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Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Investigation of Initial Combustion Stages in a SI Engine Fuelled with Ethanol and Gasoline

It is well known that ethanol can be used in spark-ignition (SI) engines as a pure fuel or blended with gasoline. High enthalpy of vaporization of alcohols can affect air-fuel mixture formation prior to ignition and may form thicker liquid films around the intake valves, on the cylinder wall and piston crown. These liquid films can result in mixture non-homogeneities inside the combustion chamber and hence strongly influence the cyclic variability of early combustion stages. Starting from these considerations, the paper reports an experimental study of the initial phases of the combustion process in a single cylinder SI engine fueled with commercial gasoline and anhydrous ethanol, as well as their blend (50%vol alcohol). The engine was optically accessible and equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial power unit for two-wheel applications, with the same geometrical specifications (bore, stroke, compression ratio).
Technical Paper

Combustion Process Investigation in a DISI Engine Fuelled with n-butanol Through Digital Imaging and Chemiluminescence

Direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines have been adopted increasingly by the automotive industry in recent years due to their performance, reduced impact on the environment, and customer demand for advanced technology. However, detailed combustion processes in such engines are still not thoroughly analysed and understood. This work reports on the effects of different control parameters on the combustion process, such as fuel type, ignition timing and exhaust gas recirculation. Pure n-butanol and gasoline were used. All experiments were performed at 2000 rpm and 100 bar injection pressure in a transparent single-cylinder DISI engine equipped with the head of a commercial turbocharged engine with similar geometrical specifications (bore, stroke, compression ratio). Crank angle resolved 2D chemiluminescence in the UV range for OH radical and CO2 detection was performed with an ICCD camera and a high-speed CMOS camera was used for cycle resolved imaging.
Technical Paper

Influence of the fuel quantity on the spray formation and ignition under current engine relevant conditions

Flexible and multiple injections are an important strategy to fulfill today's exhaust emission regulations. To optimize injection processes with an increasing number of adjustable parameters knowledge about the basic mechanisms of spray breakup, propagation, evaporation and ignition is mandatory. In the present investigation the focus is set on spray formation and ignition. In order to simulate current diesel-engine conditions measurements were carried out in a high-temperature (1000 K) and high-pressure (10 MPa) vessel with optical accesses. A piezo servo-hydraulic injector pressurized up to 200 MPa was used to compare four single injection durations and four multi-injection patterns in the ignition phase. All measurements were performed with CEC RF-03-06, a legislative reference fuel. For the spray measurements, a program of 16 to 18 different operating points was chosen to simulate engine conditions from cold start to full load.
Technical Paper

Numerical simulations of Diesel engine combustion by means of OpenFOAM CFD ToolBox

The present work is focused on multidimensional simulations of combustion in Diesel engines, using detailed kinetics reaction schemes. The selected reaction mechanism is the scheme developed by Liu et al. [1].The simulations are performed through the open source CFD Toolbox OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation). OpenFoam uses finite volume methods to solve systems of partial differential equations ascribed on any 3D unstructured mesh of polyhedral cells. A preliminary analysis relevant for diesel combustion studies is performed in constant volume homogeneous conditions. Here the treatment of the stiff ordinary differential equations arising from the usage of detailed kinetics reaction mechanisms and the performance of different solvers are investigated. The CVODE package has been integrated in OpenFOAM, as an alternative solver to the one provided by the original version of the code.
Technical Paper

Combustion Noise Prediction in a Small Diesel Engine Finalized to the Optimization of the Fuel Injection Strategy

The paper illustrates both numerical and experimental methodologies aiming to characterize performances and overall noise radiated from a light duty diesel engine. The main objective was the development of accurate models to be included within an optimization procedure, able to define an optimal injection strategy for a common rail engine. The injection strategy was selected to contemporary reduce the fuel consumption and the combustion noise. To this aim, an experimental investigation was firstly carried out measuring engine performances and noise emissions at different operating conditions. Contemporary, a one-dimensional (1D) simulation of the engine under investigation was performed, finalized to predict the in-cylinder pressure cycles and the overall engine performances. The 1D model was validated with reference to the measured data. In order to assess the combustion noise, an innovative study, mainly based on the decomposition of the in-cylinder pressure signal, was utilized.
Technical Paper

