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Technical Paper

Turbulent jet ignition Effect on Exhaust Emission and Efficiency of a SI Small Engine Fuelled with Methane and Gasoline

2020-09-27
2020-24-0013
Pollutant emission of vehicle cars is nowadays a fundamental aspect to take into account. In the last decays, the company have been forced to study new solutions, such as alternative fuel and learn burn mixture strategy, to reduce the vehicle’s pollutants below the limits imposed by emission regulations. Pre-chamber ignition system presents potential reductions in emission levels and fuel consumption, operating with lean burn mixtures and alternative fuels. The aim of this work is to study the evolution of the plasma jets in a different in-cylinder conditions. The activity was carried out in a research optical small spark ignition (SI) engine equipped alternatively with standard ignition system and per-chamber. The engine runs at 2000 rpm at wide open throttle (WOT) in standard ignition condition and slightly turbocharged in prechamber condition in order to overcame the decrease of compression ratio. In this activity methane and gasoline were used.
Technical Paper

CFD Numerical Reconstruction of the Flash Boiling Gasoline Spray Morphology

2020-09-27
2020-24-0010
The numerical reconstruction of the liquid jet generated by a multi-hole injector, operating in flash-boiling conditions, has been developed by means of an Eulerian- Lagrangian CFD code and validated thanks to experimental data collected with schlieren and Mie scattering imaging techniques. The model has been tested with different injection parameters in order to recreate various possible engine thermodynamic conditions. The work carried out is framed in the growing interest present around the gasoline direct-injection systems (GDI). Such technology has been recognized as an effective way to achieve better engine performance and reduced pollutant emissions. High-pressure injectors operating in flashing conditions are demonstrating many advantages in the applications for GDI engines providing a better fuel atomization, a better mixing with the air, a consequent more efficient combustion and, finally, reduced tailpipe emissions.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Soot Deposition and Active Regeneration in Wall-flow DPF and Experimental Validation

2020-09-15
2020-01-2180
Growing concerns about the emissions of internal combustion engines have forced the adoption of aftertreatment devices to reduce the adverse impact of diesel engines on health and environment. Diesel particulate filters are considered as an effective means to reduce the particle emissions and comply with the regulations. Research activity in this field focuses on filter configuration, materials and aging, on understanding the variation of soot layer properties during time, on defining of the optimal strategy of DPF management for on-board control applications. A model was implemented in order to simulate the filtration and regeneration processes of a wall-flow particulate filter, taking into account the emission characteristic of the engine, whose architecture and operating conditions deeply affect the size distribution of soot particles.
Technical Paper

Toward Predictive Combustion Modeling of CNG SI Engines in 1D Simulation Tools

2020-09-15
2020-01-2079
In the recent years, the interest in heavy-duty engines fueled with Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is increasing due to the necessity to comply with the stringent CO2 limitation imposed by national and international regulations. Indeed, the reduced number of carbon atoms of the NG molecule allows to reduce the CO2 emissions compared to a conventional fuel. The possibility to produce synthetic methane from renewable energy sources, or bio-methane from agricultural biomass and/or animal waste, contributes to support the switch from conventional fuel to CNG. To drive the engine development and reduce the time-to-market, the employment of numerical analysis is mandatory. This requires a continuous improvement of the simulation models toward real predictive analyses able to reduce the experimental R&D efforts. In this framework, 1D numerical codes are fundamental tools for system design, energy management optimization, and so on.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on GDI Spray under High Injection Pressure up to 100 MPa

2020-09-15
2020-01-2108
In recent years, the increase of gasoline fuel injection pressure is a way to improve thermal efficiency and lower engine-out emissions in GDI homogenous combustion concept. The challenge of controlling particulate formation as well in mass and number concentrations imposed by emissions regulations can be pursued improving the mixture preparation process and avoiding mixture inhomogeneity with ultra-high injection pressure values up to 100 MPa. The increase of the fuel injection pressure in GDI homogeneous systems meets the demand for increased injector static flow, while simultaneously improves the spray atomization and mixing characteristics with consequent better combustion performance. Few studies quantify the effects of high injection pressure on transient gasoline spray evolution. The aim of this work was to simulate with OpenFOAM the spray morphology of a commercial gasoline injected in a constant volume vessel by a prototypal GDI injector.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Combustion Process of SI Engines Equipped with Non-Conventional Ignition System Architecture

