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Technical Paper

Development of Intercooler Hose for Future Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0236
Turbocharged diesel engines with an intercooler are widely used in modern heavy-duty commercial vehicles to achieve both cost performance and durability. These engines have low CO2 emissions due to their high thermal efficiency, and are essential to the movement of people and goods. Given the high compression ratio and supercharging requirements of diesel engines, further improvements in thermal efficiency require enhancing the performance of existing intercooler hoses. Intercooler hoses made of fluororubber (FKM) and silicone rubber (VMQ) have high heat resistance and durability. However, future diesel engines will be subject to more severe operating conditions. This research identified the deterioration in the mechanical properties of FKM in hot environments as an issue to resolve for intercooler hoses in future engines. Specific improvement efforts focused on the low heat resistance of crosslinking points inside FKM.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Oil Dilution by Post-injection in DPF Regeneration Mode

2019-12-19
2019-01-2354
This work investigated the mechanism of oil dilution by post injection to remove accumulated particulate matter on the diesel particulate filter of diesel engines. We developed a model to simulate post injection spray under low ambient gas pressure conditions. The model can predict the quantity of fuel mass adhered on the cylinder wall. The adhered fuel enters oil sump through the piston ring and cause oil dilution. The fuel in diluted oil evaporates during normal engine operations. We focus on the mechanism of fuel evaporation from diluted oil. The effects of engine speed and oil temperature on the evaporation were investigated. The results showed that the fuel evaporation rate increases with increasing engine speed and oil temperature. Furthermore, we developed an empirical model to predict the fuel evaporation rate of diluted oil through regression analysis with measured data.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Engine Oil for Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicles Achieving for both Fuel Economy and Reliability

2019-12-19
2019-01-2243
When the engine oil evaporates in the crankcase, it is necessary to discharge to the outside of the engine or returns to the intake air as part of blow-by gas. The amount of oil content in the blow-by gas is preferable to be as small as possible. This paper researched the evaporation characteristics of diesel engine oil for heavy duty into blow-by gas using 5W-30 and 10W-30 engine oils with the equivalent to Noack. As a result, it is found that evaporate phenomenon cannot be explained well enough by just Noack and clarified of the oil evaporation mechanism in blow-by gas.
Technical Paper

Research on a DPF Regeneration Burner System for Use when Engine is not in Operation

2019-12-19
2019-01-2237
An on board burner that enables DPF regeneration even when an engine is at standstill has been researched. By employing pre evaporative combustion with a wick burner, miniaturization of the burner system was successfully accomplished as well as stable ignition and combustion. Total heat necessary for DPF regeneration was reduced in comparison to the active DPF regeneration by means of engine control and an oxidation catalyst. Uneven temperature distribution in DPF and excessive temperature rise, which had been recognized as issues in the regeneration of a DPF while engine is at standstill, were solved by increase of combustion air amount and multi-step control of regeneration temperature and reliable regeneration was accomplished.
Technical Paper

Direct Visualization of Soot and Ash Transport in Diesel Particulate Filters during Active Regeneration Process

2019-12-19
2019-01-2287
This study employed a diesel particulate generator (DPG), with an installed engine oil injector for soot and ash accumulation in a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Ash was generated by engine oil injection into the diesel burner flame. The amount of soot accumulation per loading varied from 0.5 g/L to 8 g/L while ash accumulation amount per loading was maintained at 0.5 g/L. Initially, ash accumulation distribution in the DPF was visualized using X-ray computed tomography (CT). It was revealed that the form of ash accumulation changed depending on the amount of soot accumulation before active regeneration, i.e., a large amount of soot accumulation resulted in plug ash, whereas a small amount of soot accumulation resulted in wall ash. To clarify ash accumulation mechanisms, soot and ash transport behavior in DPF during active regeneration process was directly observed using a high-speed camera through an optically accessible D-shaped cut DPF covered with a quartz glass plate.
Journal Article

