Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

In the Wake of Others: Unsteady Bonnet Surface Pressure Predictions and Measurements

2020-04-14
2020-01-0676
In use cars often drive through the wakes of other vehicles. It has long been appreciated that this imposes a fluctuating onset flow which can excite a structural response in vehicle panels, particularly the bonnet. This structure must be designed to be robust to such excitation to guarantee structural integrity and maintain customer expectations of quality. As we move towards autonomous vehicles and exploit platoons for drag reduction, this onset flow condition merits further attention. The work reported here comprises both measurements and simulation capturing the unsteady pressure distribution over the bonnet of an SUV following a similar vehicle at high speed and in relatively close proximity. Measurements were taken during track testing and include 48 static measurement locations distributed over the bonnet where the unsteady static pressures were recorded.
Technical Paper

Method Development and Application of Thermal Encapsulation to Reduce Fuel Consumption of Internal Combustion Powertrains

2019-04-02
2019-01-0902
Under bonnet thermal encapsulation is a method for retaining the heat generated by a running powertrain after it is turned off. By retaining the heat in the engine bay, the powertrain will be closer to its operating temperatures the next time it is started, reducing the warm up time required. This reduces the period of inefficiency due to high friction losses before the engine reaches it operating temperature, and as a result reduces the vehicles fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. To develop an integrated and efficient encapsulation design, CAE methods can be applied to allow this work stream to start as early in a vehicles development cycle as possible. In this work, the existing test methods are discussed, and a new Thermal CFD method is presented that accurately simulates the fluid temperatures after a customer representative 9 hour park period.
Technical Paper

HyPACE - Hybrid Petrol Advance Combustion Engine - Advanced Boosting System for Extended Stoichiometric Operation and Improved Dynamic Response

2019-04-02
2019-01-0325
The HyPACE (Hybrid Petrol Advanced Combustion Engine) project is a part UK government funded research project established to develop a high thermal efficiency petrol engine that is optimized for hybrid vehicle applications. The project combines the capabilities of a number of partners (Jaguar Land Rover, BorgWarner, MAHLE Powertrain, Johnson Matthey, Cambustion and Oxford University) with the target of achieving a 10% vehicle fuel consumption reduction, whilst still achieving a 90 to 100 kW/liter power rating through the novel application of a combination of new technologies. The baseline engine for the project was Jaguar Land Rover’s new Ingenium 4-cylinder petrol engine which includes an advanced continuously variable intake valve actuation mechanism. A concept study has been undertaken and detailed combustion Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to enable the optimization of the combustion system layout of the engine.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Soot Concentration in a Prototype Multi-Hole Diesel Injector by High-Speed Color Diffused Back Illumination Technique

2017-10-08
2017-01-2255
A prototype multi-hole diesel injector operating with n-heptane fuel from a high-pressure common rail system is used in a high-pressure and high-temperature test rig capable of reaching 1100 Kelvin and 150 bar under different oxygen concentrations. A novel optical set-up capable of visualizing the soot cloud evolution in the fuel jet from 30 to 85 millimeters from the nozzle exit with the high-speed color diffused back illumination technique is used as a result of the insertion of a high-pressure window in the injector holder opposite to the frontal window of the vessel. The experiments performed in this work used one wavelength provide information about physical of the soot properties, experimental results variating the operational conditions show the reduction of soot formation with an increase in injection pressure, a reduction in ambient temperature, a reduction in oxygen concentration or a reduction in ambient density.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Effect of a Swirl Flap and Asymmetric Inlet Valve Opening on a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2429
Diesel engine designers often use swirl flaps to increase air motion in cylinder at low engine speeds, where lower piston velocities reduce natural in-cylinder swirl. Such in-cylinder motion reduces smoke and CO emissions by improved fuel-air mixing. However, swirl flaps, acting like a throttle on a gasoline engine, create an additional pressure drop in the inlet manifold and thereby increase pumping work and fuel consumption. In addition, by increasing the fuel-air mixing in cylinder the combustion duration is shortened and the combustion temperature is increased; this has the effect of increasing NOx emissions. Typically, EGR rates are correspondingly increased to mitigate this effect. Late inlet valve closure, which reduces an engine’s effective compression ratio, has been shown to provide an alternative method of reducing NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Effect of Fuel/Air Interactions in a Modern High-Speed Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0075
Modern diesel cars, fitted with state-of-the-art aftertreatment systems, have the capability to emit extremely low levels of pollutant species at the tailpipe. However, diesel aftertreatment systems can represent a significant cost, packaging and maintenance requirement. Reducing engine-out emissions in order to reduce the scale of the aftertreatment system is therefore a high priority research topic. Engine-out emissions from diesel engines are, to a significant degree, dependent on the detail of fuel/air interactions that occur in-cylinder, both during the injection and combustion events and also due to the induced air motion in and around the bowl prior to injection. In this paper the effect of two different piston bowl shapes are investigated.
Technical Paper

