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Technical Paper

A Hybrid Method for Stereo Vision-Based Vehicle Detection in Urban Environment

2017-09-23
2017-01-1975
Vehicle detection has been a fundamental problem in the research of Intelligent Traffic System (ITS), especially in urban driving environment. Over the past decades, vision-based vehicle detection has got a considerable attention. In addition to the rich appearance information, the stereo vision method also provides depth information, which could achieve higher accuracy and precision. In this paper, a hybrid method for stereo vision-based real-time vehicle detection in urban environment is proposed. Firstly, we extract vehicle features and generate the Region of Interest (ROI). Semi-global Matching (SGM) algorithm is then utilized on the ROIs to generate disparity maps and get the depth information, which could be used to compute the width of each ROI. The noise regions, always with obvious depth variation in the disparity maps are excluded by the clustering approach.
Technical Paper

Variable Steering Ratio Design for Vehicle Steer-by-Wire System with Joystick

2016-04-05
2016-01-0455
Steering-by-wire(SBW) system makes the vehicle not constrained by the steering wheel control. Joystick, button and touch screen can all be used for automobile steering control. Using joystick to achieve steering operations has its unique advantages and many problems which are needed to be resolved at the same time. This paper firstly introduced the components of traditional steering wheel steer-by-wire system, then came up with the difference between joystick steer-by-wire system and traditional steer-by-wire system about transmission ratio, transmission ratio control strategy of joystick steer-by-wire system is proposed at the same time. At last, this paper studied driver’s busy degree when the vehicle running with a big turning radius at low speed and the effect of different angle transmission ratio on vehicle handing stability when the vehicle running at intermediate speed.
Technical Paper

Development a HIL Test Bench for Electrically Controlled Steering System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0051
Electric power steering (EPS), active front wheel steering (AFS) and steer by wire systems (SBW) can enhance the handling stability and safety of the vehicle, even in dangerous working conditions. Now, the development of the electric control steering system (ECS) is mainly based on the way that combines the test of the electric steering hardware-in-loop (HIL) test bench with real vehicle tests. However, the real vehicle tests with higher cost, long cycle and vulnerable to space weather have the potential safety problems at early development. On contrast, electronic control steering HIL test bench can replace real vehicle tests under various working conditions and make previous preparations for real vehicle road tests, so as to reduce the number of real vehicle test, shorten the development cycle, lower development costs, which has gradually become the important link of research and development of electronic steering system.
Journal Article

Combined Longitudinal and Lateral Control for Automated Lane Guidance of Full Drive-by-Wire Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-0321
This paper presents a simultaneous longitudinal and lateral motion control strategy for a full drive-by-wire autonomous vehicle. A nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) problem is formulated in which the nonlinear prediction model utilizes a spatial transformation to derive the dynamics of the vehicle about the reference trajectory, which facilitates the acquisition of the tracking errors at varying speeds. A reference speed profile generator is adopted by taking account of the road geometry information, such that the lateral stability is guaranteed and the lane guidance performance is improved. Finally, the nonlinear multi-variable optimization problem is simplified by considering only three motion control efforts, which are strictly confined within a convex set and are readily distributed to the four tires of a full drive-by-wire vehicle.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Characteristics and Parameters Analysis of Magneto-rheological Fluid Dual Mass Flywheel

2014-10-13
2014-01-2866
In order to improve structure and performance of magneto-rheological dual mass flywheel (MRF-DMF), some parameters effects on dynamic characteristics are acquired by parameters analysis. The dynamic stiffness and loss angle in different current and different frequency are gained through dynamic characteristic test. The fluid-structure interaction finite element model of MRF-DMF is built and the accuracy is verified by comparison between test and simulation. Based on the model, the parameters analysis is done and the law of MRF viscosity, arc spring stiffness, working clearance, rotor radius and axial width effect on dynamic characteristics are gained, it will prove some guidance for the structure and performance improvement.
Technical Paper

Optimized Torque Distribution Algorithm to Improve the Energy Efficiency of 4WD Electric Vehicle

2014-09-30
2014-01-2374
This paper presents a torque distribution algorithm to improve the energy efficiency of four-wheel-drive (4WD) electric vehicles with PMSM hub motors. In order to optimize the torque distribution method, at first the motor model considering the affect of iron loss and the loss model of multi-motors drive system of 4WD electric vehicle with PMSM hub motors, which operate at straight-line condition, are established. Besides, realize the online identification of motor parameters based on the MARS, which is important for updating the loss model parameters of the motor drive system. By doing this, the ideal torque distribution ratio can be obtained from the loss model in real-time. The simulation result using different distribution algorithms shows that the optimized torque distribution algorithm based on the loss model can be useful for improving the energy efficiency.
Technical Paper