Influence of Combustion Chamber Shape and In-Cylinder Density on Soot Formation in Diesel Combustion

2019-12-19
2019-01-2271
The change in the smoke emissions from a diesel engine with the shapes of the combustion chamber and the in-cylinder density was investigated with focuses on the mixing and the soot formation in a spray flame. First, the mixing of the fuel and air between the nozzle exit and the set-off length was used as an indicator for the formation of soot. Although this indicator can explain the influence of the density, it cannot explain the changes in the smoke emissions with a change in the shape of the combustion chamber. Next, by focusing on the soot distribution in a quasi-steady-state spray flame, the soot formed in the high-density condition of an optically accessible engine was investigated by applying two-color method. These results showed that the positional relationship between the maximum soot amount position and the flame impinging position can be a major influence on the smoke emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating on Anti-Scuffing Characteristics of Piston Pins

2019-04-02
2019-01-0184
It has been proposed that downspeeding combined with high boost levels would effectively reduce fuel consumption in heavy-duty diesel engines. Under low-speed and high-boost operating conditions, however, the in-cylinder gas pressure, which acts on the piston crown, is greater than the piston inertia force (such that there is no force reversal), over the entire range of crank angles. Therefore, the piston pin never lifts away from the main loading area (the bottom) of the connecting rod small-end bushing where the contact pressure against the piston pin is highest. In such operating conditions, lubricant starvation is easily induced at the interface between the piston pin and small-end bushing. Through carefully devised engine tests, the authors confirmed that the piston pin scuffing phenomenon arises when the boost pressure exceeds a critical value at which the no-force reversal condition appears.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Measurements of HNCO Hydrolysis over SCR Catalyst

2018-09-10
2018-01-1764
To meet the strict emission regulations for diesel engines, an advanced processing device such as a Urea-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system is used to reduce NOx emissions. The Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test, which is implemented in the European Union, will expand the range of conditions under which the engine has to operate [1], which will lead to the construction of a Urea-SCR system capable of reducing NOx emissions at lower and higher temperature conditions, and at higher space velocity conditions than existing systems. Simulations are useful in improving the performance of the urea-SCR system. However, it is necessary to construct a reliable NOx reduction model to use for system design, which covers the expanded engine operation conditions. In the urea-SCR system, the mechanism of ammonia (NH3) formation from injected aqueous urea solution is not clear. Thus, it is important to clarify this mechanism to improve the NOx reduction model.
Technical Paper

A Study on Reducing Cooling loss in a Partially Insulated Piston for Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1276
To improve the thermal efficiency of an engine, it is particularly important to reduce the cooling loss from the combustion gas to the combustion chamber wall, which constitutes a major proportion of the total loss [1]. Previous studies addressing cooling loss reduction attempted to use ceramic in place of the conventional aluminum or iron alloys, but this led to a reduction in the volumetric efficiency and increased smoke emissions. This was caused by the ceramics having both a low thermal conductivity and high heat capacity, relative to aluminum and iron. These characteristics cause the piston wall temperature, which rises during combustion, to remain high during the intake stroke, thus increasing the intake temperature and reducing the volumetric efficiency. This increases the smoke emissions [2].
Technical Paper

Development of CNG/Diesel Dual-Compatible Engine Oil for Heavy-Duty Trucks in Thailand

2017-10-08
2017-01-2350
In Thailand, most heavy-duty trucks were equipped with diesel engine, while a small portion was equipped with compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. However, in the past few years the number of CNG fuel trucks in Thailand has increased significantly due to the cheaper cost of CNG. In general, the emphasis of heavy-duty diesel engine oil performance is on piston cleanliness and soot handling properties, while thermal and anti-oxidation properties are most critical for CNG engine oil performance. For truck fleet owners who operate both types of trucks, using the inappropriate oil that is not fit-for-purpose can adversely affect engine performance and reduce engine service lifespan under prolonged usage. A novel CNG/diesel engine oil was developed to meet both JASO DH-2 heavy-duty diesel engine oil performance and CNG engine oil performance. The candidate formulation was proved adequately fit for practical use regarding to thermal and anti-oxidation properties.
Journal Article

