fiat Group class C Cars (1350 kg of mass). The prototype complies with EURO3 regulations. Two test points representative of two zones of ECE15+EUDC test cycle were chosen. Thermodynamic variables, emissions and injection systems parameters were recorded. Tests show the further potential of advanced fuels, obtained by blends of reformulated and oxygenated components, in reducing pollutants emissions.
Technical Paper

Characterization of CR diesel exhaust by UV-visible extinction and scattering spectroscopy

2001-09-23
2001-24-0070
Non-intrusive diagnostic techniques based on broadband (190-550 nm) extinction and scattering spectroscopy were applied at undiluted exhaust Common- Rail (CR) diesel engine in real time. The influence of load and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on soot mass concentration, size distribution of emitted particles and NO concentration was analyzed. NO concentration was evaluated by ""in-situ"" ultraviolet-visible absorption measurements and compared with those obtained by conventional analyzer. The extinction and scattering spectra were compared with those evaluated by the Lorenz-Mie model for spherical particles in order to retrieve the size, the number concentration of the emitted particles and particulate mass. The optical measurements showed that new generation diesel engines, in spite of a drastic reduction of the exhaust mass concentration, caused the emission in the atmosphere of high number concentration of carbonaceous nanoparticles.
Technical Paper

Nanometric Particle Formation in Optically Accessible Engine Diesel

2001-03-05
2001-01-1258
In the last years, there has been an increasing concern on the emission of ultrafine particles in the atmosphere. A detailed study of formation and oxidation of these particles in the environment of the diesel cylinder presents many experimental difficulties due to the high temperatures, pressures and extremely reactive intermediate species. In this paper, in order to follow the different phases of diesel combustion process, high temporal and spatial resolution optical techniques were applied in the optically accessible chamber of diesel engine, at 2000 rpm and A/F=80:1 and 60:1. Simultaneous extinction, scattering and flame chemiluminescence measurements from UV to visible were carried out, in order to study the diesel combustion process from the droplet ignition to the formation of soot, through the growth of its precursors.
Technical Paper

The Role of Radical Species in Diesel Engine Auto-Ignition Detection

2001-03-05
2001-01-1003
Ignition delay in diesel engine combustion comprehends both a chemical and a physical amount, the first depending on fuel composition and charge temperature and pressure, the last resulting of time needed for the fuel to atomize, vaporize and mix with air. Control of this parameter, which is mandatory to weight the relative amount of premixed to diffusive stage of the hydrocarbon combustion, is here considered. Experimental measurements of flame intensity spectra obtained by in situ measurements on an optically accessible test device show the presence of peaks corresponding to radicals as OH and CH appearing at the pressure start of combustion. Since OH radicals result from chain branching reactions, a numerical simulation is performed based on a reduced kinetic scheme which allows to measure the branching agent concentration, and whose approximate nature is adequate to the proportion chemical aspects contribute to the overall delay.
Technical Paper

Fuel Jet Models for Multidimensional Diesel Combustion Calculation: An Update

1995-02-01
950086
The multidimensional simulation methods, today available for spray motion predictions, solve the spray equations including the mass, momentum and energy changes due to the interaction between the drops and the gas, considering also the collision and coalescence phenomena. As concerns break up, two models are the most commonly used: the TAB one, proposed by O'Rourke and Amsden and based on the Taylor analogy, and the WAVE model; developed by Reitz and Diwakar. Both models need the tuning of some empirical constants. Considering also that the mechanism, that controls atomisation, is not yet well understood, it seems that further calculations and experimental comparisons over a range of injection conditions may be useful to improve the prediction capability of these models. Therefore the present paper concerns a sensitivity analysis of the TAB and WAVE models to changes of the empirical constants.
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