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Technical Paper

Holistic Thermal Energy Modelling for Full Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)

2020-04-14
2020-01-0151
Full hybrid electric vehicles are usually defined by their capability to drive in a fully electric mode, offering the advantage that they do not produce any emissions at the point of use. This is particularly important in built up areas, where localized emissions in the form of NOx and particulate matter may worsen health issues such as respiratory disease. However, high degrees of electrification also mean that waste heat from the internal combustion engine is often not available for heating the cabin and for maintaining the temperature of the powertrain and emissions control system. If not managed properly, this can result in increased fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and reduced electric-only range at moderately high or low ambient temperatures negating many of the benefits of the electrification. This paper describes the development of a holistic, modular vehicle model designed for development of an integrated thermal energy management strategy.
Technical Paper

In the Wake of Others: Unsteady Bonnet Surface Pressure Predictions and Measurements

2020-04-14
2020-01-0676
In use cars often drive through the wakes of other vehicles. It has long been appreciated that this imposes a fluctuating onset flow which can excite a structural response in vehicle panels, particularly the bonnet. This structure must be designed to be robust to such excitation to guarantee structural integrity and maintain customer expectations of quality. As we move towards autonomous vehicles and exploit platoons for drag reduction, this onset flow condition merits further attention. The work reported here comprises both measurements and simulation capturing the unsteady pressure distribution over the bonnet of an SUV following a similar vehicle at high speed and in relatively close proximity. Measurements were taken during track testing and include 48 static measurement locations distributed over the bonnet where the unsteady static pressures were recorded.
Journal Article

Advances in Experimental Vehicle Soiling Tests

2020-04-14
2020-01-0681
The field of vision of the driver during wet road conditions is essential for safety at all times. Additionally, the safe use of the increasing number of sensors integrated in modern cars for autonomous driving and intelligent driver assistant systems has to be ensured even under challenging weather conditions. To fulfil these requirements during the development process of new cars, experimental and numerical investigations of vehicle soiling are performed. This paper presents the surface contamination of self- and foreign-soiling tested in the wind tunnel. For these type of tests, the fluorescence method is state-of-the-art and widely used for visualizing critical areas. In the last years, the importance of parameters like the contact angle have been identified when designing the experimental setup. In addition, new visualization techniques have been introduced.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of Reduced Span Side Tapering on a Simplified Model with Wheels

2020-04-14
2020-01-0680
Many modern vehicles have blunt rear end geometries for design aesthetics and practicality; however, such vehicles are potentially high drag. The application of tapering; typically applied to an entire edge of the base of the geometry is widely reported as a means of reducing drag, but in many cases, this is not practical on real vehicles. In this study side tapers are applied to only part of the side edge of a simplified automotive geometry, to show the effects of practical implementations of tapers. The paper reports on a parametric study undertaken in Loughborough University’s Large Wind Tunnel with the ¼ scale Windsor model equipped with wheels. The aerodynamic effect of implementing partial side edge tapers is assessed from a full height taper to a 25% taper in both an upper and lower body configuration. These were investigated using force and moment coefficients, pressure measurements and planar particle image velocimetry (PIV).
Technical Paper

Active Grille Shutters Control and Benefits in Medium to Large SUV: A System Engineering Approach

2020-04-14
2020-01-0945
Whilst the primary function of the active grille shutters is to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the car, there are some secondary benefits like improving the warm up time of engine and also retaining engine heat when parked. In turbocharged IC engines the air is compressed (heated) in the turbo and then cooled by a low temperature cooling system before going into the engine. When the air intake temperature exceeds a threshold value, the engine efficiency falls - this drives the need for the cooling airflow across the radiator in normal operation. Airflow is also required to manage the convective heat transfer across various components in the engine bay for its lifetime thermal durability. Grill shutters can also influence the aerodynamic lift balance thus impacting the vehicle dynamics at high speed. The vehicle HVAC system also relies on the condenser in the front heat exchanger pack disposing the waste heat off in the most efficient way.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Wiper Drawback