Prediction of Spray Behavior in Injected by Urea SCR Injector and the Reaction Products

2017-10-08
2017-01-2375
In the urea SCR system, urea solution is injected by injector installed in the front stage of the SCR catalyst, and NOx can be purified on the SCR catalyst by using NH3 generated by the chemical reaction of urea. NH3 is produced by thermolysis of urea and hydrolysis of isocyanic acid after evaporation of water in the urea solution. But, biuret and cyanuric acid which may cause deposit are sometimes generated by the chemical reactions without generating NH3. Spray behavior and chemical reaction of urea solution injected into the tail-pipe are complicated. The purpose of this study is to reveal the spray behavior and NH3 generation process in the tail-pipe, and to construct the model capable of predicting those accurately. In this report, the impingement spray behavior is clarified by scattered light method in high temperature flow field. Liquid film adhering to the wall and deposit generated after evaporation of water from the liquid film are photographed by the digital camera.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Spray Feature Injected by Tailpipe Injector for Aftertreatment of Diesel Engine Emissions

2017-10-08
2017-01-2373
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is a very effective aftertreatment device to limit particulate emissions from diesel engines. As the amount of soot collected in the DPF increases, the pressure loss increases. Therefore, DPF regeneration needs to be performed. Injected fuel into the exhaust line upstream of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), hydrocarbons are oxidized on the DOC, which increases the exhaust gas temperature at the DPF inlet. It is also necessary that the injected fuel is completely vaporized before entering the DOC, and uniformly mixed with the exhaust gases in order to make the DOC work efficiency. However, ensuring complete evaporation and an optimum mixture distribution in the exhaust line are challenging. Therefore, it is important that the fuel spray feature is grasped to perform DPF regeneration effectively. The purpose of this study is the constructing a simulation model.
Technical Paper

A Study of Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

2017-03-28
2017-01-0158
A diesel engine is advantageous in its high thermal efficiency, however it still wastes about 50% of total input energy to exhaust and cooling losses. A feasibility study of thermoacoustic refrigerator was carried out as one of the means to recuperate waste heat. The thermoacoustic refrigerator prototyped for this study showed a capability to achieve cooling temperature lower than -20 degree C, which indicated that the system has a potential to be used in refrigerator trucks not only for cargo compartment cooling but also for cabin cooling.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of International Variations in Diesel Spray Combustion with Evaporation Surrogate and Virtual Species Conversion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0582
A methodology for simulating effect of international variations in fuel compositions on spray combustion is proposed. The methodology is validated with spray combustion experiments with real fuels from three different countries. The compositions of those fuels were analyzed through GC×GC and H-NMR. It was found that ignition delay times, flame region and flame luminosity were significantly affected by the compositional variations. For the simulation, an evaporation surrogate consisting of twenty two species, covering basic molecular types and a wide range of carbon numbers, is developed. Each species in the evaporation surrogate is then virtually converted to a reaction surrogate consisting of n-hexadecane, methylcyclohexane and 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene so that combustion reactions can be calculated with a published kinetic model. The virtual species conversion (VSC) is made so as to take over combustion-related properties of each species of evaporation surrogates.
Technical Paper

Development of Next Generation Gear Oil for Heavy Duty Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-0890
Heavy duty vehicles take a large role in providing global logistics. It is required to have both high durability and reduced CO2 from the viewpoint of global environment conservation. Therefore lubricating oils for transmission and axle/differential gear box are required to have excellent protection and longer drain intervals. However, it is also necessary that the gear oil maintain suitable friction performance for the synchronizers of the transmission. Even with such good performance, both transmission and axle/differential gear box lubricants must balance cost and performance, in particular in the Asian market. The development of gear oil additives for high reliability gear oil must consider the available base oils in various regions as the additive is a global product. In many cases general long drain gear oils for heavy duty vehicles use the group III or IV base oils, but it is desirable to use the group I/II base oils in terms of cost and availability.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of a Higher Compression Ratio in the Combustion Chamber on Diesel Engine Performance

