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Technical Paper

Braking Control Strategy Based on Electronically Controlled Braking System and Intelligent Network Technology

2019-11-04
2019-01-5038
In order to solve the coupling problems between braking safety, economical efficiency of braking and the comfort of drivers, a braking control strategy based on Electronically Controlled Braking System (EBS) and intelligent network technology under non-emergency braking conditions is proposed. The controller utilizes the intelligent network technology’s characteristics of the workshop communication to obtain the driving environment information of the current vehicle firstly, and then calculate the optimal braking deceleration of the vehicle based on optimal control method. The strategy will distribute the braking force according to the ideal braking force distribution condition based on the EBS according to the braking deceleration; the braking force will be converted to braking pressure according to brake characteristics. Computer co-simulations of the proposed strategy are performed, the strategy is verified under different initial speeds.
Technical Paper

Research on the Control Strategy of Trailer Tracking Tractor for Articulated Heavy Vehicles

2019-11-04
2019-01-5054
The purpose of this paper is to improve the path-following capability and high-speed lateral stability of the articulated heavy vehicles (AHVs). The six-axle heavy articulated vehicle was taken as the research object, in order to simplify the control design, the three-axle trailer of the articulated vehicles was simplified to a single-axle trailer. The Newton's second law was applied to the tractor unit and the single-axle trailer unit respectively, a three-degree-of-freedom vehicle yaw plane model was established, and its state space equation was derived. The trailer steering controller was designed by linear quadratic regulator (LQR) technique. At the same time, the optimal index function was determined by combining the vehicle state variables, and the optimal control input was obtained by using the algebraic Riccati equation.
Technical Paper

Research on Control Algorithm of Active Steering Control Based on the Driver Intention

2019-11-04
2019-01-5064
Active steering technology can improve the operability of the driver by the involvement to the steering system. Driver is the major controller of the vehicle Therefore, the involvement of advanced technologies including the active steering technology shouldn’t interfere with the intention of the driver, and the driver should still have great control of the vehicle. The aim of this paper is to solve the problem of the driver’s control when the active steering system works to improve the flexibility of the low speed and the stability of the high speed, and the active steering model based on the driver’s steering intention is established. Through the CarSim simulation software, this paper adopts 9 parameters related to the vehicle steering of the DLC (Double Line Change). And PCA (Principal Component Analysis) algorithm, a tool of statistical analysis, is applied to select 4 parameters which can stand for the DLC from the 9 parameters, which makes the data processing easier.
Technical Paper

An Optimization of Suspension Linkages for Wheel-Legged Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0167
The guiding mechanism of vehicle suspension can keep the wheels moving along planned trajectory. The geometrical design of the reasonable suspension guide mechanism can reduce the vibration transmitted to the body, improve trafficability and handling stability. The vehicle suspension design method was applied to the wheel-legged vehicle, enhancing ride performance. The optimization of suspension hard points can be obtained by using single variable method, adjusting each hard point coordinate independently. It is also widely recommended by using intelligent algorithm to solve well-designed multi-objective parameter optimization function. In this study, the multi-objective parameter optimization function was solved by using the NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm-II). Computer simulations with half-car model were used to support the analysis in this study. ADAMS multibody dynamics software was also used to verify the reliability of the results.
Technical Paper

Emergency Steering Evasion Torque Assistance Based on Optimized Trajectory

2019-04-02
2019-01-0888
When automobile is at the threat of collisions, steering usually needs a shorter longitudinal distance than braking to avoid collision, especially at a high speed. In emergency steering evasion, the vehicle may be out of the road or colliding with obstacles ahead when the driver’s steering torque is excessive or insufficient. In view of the above problems, this paper presents an emergency steering evasion torque assistance system based on optimized trajectory. First, a feasible steering evasion area is established which treats the paths of excessive and insufficient steering as boundary conditions in this paper. An optimized trajectory is derived from the lateral acceleration of the vehicle and the time to the adjacent lane as optimization conditions. Second, a two degree of freedom vehicle model is used to represent dynamics of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Control Synthesis for Distributed Vehicle Platoon Under Different Topological Communication Structures