Research on Integrated Chassis Control Strategy for Four-Wheel Independent Control Electric Vehicle

2014-09-30
2014-01-2290
Four-wheel independent control electric vehicle is a new type of x-by-wire EV with four wheels independent steering and four wheels independent drive/brake systems. In order to take full advantage of the vehicle's performance potential, this paper presents a novel integrated chassis control strategy. In the paper, the strategy is designed by the hierarchical control structure and divided into integrated control layer and allocation layer. By this method, the control logical can be modularized and simplified. In the integrated control layer, Model Prediction Control (MPC) is adopted to design the integrated control unit, which belongs to be a kind of local optimization algorithm with feedback correction features. Using this method could avoid the system performance degradation caused by the control model mismatch. The control allocation layer is to optimally distribute the vehicle control forces to the steering/driving/brake actuators on each wheel.
Technical Paper

Stability Control of Four-Wheel-Drive Electric Vehicle with Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

2014-09-28
2014-01-2539
Four-wheel-drive electric vehicles (4WD Evs) utilize in-wheel electric motors and Electro-Hydraulic Braking system (EHB). Then, all wheels torque can be controlled independently, and the braking pressure can be controlled more accurately and more fast than conventional braking system. Because of these advantages, 4WD Evs have potential applications in control engineering. In this paper, the in-wheel electric motors and EHB are applied as actuators in the vehicle stability control system. Based on the Direct Yaw-moment Control (DYC), the optimized wheel force distribution is given, and the coordination control of the hydraulic braking and the motor braking torque is considered. Then the EHB hardware-in-the-loop test bench is established in order to verify the effectiveness of the vehicle stability control algorithm through experiments.
Technical Paper

Experimental Research on the Pressure Following Control of Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0848
Pressure following control is the basic function of Electro-Hydraulic Braking system (EHB), which is also the key technology of stability control system and regenerative braking system for hybrid and electric vehicles. Experimental research is an important method for the control and application of EHB. This paper describes a method to test and control the EHB system through experiment on the Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench and wheel motor electric vehicle. First, the HIL test bench was established, in which the EHB was tested, including the characteristics of solenoid valves and motor. Then the wheel cylinder pressure was controlled to follow the specific signal input and the master cylinder pressure. Based on this, EHB and the pressure following control method were applied to the wheel motor electric vehicle. The results show that the braking pressure can follow the driver's braking intention to realize the conventional braking function of electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

Braking Force Distribution and Coordinated Control Algorithm for Hybrid Electric Bus based on EBS

2014-04-01
2014-01-1908
In order to improve the braking energy recovery and ensure the braking comfort, a new type of regenerative braking coordinated control algorithm is designed in this paper. The hierarchical control theory is used to the regenerative braking control algorithm. First, the front axle braking force and rear axle braking force are distributed. Then the rear axle motor braking force and mechanical braking force are distributed. Finally, the dynamic coordinated control strategy is designed to control pneumatic braking system and motor braking system. Aimed at keeping the fluctuation of the total braking force of friction and the regenerative braking force small during braking modes switch, a coordinated controller was designed to control the pneumatic braking system to compensate the error of the motor braking force. Based on Matlab/Simulink platform, a parallel hybrid electric bus simulation model with electric braking system (EBS) was established.
Journal Article

An Accurate Modeling for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Wheel Motor Including Iron Loss

2014-04-01
2014-01-1867
For high torque permanent magnet wheel motor, this paper describes an experimental research method to optimize and identify the motor parameters based on the results of offline calculation. In order to improve the accuracy of motor parameters identification, the motor model considering the affect of iron loss was established, and the motor parameters were identified using genetic algorithm (GA). Based on this, parameters validation experiment was performed. The results show that: parameters obtained by this method can be used to describe the steady-state and transient-state response of permanent magnet synchronous motors accurately.
Technical Paper

Tire Carcass Camber and its Application for Overturning Moment Modeling

2013-04-08
2013-01-0746
The properties of contact patch are key factors for tire modeling. Researchers have paid more attention to the contact patch shape and vertical pressure distribution. Some innovative concepts, such as Local Carcass Camber, have been presented to explain special tire modeling phenomena. For a pragmatic tire model, a concise model structure and fewer parameters are considered as the primary tasks for the modeling. Many empirical tire models, such as the well-known Magic Formula model, would become more complex to achieve satisfactory modeling accuracy, due to increasing number of input variables, so the semi-empirical or semi-physical modeling method becomes more attractive. In this paper, the concept of Tire Carcass Camber is introduced first. Different from Local Carcass Camber, Tire Carcass Camber is an imaginary camber angle caused only by lateral force on the unloaded tire.
Technical Paper

