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Technical Paper

Simulation Techniques for Determining Motorcycle Controllability Class according to ISO 26262

2018-10-30
2018-32-0060
The ISO 26262 standard specifies the requirement for functional safety of electrical and electronic systems within road vehicles. We have accumulated case studies based on actual riding tests by subjective judgment of expert riders to define a method for determining the controllability class (C class). However, the wide variety of practical traffic environments and vehicle behaviors in case of malfunction make it difficult to evaluate all C classes in actual running tests. Furthermore, under some conditions, actual riding tests may cause unacceptable risks to test riders. In Part 12 Annex C of ISO/DIS 26262, simulation is cited as an example of a technique for comprehensive evaluations by the Controllability Classification Panel. This study investigated the usefulness of mathematical simulations for evaluating the C class of a motorcycle reproducing a malfunction in either the front or rear brakes.
Technical Paper

ISO 26262 C Class Evaluation Method for Motorcycles by Expert Riders Incorporating Technical Knowledge Obtained from Actual Riding Tests

2017-11-05
2017-32-0057
In applying the ISO 26262 controllability classification for motorcycles in actual riding tests, a subjective evaluation by expert riders is considered to be the appropriate approach from the viewpoint of safety. We studied the construction of an expert-rider-based C class evaluation method for motorcycles and developed some evaluation test cases reproducing various hazardous events. We determined that it was necessary to accumulate more evaluation cases for further representative scenarios and that, to avoid variations in such evaluations, a method in which different expert riders can carry out testing following a common understanding had to be devised. Considering these problems for practical application, this study aimed at establishing an actual riding test method for C class evaluation by expert riders and to develop a deeper understanding of test procedures and management.
Technical Paper

Detailed Study of Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment of ISO 26262 for Motorcycles

2017-11-05
2017-32-0083
ISO 26262, an international functional safety standard of electrical and/or electronic systems (E/E systems) for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011 and it is expected that the scope will be extended to motorcycles in a second edition of ISO 26262 going to be published in 2018. ISO/DIS 26262 second edition published in 2016 has Part 12 as a new part in order to apply ISO 26262 to motorcycle. Proper estimation of Exposure, Controllability, and Severity in accordance with ISO/DIS 26262 Part 12, are key factors to determine Motorcycle Safety Integrity Level. To estimate precise these factors, there would be a case that it might not be appropriate to apply studies done for passenger car to motorcycle, and it would be necessary to apply motorcycle specific knowledge and estimation methods. In our previous studies we clarified these motorcycle specific issues and studied the method for the adaptation.
Journal Article

Examination of Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment and Exposure Research in the Real Traffic Situation of ISO 26262 for Motorcycles

2016-11-08
2016-32-0058
ISO 26262, an international functional safety standard of electrical and/or electronic systems (E/E systems) for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011 and it is expected that the scope will be extended to motorcycles in a second edition of ISO 26262 going to be published in 2018. In order to apply ISO 26262 to motorcycle, proper estimation of Exposure, Controllability, and Severity are key factors to determine Motorcycle Safety Integrity Level (MSIL). Exposure is a factor to indicate the probability of the state of an operational situation that can be hazardous with the E/E system malfunction. And it is not easy to estimate the motorcycle Exposure due to less availability of back ground data in actual operational situation compared to motor vehicle. Therefore real traffic situation should be investigated in order to provide rationales for MSIL determination.
Technical Paper

Research on Severity Class Evaluation Based on Various Crash Situations Involved with Motorcycles for ISO 26262

2016-11-08
2016-32-0057
ISO 26262 was established in 2011 as a functional safety standard for road vehicles. This standard provides safety requirements according to ASIL (Automotive Safety Integrity Level) in order to avoid unreasonable residual risk caused by malfunctioning behavior of electrical and/or electronic systems. The ASIL is determined by considering the estimate of three factors including injury severity. While applicable only to passenger cars at present, motorcycles will be included in the scope of application of ISO 26262 in the next revision. Therefore, our previous study focused on severity class evaluation for motorcycles. A method of classifying injury severity according to vehicle speed was developed on the basis of accident data. In addition, a severity table for motorcycles was created using accident data in representative collision configurations involved with motorcycles in Japan.
Journal Article

Construction of an ISO 26262 C Class Evaluation Method for Motorcycles

2016-11-08
2016-32-0059
For applying ISO 26262 to motorcycles, controllability classification (C class evaluation) by expert riders is considered an appropriate technique. Expert riders have evaluated commercial product development for years and can appropriately conduct vehicle tests while observing safety restrictions (such as avoiding the risk of falling). Moreover, expert riders can ride safely and can stably evaluate motorcycle performance even if the test conditions are close to the limits of vehicle performance. This study aims to construct a motorcycle C class evaluation method based on an expert rider’s subjective evaluation. On the premise that expert riders can rate the C class, we improved a test procedure that used a subjective evaluation sheet as the concrete C class evaluation method for an actual hazardous event.
Journal Article