Robust Application of CBE and OBE for Engine Testing System Diagnosis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0987
Tightening emissions regulations are driving increasing focus on both equipment and measurement capabilities in the test cell environment. Customer expectations are therefore rising with respect to data uncertainty. Key critical test cell parameters such as load, fuel rate, air flow and emission measurements are more heavily under scrutiny and require real time methods of verification over and above the traditional test cell calibration in 40CFR1065 regulation. The objective of this paper is to develop a system to use a carbon dioxide (CO2) based balance error and an oxygen (O2) based balance error for diagnosing the main measurement system error in the test cell such as fuel rate meter, air flow meter, emission sample line, pressure transducer and thermocouples. The general combustion equation is used to set up the balance equations with assumptions. To validate the air fuel ratio balance model an experimental investigation was carried out for D2 5 mode and C1 8 mode cycle test.
Technical Paper

Influence of Short Rear End Tapers on the Unsteady Base Pressure of a Simplified Ground Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1590
Short tapered sections on the trailing edge of the roof, underside and sides of a vehicle are a common feature of the aerodynamic optimization process and are known to have a significant effect on the base pressure and thereby the vehicle drag. In this paper the effects of such high aspect ratio chamfers on the time-dependent base pressure are investigated. Short tapered surfaces, with a chord approximately equal to 4% of the overall model length, were applied to the trailing edges of a simplified passenger car model (the Windsor Body) and base pressure studied via an array of surface pressure tappings. Two sets of configurations were tested. In the first case, a chamfer was applied only to the top or bottom trailing edge. A combination of taper angles was also considered. In the second case, the chamfer was applied to the side edges of the model base, leaving the horizontal trailing edges squared.
Technical Paper

Aspects of Numerical Modelling of Flash-Boiling Fuel Sprays

2015-09-06
2015-24-2463
Flash-boiling of sprays may occur when a superheated liquid is discharged into an ambient environment with lower pressure than its saturation pressure. Such conditions normally exist in direct-injection spark-ignition engines operating at low in-cylinder pressures and/or high fuel temperatures. The addition of novel high volatile additives/fuels may also promote flash-boiling. Fuel flashing plays a significant role in mixture formation by promoting faster breakup and higher fuel evaporation rates compared to non-flashing conditions. Therefore, fundamental understanding of the characteristics of flashing sprays is necessary for the development of more efficient mixture formation. The present computational work focuses on modelling flash-boiling of n-Pentane and iso-Octane sprays using a Lagrangian particle tracking technique.
Journal Article

Analytical and Developmental Techniques Utilized in the Structural Optimization of a New Lightweight Diesel Engine

2015-06-15
2015-01-2298
Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) has designed and developed a new inline 4 cylinder engine family, branded Ingenium. In addition to delivering improved emissions and fuel economy over the outgoing engine, another key aim from the outset of the program was to reduce the combustion noise. This paper details the NVH development of the lead engine in this family, a 2.0 liter common rail turbo diesel. The task from the outset of this new program was to reduce the mass of the engine by 21.5 kg, whilst also improving the structural attenuation of the engine by 5 dB in comparison to the outgoing engine. Improving the structural attenuation by 5 dB was not only a key enabler in reducing combustion noise, but also helped to achieve a certified CO2 performance of 99 g/km in the all-new Jaguar XE model, by allowing more scope for increasing cylinder pressure forcing without compromising NVH.
Journal Article

Feedforward Control Approach for Digital Combustion Rate Shaping Realizing Predefined Combustion Processes