Implementation and Validation of a n-Heptane Kinetic Combustion Model for 3D-CFD Codes by Means of Numerical Calculations and Single Cylinder Engine Experiments

An integrated numerical-experimental research activity has been carried out, in order to investigate the reliability of a modified, parallel version of KIVA3V, coupled with detailed kinetics, as an additional tool for the analysis of experimental results. In the proposed approach, fixed chemical species included in the reaction mechanism are used as markers for selection of the numerical methods to be used, aiming at exploiting, in every phase of the calculation, the most suitable solver. For validation purposes, pure n-Heptane was chosen as representative fuel model, both in experiments and computations. Calculated values are compared with experimental data collected on a single-cylinder diesel engine fuelled with pure n-heptane, in order to allow the direct use of a reaction mechanism for a single-component fuel.
Technical Paper

Compression Ratio Influence on the Performance of an Advanced Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine Operating in Conventional and Low Temperature Combustion Mode

The present paper describes a detailed experimental analysis on the effect of the compression ratio on the performance of a single-cylinder research diesel engine operating with both conventional combustion and Low Temperature Combustion mode for low NOx emissions. The single-cylinder engine was developed with the same combustion system architecture of the four-cylinder FIAT 1.9 liter Multi-Jet. Starting from an engine configuration with a compression ratio of 16.5, the compression ratio was reduced to 14.5. For both the geometric configurations, engine performance was evaluated in terms of thermodynamic parameters, emissions and fuel consumption in some operating test points representative of the engine behavior running on the NEDC cycle.
Technical Paper

Effects of Highly Cooled EGR on Modern Diesel Engine Performance at Low Temperature Combustion Condition

The present paper is focused on the application of the Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) systems to modern diesel engines. Aim of the work was to assess the possibility to optimize LTC systems performances in terms of both engine efficiency and pollutant emissions. In particular, the results of a study of the effects of highly cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on a diesel engine running at LTC condition, will be presented and discussed. The engine employed for the experimental activity was a FIAT JTD 4 cylinder CR diesel engine, EURO 4 version. The EGR layout was modified with respect to the production one, in order to obtain lower temperatures of the recirculated exhaust gases. The performed tests evidence the advantages offered by the strong EGR cooling (and so the lower intake air temperature) in reducing NOx emissions, leaving very low Soot emissions, typical of premixed low temperature combustion.
Technical Paper

Numerical Evaluation of Direct Injection of Urea as NOx Reduction Method for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

The effect of ammoniac deoxidizing agent (Urea) on the reduction of NOx produced in the Diesel engine was investigated numerically. Urea desolved in water was directly injected into the engine cylinder during the expansion stroke. The NOx deoxidizing process was described using a simplified chemical kinetic model coupled with the comprehensive kinetics of Diesel oil surrogate combustion. If the technology of DWI (Direct Water Injection) with the later injection timing is supposed to be used, the deoxidizing reactants could be delivered in a controlled amount directly into the flame plume zones, where NOx are forming. Numerical simulations for the Isotta Fraschini DI Diesel engine are carried out using the KIVA-3V code, modified to account for the “co-fuel” injection and reaction with combustion products. The results showed that the amount of NOx could be substantially reduced up to 80% with the injection timing and the fraction of Urea in the solution optimized.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Detailed Kinetic Diesel Combustion Model by In-Cylinder Optical Measurements

The main objective of the present paper is the application of a detailed kinetic model to study diesel combustion in an optical accessible engine equipped with a common rail injection system. Three different injection schedules made of one to three consecutive injections are considered from both the numerical and the experimental point of view. The numerical model is assessed in such a way to assure its portability with respect to changing injection strategies. The employed detailed kinetic mechanism consists of 305 reactions involving 70 species and is included in the KIVA-3V code. The considered fuel has the liquid phase properties of the diesel oil, the vapor phase properties of C14H28. It is subsequently decomposed into n-heptane and toluene. The chemical solver is based on the use of the reference species technique and on the Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) hypothesis. These allow maintaining the computational cost within acceptable limits.
Technical Paper

