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Journal Article

Investigation of Wave Stripping Models on a Generic Wing-Mirror Using a Coupled Level-Set Volume of Fluid Simulation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0682
Predicting Exterior Water Management is important for developing vehicles that meet customer expectations in adverse weather. Fluid film methods, with Lagrangian tracking, can provide spray and surface water simulations for complex vehicle geometries in on-road conditions. To cope with this complexity and provide practical engineering simulations, such methods rely on empirical sub-models to predict phenomena such as the film stripping from the surface. Experimental data to develop and validate such models is difficult to obtain therefore here a high-fidelity Coupled Level-set Volume of Fluid (CLSVOF) simulation is carried out. CLSVOF resolves the interface of the liquid in three dimensions; allowing direct simulation of film behaviour and interaction with the surrounding air. This is used to simulate a simplified wing-mirror, with air flow, on which water is introduced.
Technical Paper

Holistic Thermal Energy Modelling for Full Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)

2020-04-14
2020-01-0151
Full hybrid electric vehicles are usually defined by their capability to drive in a fully electric mode, offering the advantage that they do not produce any emissions at the point of use. This is particularly important in built up areas, where localized emissions in the form of NOx and particulate matter may worsen health issues such as respiratory disease. However, high degrees of electrification also mean that waste heat from the internal combustion engine is often not available for heating the cabin and for maintaining the temperature of the powertrain and emissions control system. If not managed properly, this can result in increased fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and reduced electric-only range at moderately high or low ambient temperatures negating many of the benefits of the electrification. This paper describes the development of a holistic, modular vehicle model designed for development of an integrated thermal energy management strategy.
Technical Paper

In the Wake of Others: Unsteady Bonnet Surface Pressure Predictions and Measurements

2020-04-14
2020-01-0676
In use cars often drive through the wakes of other vehicles. It has long been appreciated that this imposes a fluctuating onset flow which can excite a structural response in vehicle panels, particularly the bonnet. This structure must be designed to be robust to such excitation to guarantee structural integrity and maintain customer expectations of quality. As we move towards autonomous vehicles and exploit platoons for drag reduction, this onset flow condition merits further attention. The work reported here comprises both measurements and simulation capturing the unsteady pressure distribution over the bonnet of an SUV following a similar vehicle at high speed and in relatively close proximity. Measurements were taken during track testing and include 48 static measurement locations distributed over the bonnet where the unsteady static pressures were recorded.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of Reduced Span Side Tapering on a Simplified Model with Wheels

2020-04-14
2020-01-0680
Many modern vehicles have blunt rear end geometries for design aesthetics and practicality; however, such vehicles are potentially high drag. The application of tapering; typically applied to an entire edge of the base of the geometry is widely reported as a means of reducing drag, but in many cases, this is not practical on real vehicles. In this study side tapers are applied to only part of the side edge of a simplified automotive geometry, to show the effects of practical implementations of tapers. The paper reports on a parametric study undertaken in Loughborough University’s Large Wind Tunnel with the ¼ scale Windsor model equipped with wheels. The aerodynamic effect of implementing partial side edge tapers is assessed from a full height taper to a 25% taper in both an upper and lower body configuration. These were investigated using force and moment coefficients, pressure measurements and planar particle image velocimetry (PIV).
Technical Paper

Active Grille Shutters Control and Benefits in Medium to Large SUV: A System Engineering Approach

2020-04-14
2020-01-0945
Whilst the primary function of the active grille shutters is to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the car, there are some secondary benefits like improving the warm up time of engine and also retaining engine heat when parked. In turbocharged IC engines the air is compressed (heated) in the turbo and then cooled by a low temperature cooling system before going into the engine. When the air intake temperature exceeds a threshold value, the engine efficiency falls - this drives the need for the cooling airflow across the radiator in normal operation. Airflow is also required to manage the convective heat transfer across various components in the engine bay for its lifetime thermal durability. Grill shutters can also influence the aerodynamic lift balance thus impacting the vehicle dynamics at high speed. The vehicle HVAC system also relies on the condenser in the front heat exchanger pack disposing the waste heat off in the most efficient way.
Journal Article