2015-04-14
2015-01-0876
The aim of this research collaboration focuses on the realization of a novel Diesel combustion control strategy, known as Digital Combustion Rate Shaping (DiCoRS) for transient engine operation. Therefore, this paper presents an initial, 3D-CFD simulation based evaluation of a physical model-based feedforward controller, considered as a fundamental tool to apply real-time capable combustion rate shaping to a future engine test campaign. DiCoRS is a promising concept to improve noise, soot and HC/CO emissions in parallel, without generating drawbacks in NOx emission and combustion efficiency. Instead of controlling distinct combustion characteristics, DiCoRS aims at controlling the full combustion process and therefore represents the highest possible degree of freedom for combustion control. The manipulated variable is the full injection profile, generally consisting of multiple injection events.
Journal Article

A New De-throttling Concept in a Twin-Charged Gasoline Engine System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1258
Throttling loss of downsized gasoline engines is significantly smaller than that of naturally aspirated counterparts. However, even the extremely downsized gasoline engine can still suffer a relatively large throttling loss when operating under part load conditions. Various de-throttling concepts have been proposed recently, such as using a FGT or VGT turbine on the intake as a de-throttling mechanism or applying valve throttling to control the charge airflow. Although they all can adjust the mass air flow without a throttle in regular use, an extra component or complicated control strategies have to be adopted. This paper will, for the first time, propose a de-throttling concept in a twin-charged gasoline engine with minimum modification of the existing system. The research engine model which this paper is based on is a 60% downsized 2.0L four cylinder gasoline demonstrator engine with both a supercharger and turbocharger on the intake.
Technical Paper

A New Turboexpansion Concept in a Twin-Charged Engine System

2014-10-13
2014-01-2596
Engines equipped with pressure charging systems are more prone to knock partly due the increased intake temperature. Meanwhile, turbocharged engines when operating at high engine speeds and loads cannot fully utilize the exhaust energy as the wastegate is opened to prevent overboost. The turboexpansion concept thus is conceived to reduce the intake temperature by utilizing some otherwise unexploited exhaust energy. This concept can be applied to any turbocharged engines equipped with both a compressor and a turbine-like expander on the intake loop. The turbocharging system is designed to achieve maximum utilization of the exhaust energy, from which the intake charge is over-boosted. After the intercooler, the turbine-like expander expands the over-compressed intake charge to the required plenum pressure and reduces its temperature whilst recovering some energy through the connection to the crankshaft.
Journal Article

Octane Appetite: The Relevance of a Lower Limit to the MON Specification in a Downsized, Highly Boosted DISI Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2718
Market demand for high performance gasoline vehicles and increasingly strict government emissions regulations are driving the development of highly downsized, boosted direct injection engines. The in-cylinder temperatures and pressures of these emerging technologies tend to no longer adhere to the test conditions defining the RON and MON octane rating scales. This divergence between fuel knock rating methods and fuel performance in modern engines has previously led to the development of an engine and operating condition dependent scaling factor, K, which allows for extrapolation of RON and MON values. Downsized, boosted DISI engines have been generally shown to have negative K-values when knock limited, indicating a preference for fuels of higher sensitivity and challenging the relevance of a lower limit to the MON specification.
Journal Article

EU6c Particle Number on a Full Size SUV - Engine Out or GPF?

2014-10-13
2014-01-2848
This paper describes the findings of a design, simulation and test study into how to reduce particulate number (Pn) emissions in order to meet EU6c legislative limits. The objective of the study was to evaluate the Pn potential of a modern 6-cylinder engine with respect to hardware and calibration when fitted to a full size SUV. Having understood this capability, to redesign the combustion system and optimise the calibration in order to meet an engineering target value of 3×1011 Pn #/km using the NEDC drive cycle. The design and simulation tasks were conducted by JLR with support from AVL. The calibration and all of the vehicle testing was conducted by AVL, in Graz. Extensive design and CFD work was conducted to refine the inlet port, piston crown and injector spray pattern in order to reduce surface wetting and improve air to fuel mixing homogeneity. The design and CFD steps are detailed along with the results compared to target.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of Divided Exhaust Period for a Regulated Two-stage Downsized SI Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2550
The Divided Exhaust Period (DEP) concept is an approach which has been proved to significantly reduce the averaged back pressure of turbocharged engines whilst still improving its combustion phasing. The standard layout of the DEP system comprises of two separately-functioned exhaust valves with one valve feeding the blow-down pulse to the turbine whilst the other valve targeting the scavenging behaviour by bypassing the turbine. Via combining the characteristics of both turbocharged engines and naturally aspirated engines, this method can provide large BSFC improvement. The DEP concept has only been applied to single-stage turbocharged engines so far. However, it in its basic form is in no way restricted to a single-stage system. This paper, for the first time, will apply DEP concept to a regulated two-stage (R2S) downsized SI engine.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Spray Characteristics of DMF- Isooctane Blends using PDPA