3D Simulations by a Detailed Chemistry Combustion Model and Comparison With Experiments of a Light-Duty, Common-Rail D.I. Diesel Engine

The present paper reports the results of the numerical simulations carried out by means of a modified version of the KIVA-3V code and of the comparison with experimental results obtained by using different optical techniques in a single-cylinder optically accessible diesel engine. The engine is equipped with a commercial four valves cylinder head and a second-generation, Common-Rail injection system. A detailed kinetic model consisting of 283 reactions involving 69 species is applied to simulate the combustion process and the soot and NOx formation. The fuel surrogate model consisting of two constituent components, n-heptane and toluene, approximating the physical and ignition properties of the diesel oil, is considered. The Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) assumption is adopted to maintain the computational cost within acceptable limits.
Technical Paper

Some Insight on Premixed Combustion in Diesel Engine With Late Injection: The Influence of Air and Injection Parameters

Aim of the present paper was an evaluation of the importance of some engine parameters (intake gas flow and injection parameters) on the approach of Premixed Low Temperature Combustion (PLTC) conditions with the same efficiency of a conventional diesel cycle and ultra-low pollutant emissions. The results have demonstrated that the control of PLTC mode is very difficult and the engine parameters play a critical role on the exhaust pollutant emissions, indicating that further massive research activities are needed to reach reliable practical applications.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Modeling of Advanced Diesel Combustion System by Parallel Chemistry

In the present paper the combustion process in a modern second generation Common Rail Diesel engine for light duty application is experimentally and numerically investigated. An improved version of the KIVA3V-Release 2 code was used for the simulations. To model the combustion process, a detailed kinetic scheme involving 57 species and 290 equations, based on the n-heptane combustion, was used, interfacing the KIVA3V code with the CHEMKIN-II chemistry package. The full set of equations is concurrently solved in each computational cell by different solvers with the final aim of obtaining a locally adaptative code: local choices are undertaken in terms of time steps as well as in terms of the employed solvers. To reduce computational time, the code was parallelized: this parallelization is mainly focused on the chemical subroutines, considering that they are responsible for more than the 95% of the computing.
Technical Paper

Spectral Analysis of Combustion Process of Common Rail Diesel Engine

Polychromatic extinction and chemiluminescence techniques, from ultraviolet to visible, were applied in an optical diesel engine, in order to analyze the temporal and spatial evolution of a high pressure fuel jet interacting with a swirling air motion. A fully flexible Common Rail fuel injection system equipped with a single hole nozzle was used. The experiments were performed at fixed engine speed and air/fuel ratio for three injection strategies. The first one consisted of a main injection to compare with those operating at low pressure injection. The other ones were based on a pilot and main injections, typical of current direct injection diesel engines, with different dwell time. A detailed investigation of the mixture formation process inside the combustion chamber during the ignition delay time was performed. The liquid and vapor fuel distribution in the combustion chamber was obtained analyzing the polychromatic extinction spectra.
Technical Paper

Absolute NO and OH Concentrations During Diesel Combustion Process by Multiwavelength Absorption Spectroscopy

Conventional methods to measure gas concentrations and, in particular, NO are typically based on sampling by valve, sample treatment and subsequent analysis. These methods suffer low spatial and temporal resolution. The introduction of high energy lasers in combination with fast detection systems allowed to detect the NO distribution inside optically accessible Diesel engines. In this paper, a high spatial and temporal resolution in-situ technique based on ultraviolet - visible absorption spectroscopy is proposed. The characterization of the combustion process by the detection of gaseous compounds from the start of combustion until the exhaust phase was performed. In particular, this technique allows the simultaneous detection of NO and OH absolute concentrations inside an optically accessible Diesel combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