2020-06-30
2020-37-0035
The use of lean or ultra-lean ratios is an efficient and proven strategy to reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. However, the lower fuel concentration in the cylinder hinders the mixture ignition, requiring greater energy to start the combustion. The prechamber is an efficient method to provide high energy favoring the ignition process. It presents the potential to reduce the emission levels and the fuel consumption, operating with lean burn mixtures and expressive combustion stability. In this paper the analysis of the combustion process of SI engines equipped with an innovative architecture and operating in different injection modes was described. In particular, the effect of the prechamber ignition on the engine stability and the efficiency was investigated in stoichiometric and lean-burn operation conditions. The activity was carried out in two parts.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Additive-Manufacturing-Enabled Innovative Diesel Combustion Bowl Features for Achieving Ultra-Low Emissions and High Efficiency

2020-06-30
2020-37-0003
In recent years the research on Diesel engines has been increasingly shifting from performance and refinement to ultra-low emissions and efficiency. In fact, the last two attributes are key for the powertrain competitiveness in the propulsion electrified future, especially in the European market where 95gCO2/km fleet average and Euro6D RDE Step2 are phasing in at the same time. The present paper describes some of the most innovative research that GM and Istituto Motori Napoli are performing in the field, exploring how the steel-based additive manufacturing can be used to create innovative combustion bowl features that optimize the combustion process to a level that was not compatible with standard manufacturing technologies.
Technical Paper

A Power Split Hybrid Propulsion System for Vehicles with Gearbox

2020-06-30
2020-37-0014
New internal combustion engines (ICE) are characterized by increasing maximum efficiency, thanks to the adoption of strategies like Atkinson cycle, downsizing, cylinder deactivation, waste heat recovery and so on. However, the best performance is confined to a limited portion of the engine map. Moreover, electric driving in urban areas is an increasingly pressing request, but battery electric vehicles use cannot be easily spread, due to limited vehicle autonomy and recharging issues. Therefore, hybrid propulsion systems are under development, in order to reduce vehicle fuel consumption, by decoupling the ICE running from road load, as well as to permit energy recovery and electric driving. This paper analyses a new-patented solution for power split hybrid propulsion system with gearbox. The system comprises an auxiliary power unit, adapted to store and/or release energy, and a planetary gear set, which is interposed between the ICE and the gearbox.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Imaging of a Vaporizing GDI Spray: A Comparison between Schlieren, Shadowgraph, DBI and Scattering

2020-04-14
2020-01-0326
Isooctane sprays from a multi-hole GDI injector were investigated in a constant volume chamber by means of high speed imaging techniques. The tests were performed under inert conditions (nitrogen), at temperatures and densities ranging between representative operating conditions of late injection, flash boiling and early injection in a GDI engine. The global parameters of the sprays were obtained by processing Schlieren, Shadowgraph, DBI and Mie-scattering images through an in-house image processing method. Thus, the boundaries of the spray vapor phase can be easily detected with great accuracy, regardless of whether Schlieren or the less sensitive shadowgraph imaging is used. Furthermore, the boundaries of the liquid phase were also obtained from shadowgraph images and compared with those obtained through DBI and scattering. The results show that the signature of the liquid phase in a shadowgraph image can be distinguished from that of the vaporized fuel.
Technical Paper

Under-Expanded Gaseous Jets Characterization for Application in Direct Injection Engines: Experimental and Numerical Approach