2016-04-05
2016-01-0722
In order to improve the brake thermal efficiency of the engine, such as cooling and friction losses from the theoretical thermal efficiency, it is necessary to minimize various losses. However, it is also essential to consider improvements in theoretical thermal efficiency along with the reduction of the various losses. In an effort to improve the brake thermal efficiency of heavy-duty diesel engines used in commercial vehicles, this research focused on two important factors leading to the engine's theoretical thermal efficiency: the compression ratio and the specific heat ratio. Based on the results of theoretical thermodynamic cycle analyses for the effects of the above two factors, it was predicted that raising the compression ratio from a base engine specification of 17 to 26, and increasing the specific heat ratio would lead to a significant increase in theoretical thermal efficiency.
Journal Article

A Study of Reliability Evaluation of Main Bearings for Multicylinder Diesel Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0494
In recent years, although experiment technologies on real engines and simulation technologies has been improved rapidly, the tribology contributing factors have not been quantitatively well evaluated to reveal critical lubrication failure mechanisms. In this study the oil film thickness of the main bearings in multicylinder diesel engines was measured, and the data was analyzed using response surface methodology, which is a statistical analysis methods used to quantitatively derive the factors affecting oil film thickness and the extent of their contribution. We found that the factor with the strongest effect on minimum oil film thickness is oil pressure. Lastly, as a verification test, bearing wear on the main bearings was compared under various oil pressure conditions. Clear differences in bearing wear were identified.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Emissions from Urea-SCR and DPF System for Heavy Duty Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-2016
Urea selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems have a high NOx conversion rate because the ammonia formed by the hydrolyzing urea solution reacts with NOx efficiently as a reducing agent. Systems combining urea-SCR and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) have been adopted in heavy duty vehicles to meet the post new long term emissions regulations in Japan. This study examined the emissions reduction performance of these systems after 160,000 km. The emissions that were examined included both regulated emissions (NOx, PM, HC, and CO) and unregulated emissions. As a result, the cleanness of diesel emissions from a urea-SCR and DPF system was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Economy Engine Oil for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-2034
More stringent emissions regulations, fuel economy standards, and regulations are currently being discussed to help reduce both CO2 and exhaust emissions. Vehicle manufacturers have been developing new engine technologies, such as downsizing and down-speeding with reduced friction loss, improved engine combustion and efficiency, heat loss recycling, power-train friction loss recycling, and reduced power-train friction loss. The use of more efficient fuel economy 5W-30 engine oils for heavy duty commercial vehicles has started to expand since 2009 in Japan as one technological solution to help reduce CO2 emissions. However, fuel economy 5W-30 oils for use in heavy duty vehicles in Europe are mainly based on synthetic oils, which are much expensive than the mineral oils that are predominantly used in Japan.
Technical Paper

Effects of Alloying Elements on Wear Resistance of Automobile Cast Iron Materials

2014-04-01
2014-01-1011
Wear resistance is the important characteristics of cast iron materials for automobile components. Because the phenomenon of wear is a highly complicated mechanism involving many factors such as surface conditions, chemical reactions with lubricants, metals, and physics, it has not been fully explained. Therefore, it will be necessary to confirm and explain the wear mechanism to develop effective improvements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural change behavior and effects of alloying elements when the material top surface becomes worn, in order to improve the wear resistance of cylinder liners and other cast iron materials. For this purpose, several types of prototype materials were produced, and the relationship between components and wear resistance was investigated by using a laser microscope for quantitative observation of the degree of pearlite microstructure fineness.
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