In-cylinder optical analysis of CRDI diesel engine combustion

The optimization of diesel engine performance and emissions can be achieved through a better understanding of the in-cylinder combustion process. Advanced non-intrusive optical techniques are providing new tools for investigating the thermo-fluid dynamics processes as well as they are contributing to develop predictive models for DI diesel combustion. High-speed images of spray and flame evolution as well as UV-visible chemiluminescence measurements were carried out in an optical 0.5-liter, single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct- injection diesel engine equipped with a prototype four valves cylinder head and a fully flexible CR injection system. In order to evaluate the effect of different injection strategies on the combustion process, measurements were performed varying injection parameters. The ignition location and time were individuated by combustion visualization and detection of radical species, obtained by chemiluminescence measurements.
Technical Paper

High pressure combustion of wood pyrolysis oil

Combusiton of pine pyrolysis oil droplets was studied at different pressures up to a maximum of 60 bar in a single-droplet combustion chamber. Oil droplets, with diameters between 400 μm and 120 μm were suspended to a thermocouple of to a quartz fiber. Their behavior was followed by means of high-speed digital imaging based on a shadowgraph scheme. About two thousands of frames were collected during every test with acquisition speed between 400 and 4000 frames/s. Droplets were easy to ignite at normal as well as at high pressure. Increasing the pressure the intensity of swelling phenomena, undergone by droplets, decreased and completely disappeared at pressures higher than 20 bar. However, bubbling and foaming were always observed. Liquid-phase pyrolysis and the formation of cenospheres as combustion residual were observed under all the pressure conditions.
Technical Paper

Influencing Parameters of the Exhaust Gas Emissions of a Stoichiometric Natural Gas Bus in Real Use

In the frame of the IEA-AMF, Annex XVII project ‘Real Impact of New Technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles’, three state-of-the-art city bus technologies were evaluated for fuel consumption and emissions in real city traffic and in a number of test cycles, both on engine and on vehicle level. One of the three buses was a natural gas bus with multi-point fuel injection, stoichiometric fuel control and three-way catalyst. Compared to the other tested technologies, this engine reached very low exhaust gas emissions. The paper will discuss the results obtained with the stoichiometric natural gas engine and compare the emissions in real traffic versus various engine test cycles, based on a number of influencing parameters. Concerning cycle characteristics it was the distribution of the engine operating points which had most effect on the exhaust gas emissions.
Technical Paper

Characterization of CR diesel exhaust by UV-visible extinction and scattering spectroscopy

Non-intrusive diagnostic techniques based on broadband (190-550 nm) extinction and scattering spectroscopy were applied at undiluted exhaust Common- Rail (CR) diesel engine in real time. The influence of load and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on soot mass concentration, size distribution of emitted particles and NO concentration was analyzed. NO concentration was evaluated by ""in-situ"" ultraviolet-visible absorption measurements and compared with those obtained by conventional analyzer. The extinction and scattering spectra were compared with those evaluated by the Lorenz-Mie model for spherical particles in order to retrieve the size, the number concentration of the emitted particles and particulate mass. The optical measurements showed that new generation diesel engines, in spite of a drastic reduction of the exhaust mass concentration, caused the emission in the atmosphere of high number concentration of carbonaceous nanoparticles.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Combustion Instability Phenomena in a CNG Fueled Heavy-Duty Turbocharged Engine

The use of Compressed Natural Gas as an alternative fuel in urban transportation is nearly established and represents an efficient short and medium term solution to face with urban air pollution. However, in order to completely exploit its potential, the engine needs to be specifically designed to operate with this fuel. In the latest years, the authors have investigated the performances of a Heavy Duty Turbocharged CNG fuelled engine both experimentally and by using some analytical tools specifically developed by them which have been used for the engine optimisation. In the present paper the simulation approach has been enlarged by means of a co-operative use of a CFD code and experimental analysis on the actual engine. The numerical simulation of combustion process has, in fact, been used, to interpret series of pressure cycles, aiming to analyse how cyclic fluctuations influence engine behaviour in terms of combustion efficiency and temperature and pollutant distribution.