2020-04-14
2020-01-0325
In the last years, increasing concerns about environmental pollution and fossil sources depletion led transport sectors research and development towards the study of new technologies capable to reduce vehicles emissions and fuel consumption. Direct-injection systems (DI) for internal combustion engines propose as an effective way to achieve these goals. This technology has already been adopted in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines and, lately, a great interest is growing for its use in natural gas fueling, so increasing efficiency with respect to port-fuel injection ones. Alone or in combination with other fuels, compressed natural gas (CNG) represents an attractive way to reduce exhaust emission (high H/C ratio), can be produced in renewable ways, and is more widespread and cheaper than gasoline or diesel fuels. Gas direct-injection process involves the occurrence of under-expanded jets in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Assessment of Active Pre-chamber Ignition in Heavy Duty Natural Gas Stationary Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0819
Gas engines (fuelled with CNG, LNG or Biogas) for generation of power and heat are, to this date, taking up larger shares of the market with respect to diesel engines. In order to meet the limit imposed by the TA-Luft regulations on stationary engines, lean combustion represents a viable solution for achieving lower emissions as well as efficiency levels comparable with diesel engines. Leaner mixtures however affect the combustion stability as the flame propagation velocity and consequently heat release rate are slowed down. As a strategy to deliver higher ignition energy, an active pre-chamber may be used. This work focuses on assessing the performance of a pre-chamber combustion configuration in a stationary heavy-duty engine for power generation, operating at different loads, air-to-fuel ratios and spark timings.
Technical Paper

Sub-23 nm Particle Emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicles and Engines: Sampling and Measure

2020-04-14
2020-01-0396
Nowadays, the regulation regards only the particles larger than 23 nm. The attention is shifting towards the sub-23 nm particles because of their large presence at the exhaust of the modern engines and their negative impact on human health. The main challenge of the regulation of these particles is the definition of a proper procedure for their measure. The nature of the sub-23 nm particles is not well understood, and their measure is strongly affected by the sampling conditions leading to not reliable measure. The aim of this paper is to provide information on the emissions of sub-23 nm particles from GDI vehicles/engines. At the same time, the presence of volatiles, which mainly contribute to the formation of sub-23 nm particles, was evaluated and the effect of sampling conditions was investigated. The analysis was performed on a 1.8L GDI powered vehicle, widely used both in North America and Europe, and a 4-cylinder GDI engine, whose features are similar to those of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ultra-High Injection Pressures up to 100 MPa on Gasoline Spray Morphology

2020-04-14
2020-01-0320
Very high pressures for injecting gasoline in internal combustion (i.c.) engines are recently explored for improving the air/fuel mixing process in order to control unburned hydrocarbons (UBHC) and particulate matter emissions such as for investigating new combustion concepts. The challenge remains the improvement of the spray parameters in terms of atomization, smaller droplets and their spread in the combustion chamber in order to enhance the combustion efficiency. In this framework, the raise of the injection pressure plays a key role in GDI engines for the trade-off of CO2 vs other pollutant emissions. This study aims contributing to the knowledge of the physical phenomena and mechanisms occurring when fuel is injected at ultra-high pressures for mapping and controlling the mixture formation.
Technical Paper

Experimental and 1D Numerical Investigations on the Exhaust Emissions of a Small Spark Ignition Engine Considering the Cylinder-by-Cylinder Variability

2020-04-14
2020-01-0578
This paper reports a numerical and experimental analysis on a twin-cylinder turbocharged Spark Ignition engine carried out to investigate the cylinder-to-cylinder variability in terms of performance, combustion evolution and exhaust emissions. The engine was tested at 3000 rpm in 20 different steady-state operating conditions, selected with the purpose of observing the influence of cylinder-by-cylinder A/F ratio variations and the EGR effects on the combustion process and exhaust emissions for low to medium/high loads. The experimental outcomes showed relevant differences in the combustion evolution (characteristic combustion angles) between cylinders and not negligible variations in the emissions of the single cylinder exhaust and the overall engine one. This misalignment resulted to be due to differences in the injected fuel amount by the port injectors in the two cylinders, mainly deriving from the specific fuel rail geometry.
Journal Article

Infrared/Visible Optical Diagnostics of RCCI Combustion with Dieseline in a Compression Ignition Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0557
Compression ignition engines are widely used for transport and energy generation due to their high efficiency and low fuel consumption. To minimize the environmental impact of this technology, the pollutant emissions levels at the exhaust are strictly regulated. To reduce the after-treatment needs, alternative strategies as the low temperature combustion (LTC) concepts are being investigated recently. The reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) uses two fuels (direct- and port- injected) with different reactivity to control the in-cylinder mixture reactivity by adjusting the proportion of both fuels. In spite of the proportion of the port-injected fuel is typically higher than the direct-injected one, the characteristics of the latter play a main role on the combustion process. Use of gasoline for direct injection is attractive to retard the start of combustion and to improve the air-fuel mixing process.
Technical Paper