2019-04-02
2019-01-0494
The wireless inter-vehicle communication provide a manner to achieve multi-vehicle cooperative driving, and the platoon of automotive vehicle can significantly improve traffic efficiency and ensure traffic safety. Previous researches mostly focus on the state of the proceeding vehicle, and transmit information from self to the succeeding vehicle. Nevertheless, this structure possesses high requirements for controller design and shows poor effect in system stability. In this paper, the state of vehicles is not only related to the information of neighbor vehicles, while V2V communication transmit information over a wide range of area. To begin with, the node dynamic model of vehicle is described by linear integrator with inertia delay and the space control strategy is proposed with different topological communication structures as BF, LBF, PBF, etc.
Technical Paper

Lightweight Design of CFRP Automobile Tailgate Based on Multi-Step Optimization

2019-04-02
2019-01-1103
As a critical part of auto-body, the design of tailgate not only affects the beauty, usability and safety of automobile, but also involves more and more issues about environmental protection and energy saving. Hence, it is of vital importance to investigate lightweight of tailgate. This paper mainly focuses on lightweight design of CFRP tailgate based on conventional SUV metal tailgate, which can be realized under the condition of meeting requirements of stiffness, modal and manufacturing with the adoption of multi-step optimization method. To start with, finite element (FE) model of metal tailgate is established. Meanwhile, the stiffness and modal analyses, including bending stiffness, torsional stiffness, lateral stiffness, vertical stiffness and free modal are set up. Then, the structural performances of metal tailgate are analyzed, and the topology optimization of CFRP tailgate is performed.
Technical Paper

Development and Verification of Control Algorithm for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor of the Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster

2019-04-02
2019-01-1105
To meet the new requirements of braking system for modern electrified and intelligent vehicles, various novel electro-mechanical brake boosters (Eboosters) are emerging. This paper is aimed at a new type of the Ebooster, which is mainly consisted of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a two-stage reduction transmission and a servo mechanism. Among them, the PMSM is a vital actuator to realize the functions of the Ebooster. To get fast response of the Ebooster system, a novel control strategy employing a maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) control with current compensation decoupling and current-adjusting adaptive flux-weakening control is proposed, which requires the PMSM can operate in a large speed range and maintain a certain anti-load interference capability. Firstly, the wide speed control strategy for the Ebooster’s PMSM is designed in MATLAB/Simulink.
Technical Paper

Accurate Pressure Control Strategy of Electronic Stability Program Based on the Building Characteristics of High-Speed Switching Valve

2019-04-02
2019-01-1107
The Electronic Stability Program (ESP), as a key actuator of traditional automobile braking system, plays an important role in the development of intelligent vehicles by accurately controlling the pressure of wheels. However, the ESP is a highly nonlinear controlled object due to the changing of the working temperature, humidity, and hydraulic load. In this paper, an accurate pressure control strategy of single wheel during active braking of ESP is proposed, which doesn’t rely on the specific parameters of the hydraulic system and ESP. First, the structure and working principle of ESP have been introduced. Then, we discuss the possibility of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) control based on the mathematical model of the high-speed switching valve. Subsequently, the pressure building characteristics of the inlet and outlet valves are analyzed by the hardware in the Loop (HiL) experimental platform.
Technical Paper

Regenerative Braking Pedal Decoupling Control for Hydraulic Brake System Equipped with an Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster

2019-04-02
2019-01-1108
Electrification and intelligence are the important development directions of vehicle techniques. The Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster (Ebooster) as a brake booster which is powered by a motor, can be used to replace the traditional vacuum booster. Ebooster not only improves the intelligence level of vehicle braking and significantly improves the braking performance, but also adapts to the application in new energy vehicles and facilitates coordinated regenerative braking. However, Ebooster cannot complete pedal decoupling independently. It needs to cooperate with other components to realize pedal decoupling. In this paper, a pedal decoupling control algorithm for regenerative brake, which is based on the coordination control of Ebooster and ESP, is proposed. First, regenerative braking strategy is designed to distribute the hydraulic brake force and regenerative braking force.
Technical Paper

Lightweight Design and Multi-Objective Optimization for a Lower Control Arm Considering Multi-Disciplinary Constraint Condition