A Control Algorithm for Electric Power Steering of Tire Blowout Vehicle to Reduce the Impact Torque on Steering Wheel

2013-04-08
2013-01-1239
Impact torque will be generated on the steering wheel when one tire suddenly blows out on high way, which may cause driver's psychological stress and result in driver's certain misoperations on the car. In this paper, the model of tire blowout vehicle was established; the tire blowout was detected based on the change rate of tire pressure, meanwhile, the rack force caused by tire blowout was estimated through a reduce observer; finally the compensation current was figured out to reduce the impact torque on the steering wheel. Results of simulation tests showed that the control strategy proposed in this paper can effectively reduce the impact torque on the steering wheel and reduce the driver's discomfort caused by tire blowout.
Technical Paper

Study on Braking Force Distribution Algorithm for Hybrid Electric Bus Based on EBS

2013-04-08
2013-01-0411
In order to improve the braking energy recovery, a parallel hybrid electric bus simulation model with electric braking system (EBS) was established by co-simulation platform for the TruckSim and Matlab/Simulink in this paper. EBS makes the front and rear shaft braking force arbitrarily distributed, which is more effective to improve the rate of energy recovery and the braking stability. A braking force distribution algorithm for hybrid electric bus based on EBS was designed in this paper. Under the premise to meet the driver's needs and the ECE regulations, this braking force distribution method focuses on making the braking force distribute to the drive shaft to a maximum extent, so as to obtain the maximum energy recovery rate by the utilization of the motor regenerative braking. At last, the simulation in different operating conditions was used to analyze the braking energy utilization and the braking performance based on the simulation model.
Technical Paper

Variable Yaw Rate Gain for Vehicle Steer-by-wire with Joystick

2013-04-08
2013-01-0413
Steering-By-Wire (SBW) system has advantages of advanced vehicle control system, which has no mechanical linkage to control the steering wheel and front wheels. It is possible to control the steering wheel actuator and front wheels actuator steering independently. The goal of this paper is to use a joystick to substitute the conventional steering wheel with typical vehicle SBW system and to study a variable steering ratio design method. A 2-DOF vehicle dynamic reference model is built and focused on the vehicle steering performance of drivers control joystick. By verifying the results with a hardware-in-the-loop simulation test bench, it shows this proposed strategy can improve vehicle maneuverability and comfort.
Journal Article

Modeling Combined Braking and Cornering Forces Based on Pure Slip Measurements

2012-09-24
2012-01-1924
A novel predictable tire model has been proposed for combined braking and cornering forces, which is based on only a few pure baking and pure cornering tests. It avoids elaborate testing of all kinds of combinations of braking and side forces, which are always expensive and time consuming. It is especially important for truck or other large size tires due to the capability constraints of tire testing facilities for combined shear forces tests. In this paper, the predictive model is based on the concept of slip circle and state stiffness method. The slip circle concept has been used in the COMBINATOR model to obtain the magnitude of the resultant force under combined slip conditions; however the direction assumption used in the COMBINATOR is not suitable for anisotropic tire slip stiffness.
Technical Paper

Integrated HIL Test and Development System for Pneumatic ABS/EBS ECU of Commercial Vehicles

2012-09-24
2012-01-2031
The quality of the brake system is a significant safety factor in commercial vehicles on the roads. With the development of automobile technology, the single function ABS system didn't meet active safety requirements of the user. The Electronically Controlled Brake System (EBS) system will replace the ABS system to become the standard safety equipment of commercial vehicles in the near future. EBS can be said an enhanced ABS system, it contains load sensor, brake valve sensor and pressure sensor of chamber, etc, and it is more advantages than ABS. This paper describes a flexible integrated test bench for ABS/EBS Electronic Control Unit (ECU) based on Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation technique. It consists of most commercial vehicle pneumatic braking system components (from brake pedal valve, brake caliper to brake chambers), and uses the dSPACE real-time simulation system to communicate to the hardware I/O interface.
Technical Paper

A Study of Tire Lag Property

2001-03-05
2001-01-0751
Tire lag property is a basic property of tire dynamics, and it has significant influence on the performance of vehicle dynamics. In distance domain, the side force and moments produced by a massless tire are basically displacement or path frequency dependent, rather than time dependent. In the paper, on the basis of the stretched-string model, the first-order filtering of deflection for the front point of the contact print and the first-order filtering of side force have been introduced. Tire system can be regarded as a first-order linear system under small slip angle. The force response of tire has the characteristics of the responses of first-order linear system under small angle. The relaxation length is an important parameter in studying tire lag property. It decreases with increasing slip angle. It plays an important role in the study of tire transient properties.
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