Examination of the Validity of Connections between MSILs and ASILs in the Functional Safety Standard for Motor Vehicles

2015-11-17
2015-32-0794
ISO 26262, a functional safety standard for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011. Although motorcycles are not included in the scope of application of the current edition of ISO 26262, it is expected that motorcycles will be included in the next revision. However, it is not appropriate to directly apply automotive safety integrity levels (ASILs) to motorcycles because the situation of usage in practice presumably differs between motorcycles and motor vehicles. In our previous study, we newly defined safety integrity levels for motorcycles (MSILs) and proposed that the levels of MSILs should correspond to levels one step lower than those of ASILs; however, we did not investigate the validity of their connections. Accordingly, in this research, we validated the connections. We defined the difference of levels of SILs between motorcycles and motor vehicles as the difference of target values of random hardware failure rates specified in ISO 26262-5.
Journal Article

Research on Method for Classifying Injury Severity Using Motorcycle Accident Data for ISO 26262

2015-11-17
2015-32-0714
ISO 26262 was established in 2011 as a functional safety standard for passenger cars. In this standard, ASILs (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) representing safety levels for passenger cars are determined by evaluating the hazardous events associated with each item constituting an electrical and/or electronic safety-related system according to three evaluation criteria including injury severity. On the other hand, motorcycles will be included in the scope of application of ISO 26262 in the next revision. It is expected that a severity evaluation for motorcycles will be needed because motorcycles are clearly different from passenger cars in vehicle mass and structure. Therefore, this study focused on severity class evaluation for motorcycles. A method of classifying injury severity according to vehicle speed was developed on the basis of accident data.
Technical Paper

ISO 26262 Controllability Evaluation Technique by Expert Riders

2015-11-17
2015-32-0746
Controllability (C class) represents the level of the ability to avoid harm and is one of the parameters that determine the Automotive Safety Integrity Level in the ISO 26262 functional safety standard, which applies to the electrical and/or electronic systems. This study aimed to consider an appropriate C class evaluation technique for expert riders in applying ISO 26262 to motorcycles. This study attempted to show a C class evaluation method without deviation by the riders and presented examples of the evaluation of three hazardous events in actual vehicle tests. In addition, riders' comments regarding their understanding of the circumstances that resulted in the evaluation were collected, and the correspondence of these comments was examined. We selected “unintended acceleration” or “unintended deceleration” due to the malfunction of the electronic throttle control system as hazard examples and conducted tests to reproduce hazardous events.
Technical Paper

Basic Characteristics of Motorcycle Riding Maneuvers of Expert Riders and Ordinary Riders

2014-11-11
2014-32-0025
ISO26262 was intended only for passenger cars but can be applied to motorcycles if the Controllability (C) is subjectively evaluated by expert riders. Expert riders evaluate motorcycle performance from the viewpoint of ordinary riders. However, riding maneuvers of ordinary riders have not been confirmed by objective data. For this reason, it is important to understand the basic characteristics of riding maneuvers of both expert and ordinary riders. This study seeks to confirm the compatibility between the riding maneuvers of expert riders and those of ordinary riders. The riding maneuvers and vehicle behavior of four expert riders and 16 ordinary riders were compared using the results of a test assuming normal running.
Technical Paper

One Approach to Definition of MSILs and Their Connections with ASILs

2014-11-11
2014-32-0016
ISO 26262 (Road vehicles - Functional safety), a functional safety standard for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011. In this standard, hazardous events associated with each item constituting a safety-related system are assessed according to three criteria, namely, Severity, Exposure, and Controllability, thereby determining ASILs (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) representing safety levels for motor vehicles. Although motorcycles are not included in the scope of application of the current edition of ISO 26262, it is expected that motorcycles will be included in the next revision. However, it is not appropriate to directly apply ASILs to motorcycles. In the first place, the situation of usage in practice presumably differs between motorcycles and motor vehicles. Accordingly, in this research, we attempted to newly define Motorcycle Safety Integrity Levels (MSILs).
Journal Article

Comparison of Fires in Lithium-Ion Battery Vehicles and Gasoline Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-0428
Electric vehicles have become more popular and may be involved in fires due to accidents. However, characteristics of fires in electric vehicles are not yet fully understood. The electrolytic solution of lithium-battery vehicles is inflammable, so combustion characteristics and gases generated may differ from those of gasoline cars. Therefore, we conducted fire tests on lithium-ion battery vehicles and gasoline vehicles and investigated the differences in combustion characteristics and gases generated. The fire tests revealed some differences in combustion characteristics. For example, in lithium-ion battery vehicles, the battery temperature remained high after combustion of the body. However, there was almost no difference in the maximum CO concentration measured 0.5 to 1 m above the roof and 1 m from the side of the body. Furthermore, HF was not detected in either type of vehicle when measured at the same positions as for CO.
Journal Article