2014-04-01
2014-01-1408
Little research has been done on spray characteristics of 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), since the breakthrough in its production method as an alternative fuel candidate. In this paper, the spray characteristics of pure fuels (DMF, Isooctane) and DMF-Isooctane blends under different ambient pressures (1 bar, 3 bar and 7 bar) and injection pressures (50 bar, 100 bar and 150 bar) were studied using Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) and high speed imaging. Droplet velocity, size distribution, spray angle and penetration of sprays were examined. Based on the results, DMF had larger SMD and penetration length than isooctane. The surface tension of fuel strongly influenced spray characteristics. Increasing the surface tension by 26 % resulted in 12 % increase in SMD. Higher ambient pressure increased the drag force, but SMD was not influenced by the increased drag force. However, the increased ambient pressure reduced the injection velocity and We number resulting in higher SMD.
Journal Article

Ultra Boost for Economy: Extending the Limits of Extreme Engine Downsizing

2014-04-01
2014-01-1185
The paper discusses the concept, design and final results from the ‘Ultra Boost for Economy’ collaborative project, which was part-funded by the Technology Strategy Board, the UK's innovation agency. The project comprised industry- and academia-wide expertise to demonstrate that it is possible to reduce engine capacity by 60% and still achieve the torque curve of a modern, large-capacity naturally-aspirated engine, while encompassing the attributes necessary to employ such a concept in premium vehicles. In addition to achieving the torque curve of the Jaguar Land Rover naturally-aspirated 5.0 litre V8 engine (which included generating 25 bar BMEP at 1000 rpm), the main project target was to show that such a downsized engine could, in itself, provide a major proportion of a route towards a 35% reduction in vehicle tailpipe CO2 on the New European Drive Cycle, together with some vehicle-based modifications and the assumption of stop-start technology being used instead of hybridization.
Journal Article

1-D Simulation Study of Divided Exhaust Period for a Highly Downsized Turbocharged SI Engine - Scavenge Valve Optimization

2014-04-01
2014-01-1656
Fuel efficiency and torque performance are two major challenges for highly downsized turbocharged engines. However, the inherent characteristics of the turbocharged SI engine such as negative PMEP, knock sensitivity and poor transient performance significantly limit its maximum potential. Conventional ways of improving the problems above normally concentrate solely on the engine side or turbocharger side leaving the exhaust manifold in between ignored. This paper investigates this neglected area by highlighting a novel means of gas exchange process. Divided Exhaust Period (DEP) is an alternative way of accomplishing the gas exchange process in turbocharged engines. The DEP concept engine features two exhaust valves but with separated function. The blow-down valve acts like a traditional turbocharged exhaust valve to evacuate the first portion of the exhaust gas to the turbine.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of DMF and Gasoline Spray and Mixture Preparation in a GDI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1592
2, 5-Dimethylfuran (DMF) has been receiving increasing interest as a potential alternative fuel to fossil fuels, owing to the recent development of new production technology. However, the influence of DMF properties on the in-cylinder fuel spray and its evaporation, subsequent combustion processes as well as emission formation in current gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines is still not well understood, due to the lack of comprehensive understanding of its physical and chemical characteristics. To better understand the spray characteristics of DMF and its application to the IC engine, the fuel sprays of DMF and gasoline were investigated by experimental and computational methods. The shadowgraph and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques were used for measuring spray penetration, droplet velocity and size distribution of both fuels.
X