Effects of Prechamber on Efficiency Improvement and Emissions Reduction of a SI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline

2019-10-07
2019-24-0236
The permanent aim of the automotive industry is the further improvement of the engine efficiency and the simultaneous pollutant emissions reduction. The aim of the study was the optimization of the gasoline combustion by means of a passive prechamber. This analysis allowed the improvement of the engine efficiency in lean-burn operation condition too. The investigation was carried out in a commercial small Spark Ignition (SI) engine fueled with gasoline and equipped with a proper designed passive prechamber. It was analyzed the effects of the prechamber on engine performance, Indicated Mean Effective Pressure, Heat Release Rate and Fuel Consumption were used. Gaseous emissions were measured as well. Particulate Mass, Number and Size Distributions were analyzed. Emissions samples were taken from the exhaust flow, just downstream of the valves. Four different engine speeds were investigated, namely 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 rpm.
Technical Paper

Knock Onset Detection Methods Evaluation by In-Cylinder Direct Observation

2019-10-07
2019-24-0233
Improvement of performance and emission of future internal combustion engine for passenger cars is mandatory during the transition period toward their substitution with electric propulsion systems. In middle time, direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines could offer a good compromise between fuel economy and exhaust emissions. However, abnormal combustion and particularly knock and super-knock are some of the most important obstacles to the improvement of SI engines efficiency. Although knock has been studied for many years and its basic characteristics are clear, phenomena involved in its occurrence are very complex and are still worth of investigation. In particular, the definition of an absolute knock intensity and the precise determination of the knock onset are arduous and many indexes and methodologies has been proposed. In this work, most used methods for knock onset detection from in- cylinder pressure signal have been considered.
Technical Paper

A Mixing Timescale Model for PDF Simulations of LTC Combustion Process in Internal Combustion Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0113
Transported probability density function (PDF) methods are currently being pursued as a viable approach to model the effects of turbulent mixing and mixture stratification, especially for new alternative combustion modes as for example Homogeneous Charge Compression ignition (HCCI) which is one of the advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) concepts. Recently, they have been applied to simple engine configurations to demonstrate the importance of accurate accounting for turbulence/chemistry interactions. PDF methods can explicitly account for the turbulent fluctuations in species composition and temperature relative to mean value. The choice of the mixing model is an important aspect of PDF approach. Different mixing models can be found in the literature, the most popular is the IEM model (Interaction by Exchange with the Mean). This model is very similar to the LMSE model (Linear Mean Square Estimation).
Technical Paper

Emissive Behavior of a Heavy-Duty SI Gas Engine During WHTC

2019-09-09
2019-24-0121
In the arduous aim to reduce petroleum fuel consumption and toxic emissions, gaseous fuels can represent an alternative solution for heavy duty applications with respect to conventional liquid fuels. At the same time, the imposition of more stringent emission regulations in the transport sector, is a crucial aspect to be taken into account during the development of future gas engines. Aim of the present paper was to characterize a heavy duty spark ignition engine, under development for Euro VI compliance, with a particular focus on exhaust particulate emissions. In this sense, the engine was installed on a dynamic test bench, accurately instrumented to analyze combustion evolution, performance and exhaust pollutant emissions, along the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC).
Technical Paper

Temperature Measurements of the Piston Optical Window in a Research Compression Ignition Engine to Set-Up a 1d Model of Heat Transfer in Transient Conditions

2019-09-09
2019-24-0182
The analysis of heat losses in internal combustion engines (ICEs) is fundamental to evaluate and to improve engine efficiency. Detailed and reliable heat transfer models are required for more complex 1d-3d combustion models. At the same time, the thermal status of engine components, like pistons, is needed for an efficient design. Measurements of piston temperature during ICEs operation represent an important and challenging result to get for the aforementioned purposes. In the present work, temperature measurements collected at different engine speeds and loads, both in motored and fired modes, have been performed and used to set-up a theoretical correlation and 1d model of heat transfer through the optical window of the piston. The in-cylinder gas and external ambient temperature, together with the thermodynamic and material properties are given. The model has been first calibrated in some selected operating conditions and then validated in the remaining.
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