Advances in Experimental Vehicle Soiling Tests

2020-04-14
2020-01-0681
The field of vision of the driver during wet road conditions is essential for safety at all times. Additionally, the safe use of the increasing number of sensors integrated in modern cars for autonomous driving and intelligent driver assistant systems has to be ensured even under challenging weather conditions. To fulfil these requirements during the development process of new cars, experimental and numerical investigations of vehicle soiling are performed. This paper presents the surface contamination of self- and foreign-soiling tested in the wind tunnel. For these type of tests, the fluorescence method is state-of-the-art and widely used for visualizing critical areas. In the last years, the importance of parameters like the contact angle have been identified when designing the experimental setup. In addition, new visualization techniques have been introduced.
Technical Paper

Modelling Pressure Losses in Gasoline Particulate Filters in High Flow Regimes and Temperatures

2019-12-19
2019-01-2330
This study presents a one-dimensional model for the prediction of the pressure loss across a wall-flow gasoline particulate filter (GPF). The model is an extension of the earlier models of Bissett [1] and Konstandopoulos and Johnson [2] to the turbulent flow regime, which may occur at high flow rates and temperatures characteristic of gasoline engine exhaust. A strength of the proposed model is that only one parameter (wall permeability) needs to be calibrated. An experimental study of flow losses for cold and hot flow is presented, and a good agreement is demonstrated. Unlike zero-dimensional models, this model provides information about the flow along the channels and thus can be extended for studies of soot and ash accumulation, heat transfer and reaction kinetics.
Technical Paper

Method Development and Application of Thermal Encapsulation to Reduce Fuel Consumption of Internal Combustion Powertrains

2019-04-02
2019-01-0902
Under bonnet thermal encapsulation is a method for retaining the heat generated by a running powertrain after it is turned off. By retaining the heat in the engine bay, the powertrain will be closer to its operating temperatures the next time it is started, reducing the warm up time required. This reduces the period of inefficiency due to high friction losses before the engine reaches it operating temperature, and as a result reduces the vehicles fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. To develop an integrated and efficient encapsulation design, CAE methods can be applied to allow this work stream to start as early in a vehicles development cycle as possible. In this work, the existing test methods are discussed, and a new Thermal CFD method is presented that accurately simulates the fluid temperatures after a customer representative 9 hour park period.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Wiper Drawback

2019-04-02
2019-01-0640
Windscreen wipers are an integral component of the windscreen cleaning systems of most vehicles, trains, cars, trucks, boats and some planes. Wipers are used to clear rain, snow, and dirt from the windscreen pushing the water from the wiped surface. Under certain conditions however, water which has been driven to the edge of the windscreen by the wiper can be drawn back into the driver’s field of view by aerodynamic forces introduced by the wiper motion. This is wiper drawback, an undesirable phenomenon as the water which is drawn back on to the windscreen can reduce driver’s vision and makes the wiper less effective. The phenomena of wiper drawback can be tested for in climatic tunnels using sprayer systems to wet the windscreen. However, these tests require a bespoke test property or prototype vehicle, which means that the tests are done fairly late in the development of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Soot Concentration in a Prototype Multi-Hole Diesel Injector by High-Speed Color Diffused Back Illumination Technique