2019-04-02
2019-01-0640
Windscreen wipers are an integral component of the windscreen cleaning systems of most vehicles, trains, cars, trucks, boats and some planes. Wipers are used to clear rain, snow, and dirt from the windscreen pushing the water from the wiped surface. Under certain conditions however, water which has been driven to the edge of the windscreen by the wiper can be drawn back into the driver’s field of view by aerodynamic forces introduced by the wiper motion. This is wiper drawback, an undesirable phenomenon as the water which is drawn back on to the windscreen can reduce driver’s vision and makes the wiper less effective. The phenomena of wiper drawback can be tested for in climatic tunnels using sprayer systems to wet the windscreen. However, these tests require a bespoke test property or prototype vehicle, which means that the tests are done fairly late in the development of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

HyPACE - Hybrid Petrol Advance Combustion Engine - Advanced Boosting System for Extended Stoichiometric Operation and Improved Dynamic Response

2019-04-02
2019-01-0325
The HyPACE (Hybrid Petrol Advanced Combustion Engine) project is a part UK government funded research project established to develop a high thermal efficiency petrol engine that is optimized for hybrid vehicle applications. The project combines the capabilities of a number of partners (Jaguar Land Rover, BorgWarner, MAHLE Powertrain, Johnson Matthey, Cambustion and Oxford University) with the target of achieving a 10% vehicle fuel consumption reduction, whilst still achieving a 90 to 100 kW/liter power rating through the novel application of a combination of new technologies. The baseline engine for the project was Jaguar Land Rover’s new Ingenium 4-cylinder petrol engine which includes an advanced continuously variable intake valve actuation mechanism. A concept study has been undertaken and detailed combustion Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to enable the optimization of the combustion system layout of the engine.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Soot Concentration in a Prototype Multi-Hole Diesel Injector by High-Speed Color Diffused Back Illumination Technique

2017-10-08
2017-01-2255
A prototype multi-hole diesel injector operating with n-heptane fuel from a high-pressure common rail system is used in a high-pressure and high-temperature test rig capable of reaching 1100 Kelvin and 150 bar under different oxygen concentrations. A novel optical set-up capable of visualizing the soot cloud evolution in the fuel jet from 30 to 85 millimeters from the nozzle exit with the high-speed color diffused back illumination technique is used as a result of the insertion of a high-pressure window in the injector holder opposite to the frontal window of the vessel. The experiments performed in this work used one wavelength provide information about physical of the soot properties, experimental results variating the operational conditions show the reduction of soot formation with an increase in injection pressure, a reduction in ambient temperature, a reduction in oxygen concentration or a reduction in ambient density.
Technical Paper

Development of a High Fidelity CAE Model for Predicting Brake System Temperatures

2017-03-28
2017-01-0145
In order to specify a brake system that will have robust performance over the entire range of expected vehicle drive cycles it is vital that it has sufficient thermal inertia and dissipation to ensure that component temperatures are kept within acceptable limits. This paper presents a high fidelity CAE (computer aided engineering) technique for predicting the temperature of the front brake and the surrounding suspension components whilst installed on vehicle. To define the boundary conditions the process utilizes a coupled unsteady CFD (computational fluid dynamics) and thermal solver to accurately predict the convective heat transfer coefficients across a range of vehicle speeds. A 1-D model is used to predict the brake energy inputs as well as the vehicle speed-time curves during the drive cycle based on key vehicle parameters including wide-open-throttle performance, drive train losses, rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag etc.
Journal Article

Water Ingress Analysis and Splash Protection Evaluation for Vehicle Wading using Non-Classical CFD Simulation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1327
Physical testing of a vehicle wading through water is performed to gauge its capability to traverse through shallow to deep levels of water, wherein various vehicle performance parameters are observed, recorded and analysed. Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) has instigated and established a comprehensive CAE test procedure for assessing the same, which makes use of overset mesh (in a CFD environment) for a non-traditional approach to vehicle motion. The paper presents investigations made into the established wading physics, in order to optimise the splashing and water jet modelling. Large Scale Interface model was implemented instead of the previously standardised VOF-VOF fluid phase interaction model, and a comparison is made between the two. The implemented wheel rotation approach was scrutinised as well and appropriate inferences are drawn.
Journal Article