Validation of the Localized Fire Test Method for On-Board Hydrogen Storage Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0421
The localized fire test provided in the Global Technical Regulation for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles gives two separate test methods: the ‘generic installation test - Method 1′ and the ‘specific vehicle installation test - Method 2′. Vehicle manufacturers are required to apply either of the two methods. Focused on Method 2, the present study was conducted to determine the characteristics and validity of Method 2. Test results under identical burner flame temperature conditions and the effects of cylinder protection covers made of different materials were compared between Method 1 and Method 2.
Technical Paper

Validity of Low Ventilation for Accident Processing with Hydrogen Leakage from Hydrogen-Fuelled Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-0211
Appropriate emergency response information is required for first responder before hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will become widespread. This paper investigates experimentally the hydrogen dispersion in the vicinity of a vehicle which accidentally releases hydrogen horizontally with a single volumetric flow of 2000 NL/min in the under-floor section while varying cross and frontal wind effects. This hydrogen flow rate represents normally a full throttle power condition. Forced wind was about maximum 2 m/s. The results indicated that the windward side of the vehicle was safe but that there were chiefly two areas posing risks of fire by hydrogen ignition. One was the leeward side of the vehicle's underbody where a larger region of flammable hydrogen dispersion existed in light wind than in windless conditions. The other was the area around the hydrogen leakage point where most of the leaked hydrogen remained undiffused in an environment with a wind of no stronger than 2 m/s.
Journal Article

Development and Characteristics of a Burner for Localized Fire Tests and an Evaluation of Those Fire Tests

2012-04-16
2012-01-0987
We have developed a new propane burner that satisfies the requirements of localized fire test which was presented in SAE technical paper 2011-01-0251. This paper introduces the specifications of this burner and reports its characteristics as determined from various fire exposure tests that we conducted in order to gather data. These tests included temperature and heat flux distribution on cylinder surfaces, which would be useful for the design of automotive compressed fuel cylinders. Our fire exposure tests included localized and engulfing fire tests to compare TPRD activation time, cylinder burst pressure and other parameters between different flame configurations and tests to identify the effects of an automotive compressed fuel cylinder on localized fire test results.
Journal Article

Study of the Impact of High Biodiesel Blends on Engine Oil Performance

2011-08-30
2011-01-1930
In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. This report is designed to determine how high biodiesel blends affect oil quality through testing on 2005 regulations engines with DPFs. When blends of 10-20% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) with diesel fuel are employed with 10W-30 engine oil, the oil change interval is reduced to about a half due to a drop in oil pressure. The oil pressure drop occurs because of the reduced kinematic viscosity of engine oil, which resulting from dilution of poorly evaporated RME with engine oil and its accumulation, however, leading to increased wear of piston top rings and cylinder liners.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Commuter Concept Car “C-ta”

2011-05-17
2011-39-7220
It is becoming more and more necessary to achieve a sustainable low-carbon society by mobility not depending on oil. Electric vehicles are appropriate for such a society, but expensive battery cost and long charging time prohibit the promotion of EVs. One of the solutions is minimizing battery usage by ultra-low fuel efficiency, so we developed an ultrahigh-efficient electric commuter concept car “C-ta”, which requires as small a battery as possible. We assumed that drivers would use the car as a second car for short-distance daily use, such as commuting, shopping, transportation of family, etc. In order to improve fuel efficiency, we mainly considered an ultra-light weight body and chassis, to which CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) greatly contributes, ultra-low rolling resistance tires, and highly accurate vehicle control technology with four in-wheel motors.
Technical Paper

Establishing Localized Fire Test Methods and Progressing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0251
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 11 years. In the past couple of years, significant attention has been directed toward a revision to the standard for vehicular hydrogen systems, SAE J2579(1). In addition to streamlining test methodologies for verification of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Systems (CHSSs) as discussed last year,(2) the working group has been considering the effect of vehicle fires, with the major focus on a small or localized fire that could damage the container in the CHSS and allow a burst before the Pressure Relief Device (PRD) can activate and safely vent the compressed hydrogen stored from the container.
Technical Paper

Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0131
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 10 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable as a Recommended Practice for FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards associated with the integration of hydrogen and electrical systems onto the vehicle and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. An update to SAE J1766 for post-crash electrical safety was also published in 2008 to reflect unique aspects of FCVs and to harmonize electrical requirements with international standards. In addition to SAE J2578 and J1766, the SAE FCV Safety Working Group also developed a Technical Information Report (TIR) for vehicular hydrogen systems (SAE J2579).
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on the Fire Response of Vehicles with Compressed Hydrogen Cylinders

2010-04-12
2010-01-0134
To investigate the events that could arise when fighting fires in vehicles with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) hydrogen storage cylinders, we conducted experiments to examine whether a hydrogen jet diffusion flame caused by activation of the pressure relief device (PRD) can be extinguished and how spraying water influences the cylinder and PRD. The experiments clarified that the hydrogen jet flame cannot be extinguished easily with water or dry powder extinguishers and that spraying water during activation of the PRD may result in closure of the PRD, but is useful for maintaining the strength of CFRP composite cylinders for vehicles.
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