2017-10-08
2017-01-2255
A prototype multi-hole diesel injector operating with n-heptane fuel from a high-pressure common rail system is used in a high-pressure and high-temperature test rig capable of reaching 1100 Kelvin and 150 bar under different oxygen concentrations. A novel optical set-up capable of visualizing the soot cloud evolution in the fuel jet from 30 to 85 millimeters from the nozzle exit with the high-speed color diffused back illumination technique is used as a result of the insertion of a high-pressure window in the injector holder opposite to the frontal window of the vessel. The experiments performed in this work used one wavelength provide information about physical of the soot properties, experimental results variating the operational conditions show the reduction of soot formation with an increase in injection pressure, a reduction in ambient temperature, a reduction in oxygen concentration or a reduction in ambient density.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Effect of a Swirl Flap and Asymmetric Inlet Valve Opening on a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2429
Diesel engine designers often use swirl flaps to increase air motion in cylinder at low engine speeds, where lower piston velocities reduce natural in-cylinder swirl. Such in-cylinder motion reduces smoke and CO emissions by improved fuel-air mixing. However, swirl flaps, acting like a throttle on a gasoline engine, create an additional pressure drop in the inlet manifold and thereby increase pumping work and fuel consumption. In addition, by increasing the fuel-air mixing in cylinder the combustion duration is shortened and the combustion temperature is increased; this has the effect of increasing NOx emissions. Typically, EGR rates are correspondingly increased to mitigate this effect. Late inlet valve closure, which reduces an engine’s effective compression ratio, has been shown to provide an alternative method of reducing NOx emissions.
Journal Article

Water Ingress Analysis and Splash Protection Evaluation for Vehicle Wading using Non-Classical CFD Simulation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1327
Physical testing of a vehicle wading through water is performed to gauge its capability to traverse through shallow to deep levels of water, wherein various vehicle performance parameters are observed, recorded and analysed. Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) has instigated and established a comprehensive CAE test procedure for assessing the same, which makes use of overset mesh (in a CFD environment) for a non-traditional approach to vehicle motion. The paper presents investigations made into the established wading physics, in order to optimise the splashing and water jet modelling. Large Scale Interface model was implemented instead of the previously standardised VOF-VOF fluid phase interaction model, and a comparison is made between the two. The implemented wheel rotation approach was scrutinised as well and appropriate inferences are drawn.
Journal Article

A Parametric Study of Automotive Rear End Geometries on Rear Soiling

2017-03-28
2017-01-1511
The motivation for this paper is to consider the effect of rear end geometry on rear soiling using a representative generic SUV body. In particular the effect of varying the top slant angle is considered using both experiment and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Previous work has shown that slant angle has a significant effect on wake shape and drag and the work here extends this to investigate the effect on rear soiling. It is hoped that this work can provide an insight into the likely effect of such geometry changes on the soiling of similarly shaped road vehicles. To increase the generality of results, and to allow comparison with previously obtained aerodynamic data, a 25% scale generic SUV model is used in the Loughborough University Large Wind Tunnel. UV doped water is sprayed from a position located at the bottom of the left rear tyre to simulate the creation of spray from this tyre.
Journal Article

The Effect of Passive Base Ventilation on the Aerodynamic Drag of a Generic SUV Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1548
Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs) typically have a blunt rear end shape (for design and practicality), however this is not beneficial for aerodynamic drag. Drag can be reduced by a number of passive and active methods such as tapering and blowing into the base. In an effort to combine these effects and to reduce the drag of a visually square geometry slots have been introduced in the upper side and roof trailing edges of a squareback geometry, to take air from the freestream and passively injects it into the base of the vehicle to effectively create a tapered body. This investigation has been conducted in the Loughborough University’s Large Wind Tunnel with the ¼ scale generic SUV model. The basic aerodynamic effect of a range of body tapers and straight slots have been assessed for 0° yaw. This includes force and pressure measurements for most configurations.
Technical Paper

Complete Body Aerodynamic Study of three Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1529
Cooling drag, typically known as the difference in drag coefficient between open and closed cooling configurations, has traditionally proven to be a difficult flow phenomenon to predict using computational fluid dynamics. It was seen as an academic yardstick before the advent of grille shutter systems. However, their introduction has increased the need to accurately predict the drag of a vehicle in a variety of different cooling configurations during vehicle development. This currently represents one of the greatest predictive challenges to the automotive industry due to being the net effect of many flow field changes around the vehicle. A comprehensive study is presented in the paper to discuss the notion of defining cooling drag as a number and to explore its effect on three automotive models with different cooling drag deltas using the commercial CFD solvers; STARCCM+ and Exa PowerFLOW.
Journal Article