The Effect of Passive Base Ventilation on the Aerodynamic Drag of a Generic SUV Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1548
Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs) typically have a blunt rear end shape (for design and practicality), however this is not beneficial for aerodynamic drag. Drag can be reduced by a number of passive and active methods such as tapering and blowing into the base. In an effort to combine these effects and to reduce the drag of a visually square geometry slots have been introduced in the upper side and roof trailing edges of a squareback geometry, to take air from the freestream and passively injects it into the base of the vehicle to effectively create a tapered body. This investigation has been conducted in the Loughborough University’s Large Wind Tunnel with the ¼ scale generic SUV model. The basic aerodynamic effect of a range of body tapers and straight slots have been assessed for 0° yaw. This includes force and pressure measurements for most configurations.
Technical Paper

Complete Body Aerodynamic Study of three Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1529
Cooling drag, typically known as the difference in drag coefficient between open and closed cooling configurations, has traditionally proven to be a difficult flow phenomenon to predict using computational fluid dynamics. It was seen as an academic yardstick before the advent of grille shutter systems. However, their introduction has increased the need to accurately predict the drag of a vehicle in a variety of different cooling configurations during vehicle development. This currently represents one of the greatest predictive challenges to the automotive industry due to being the net effect of many flow field changes around the vehicle. A comprehensive study is presented in the paper to discuss the notion of defining cooling drag as a number and to explore its effect on three automotive models with different cooling drag deltas using the commercial CFD solvers; STARCCM+ and Exa PowerFLOW.
Journal Article

Off-Road Tire-Terrain Interaction: An Analytical Solution

2016-09-27
2016-01-8029
A novel semi-analytical solution has been developed for the calculation of the static and dynamic response of an off road tire interacting with a deformable terrain, which utilizes soil parameters independent of the size of the contact patch (size-independent). The models involved in the solution presented, can be categorized in rigid and/or pneumatic tires, with or without tread pattern. After a concise literature review of related methods, a detailed presentation of the semi-analytical solution is presented, along with assumptions and limitations. A flowchart is provided, showing the main steps of the numerical implementation, and various test cases have been examined, characterized in terms of vertical load, tire dimensions, soil properties, deformability of the tire, and tread pattern. It has been found that the proposed model can qualitatively capture the response of a rolling wheel on deformable terrain.
Technical Paper

Robust Application of CBE and OBE for Engine Testing System Diagnosis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0987
Tightening emissions regulations are driving increasing focus on both equipment and measurement capabilities in the test cell environment. Customer expectations are therefore rising with respect to data uncertainty. Key critical test cell parameters such as load, fuel rate, air flow and emission measurements are more heavily under scrutiny and require real time methods of verification over and above the traditional test cell calibration in 40CFR1065 regulation. The objective of this paper is to develop a system to use a carbon dioxide (CO2) based balance error and an oxygen (O2) based balance error for diagnosing the main measurement system error in the test cell such as fuel rate meter, air flow meter, emission sample line, pressure transducer and thermocouples. The general combustion equation is used to set up the balance equations with assumptions. To validate the air fuel ratio balance model an experimental investigation was carried out for D2 5 mode and C1 8 mode cycle test.
Technical Paper

Full Vehicle Aero-Thermal Cooling Drag Sensitivity Analysis for Various Radiator Pressure Drops

2016-04-05
2016-01-1578
Simulations are presented which fully couple both the aerodynamics and cooling flow for a model of a fully engineered production saloon car (Jaguar XJ) with a two-tier cooling pack. This allows for the investigation of the overall aerodynamic impact of the under-hood cooling flow, which is difficult to predict experimentally. The simulations use a 100 million-element mesh, surface wrapped and solved to convergence using a commercially available RANS solver (STARCCM+). The methodology employs representative boundary conditions, such as rotating wheels and a moving ground plane. A review is provided of the effect of cooling flows on the vehicle aerodynamics, compared to published data, which suggest cooling flow accounts for 26 drag counts (0.026 Cd). Further, a sensitivity analysis of the pressure drop curves used in the porous media model of the heat exchangers is made, allowing for an initial understanding of the effect on the overall aerodynamics.
Technical Paper