Development of a Virtual Multi-Axial Simulation Table to Enhance the Prognosis of Loads on Powertrain Mounting System During Durability Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-0420
Vibration Isolation is the key objective of engine mounting systems in the automotive industry. A well-designed, robust engine mount must be capable of isolating the engine assembly from road-based excitations. Owing to high vibration inputs, engine mounts are susceptible to wear and failure. Thus, the durability of engine mounts is a cause for concern. A design validation methodology has been developed at Jaguar Land Rover using Multibody Dynamics (MBD) to enhance the prognosis of engine mount loads during full - vehicle durability test events. This paper describes the development of a virtual multi-axial simulation table rig (MAST Rig) to test virtual engine mount designs. For the particular example considered in this paper, a simple sinusoidal input is applied to the MAST Rig. The development of the virtual MAST Rig has been described including details of the modelling methodology.
Journal Article

Off-Road Tire-Terrain Interaction: An Analytical Solution

2016-09-27
2016-01-8029
A novel semi-analytical solution has been developed for the calculation of the static and dynamic response of an off road tire interacting with a deformable terrain, which utilizes soil parameters independent of the size of the contact patch (size-independent). The models involved in the solution presented, can be categorized in rigid and/or pneumatic tires, with or without tread pattern. After a concise literature review of related methods, a detailed presentation of the semi-analytical solution is presented, along with assumptions and limitations. A flowchart is provided, showing the main steps of the numerical implementation, and various test cases have been examined, characterized in terms of vertical load, tire dimensions, soil properties, deformability of the tire, and tread pattern. It has been found that the proposed model can qualitatively capture the response of a rolling wheel on deformable terrain.
Technical Paper

Robust Application of CBE and OBE for Engine Testing System Diagnosis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0987
Tightening emissions regulations are driving increasing focus on both equipment and measurement capabilities in the test cell environment. Customer expectations are therefore rising with respect to data uncertainty. Key critical test cell parameters such as load, fuel rate, air flow and emission measurements are more heavily under scrutiny and require real time methods of verification over and above the traditional test cell calibration in 40CFR1065 regulation. The objective of this paper is to develop a system to use a carbon dioxide (CO2) based balance error and an oxygen (O2) based balance error for diagnosing the main measurement system error in the test cell such as fuel rate meter, air flow meter, emission sample line, pressure transducer and thermocouples. The general combustion equation is used to set up the balance equations with assumptions. To validate the air fuel ratio balance model an experimental investigation was carried out for D2 5 mode and C1 8 mode cycle test.
Journal Article

A Fully Coupled, 6 Degree-of-Freedom, Aerodynamic and Vehicle Handling Crosswind Simulation using the DrivAer Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-1601
In a real-world environment, a vehicle on the road is subjected to a range of flow yaw angles, the most severe of which can impact handling and stability. A fully coupled, six degrees-of-freedom CFD and vehicle handling simulation has modelled the complete closed loop system. Varying flow yaw angles are introduced via time dependent boundary conditions and aerodynamic loads predicted, whilst a handling model running simultaneously calculates the resulting vehicle response. Updates to the vehicle position and orientation within the CFD simulation are achieved using the overset grid method. Using this approach, a crosswind simulation that follows the parameters of ISO 12021:2010 (Sensitivity to lateral wind - Open-loop test method using wind generator input), was performed using the fastback variant of the DrivAer model. Fully coupled aerodynamic and vehicle response was compared to that obtained using the simplified quasi-steady and unsteady, one way coupled method.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Study of Vehicle Surface Contamination on a Generic Bluff Body

2016-04-05
2016-01-1604
This paper focuses on methods used to model vehicle surface contamination arising as a result of rear wake aerodynamics. Besides being unsightly, contamination, such as self-soiling from rear tyre spray, can degrade the performance of lighting, rear view cameras and obstruct visibility through windows. In order to accurately predict likely contamination patterns, it is necessary to consider the aerodynamics and multiphase spray processes together. This paper presents an experimental and numerical (CFD) investigation of the phenomenon. The experimental study investigates contamination with controlled conditions in a wind tunnel using a generic bluff body (the Windsor model.) Contamination is represented by a water spray located beneath the rear of the vehicle.
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