Influence of Short Rear End Tapers on the Unsteady Base Pressure of a Simplified Ground Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1590
Short tapered sections on the trailing edge of the roof, underside and sides of a vehicle are a common feature of the aerodynamic optimization process and are known to have a significant effect on the base pressure and thereby the vehicle drag. In this paper the effects of such high aspect ratio chamfers on the time-dependent base pressure are investigated. Short tapered surfaces, with a chord approximately equal to 4% of the overall model length, were applied to the trailing edges of a simplified passenger car model (the Windsor Body) and base pressure studied via an array of surface pressure tappings. Two sets of configurations were tested. In the first case, a chamfer was applied only to the top or bottom trailing edge. A combination of taper angles was also considered. In the second case, the chamfer was applied to the side edges of the model base, leaving the horizontal trailing edges squared.
Journal Article

Application of CFD to Predict Brake Disc Contamination in Wet Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1619
Brake disc materials are being utilised that have low noise/dust properties, but are sensitive to contamination by surface water. This drives large dust shields, making brake cooling increasingly difficult. However, brake cooling must be delivered without compromising aerodynamic drag and hence CO2 emissions targets. Given that front brake discs sit in a region of geometric, packaging and flow complexity optimization of their performance requires the analysis of thermal, aerodynamic and multi-phase flows. Some of the difficulties inherent in this task would be alleviated if the complete analysis could be performed in the same CAE environment: utilizing common models and the same solver technology. Hence the project described in this paper has sought to develop a CFD method that predicts the amount of contamination (water) that reaches the front brake discs, using a standard commercial code already exploited for both brake disc thermal and aerodynamics analysis.
Technical Paper

Passengers vs. Battery: Calculation of Cooling Requirements in a PHEV

2016-04-05
2016-01-0241
The power demand of air conditioning in PHEVs is known to have a significant impact on the vehicle’s fuel economy and performance. Besides the cooling power associated to the passenger cabin, in many PHEVs, the air conditioning system provides power to cool the high voltage battery. Calculating the cooling power demands of the cabin and battery and their impact on the vehicle performance can help with developing optimum system design and energy management strategies. In this paper, a representative vehicle model is used to calculate these cooling requirements over a 24-hour duty cycle. A number of pre-cooling and after-run cooling strategies are studied and effect of each strategy on the performance of the vehicle including, energy efficiency, battery degradation and passenger thermal comfort are calculated. Results show that after-run cooling of the battery should be considered as it can lead to significant reductions in battery degradation.
Journal Article

A Fully Coupled, 6 Degree-of-Freedom, Aerodynamic and Vehicle Handling Crosswind Simulation using the DrivAer Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-1601
In a real-world environment, a vehicle on the road is subjected to a range of flow yaw angles, the most severe of which can impact handling and stability. A fully coupled, six degrees-of-freedom CFD and vehicle handling simulation has modelled the complete closed loop system. Varying flow yaw angles are introduced via time dependent boundary conditions and aerodynamic loads predicted, whilst a handling model running simultaneously calculates the resulting vehicle response. Updates to the vehicle position and orientation within the CFD simulation are achieved using the overset grid method. Using this approach, a crosswind simulation that follows the parameters of ISO 12021:2010 (Sensitivity to lateral wind - Open-loop test method using wind generator input), was performed using the fastback variant of the DrivAer model. Fully coupled aerodynamic and vehicle response was compared to that obtained using the simplified quasi-steady and unsteady, one way coupled method.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Study of Vehicle Surface Contamination on a Generic Bluff Body

2016-04-05
2016-01-1604
This paper focuses on methods used to model vehicle surface contamination arising as a result of rear wake aerodynamics. Besides being unsightly, contamination, such as self-soiling from rear tyre spray, can degrade the performance of lighting, rear view cameras and obstruct visibility through windows. In order to accurately predict likely contamination patterns, it is necessary to consider the aerodynamics and multiphase spray processes together. This paper presents an experimental and numerical (CFD) investigation of the phenomenon. The experimental study investigates contamination with controlled conditions in a wind tunnel using a generic bluff body (the Windsor model.) Contamination is represented by a water spray located beneath the rear of the vehicle.
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