2019-04-02
2019-01-0822
The requirement for low emissions and better vehicle performance has led to the demand for lightweight vehicle structures. Two new lightweight methods of design and optimization for the lower control arm were proposed in this research to improve the effectiveness of the traditional lightweight method. Prior to the two lightweight design and optimization methods, the static performance, including strength, stiffness and mode, and fatigue performance for the lower control arm were analyzed and they provided constraints for subsequent design and optimization. The first method of lightweight design and optimization was integrated application of topography optimization, size optimization, shape optimization and free shape optimization for the control arm. Topography optimization was first applied to find the optimal distribution form of reinforcement rib for the lower control arm. Size optimization was then applied in this study to optimize the plate thickness.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Underbody Diffusers with Different Angles and Channels

2019-04-02
2019-01-0668
The underbody diffusers are used widely in race cars to improve the flow field structure at the bottom of the car and provide enough downforce. In recent years, passenger cars have begun to use bottom diffuser to improve aerodynamic characteristics, so as to reduce drag and increase downforce. In this paper, the aerodynamic characteristics of the bus with different underbody diffuser angles and channel numbers are studied by numerical simulation analysis. Firstly, the aerodynamics of the bus under different diffuser inlet and outlet angles are studied, and then an optimal inlet and outlet angle is determined based on the simulation results. Then, using this angle as a constant, the 2, 3, and 4 channel numbers were chosen as the diffuser channel variables to study the influence of the multiple-channel diffusers on the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Aeroelastic Response and Structural Improvement for Heavy-Duty Truck Cab Deflectors

2019-01-14
2019-01-5004
Numerical simulations on the fluid-structure interaction were conducted using commercial software STAR-CCM+ and ABAQUS. The aeroelastic responses of a deflector under several different working conditions were simulated utilizing finite volume and finite element methods to investigate the aeroelastic problem of automotive deflectors. Results showed that the structural response of a top deflector is minimal under the influence of aerodynamics given its large structural stiffness. The size of the top deflector was optimised by using thickness as a variable. The volume and quality of the top deflector were significantly reduced, and its lightweight performance was improved to satisfy the stiffness performance requirement. The vibration of a side deflector structure was mainly induced by the turbulence on the structure surface. The amplitude of vibration was small and the vibration gradually converged in a few seconds without obvious regularity.
Technical Paper

Deterioration Characteristic of Catalyzed DPF Applied on Diesel Truck Durable Ageing

2018-09-10
2018-01-1701
In this paper, it was researched the degradation characteristics of catalytic performance of three kinds of DPFs (C1, C2 and C3, with precious metal concentrations being 15, 25 and 35 g/ft3 respectively) after diesel truck aging. It is found out that the crystallinity of three kinds of DPF samples (Used) in full vehicle aging was higher than that of fresh samples (Fresh) and aged samples (Aged) in the laboratory. Compared with Fresh samples, the concentration of Pt atom in precious metal on the surface of Aged and Used samples tends to decrease in most cases. Activities to CO and C3H8 of Aged and Used samples of three kinds of DPFs had all been degraded, and activity degradation showed a substantial correlation with concentration reduction rate of precious metal on the carrier surface. NO2 productivity of Used samples all rose. Crystallinity of DPF samples after full vehicle aging in Inlet, Middle and Outlet areas successively increased.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Steering Stability of Nonlinear Four Wheel Steering Based on Sliding Mode Control

2018-08-07
2018-01-1593
Steering movement is the most basic movement of the vehicle, in the car driving process, the driver through the steering wheel has always been to control the direction of the car, in order to achieve their own driving intention. Four Wheel Steering (4WS) is an advanced vehicle control technique which can markedly improve vehicle steering characteristics. Compared with traditional front wheel steering vehicles, 4WS vehicles can steer the front wheels and the rear wheels individually for cornering, according to the vehicle motion states such as the information of vehicle speed, yaw velocity and lateral acceleration. Therefore, 4WS can enhance the handling stability and improve the active safety for vehicles.
Technical Paper

Developmental Driver Model for Long Vehicles Based on Preview-Follower Theory

2018-08-07
2018-01-1629
A long vehicle is more difficult to drive than a short one, but the mechanism of this phenomenon is still ambiguous. This paper will devote main effort to elaborate this phenomenon based on the theory of preview-follower driver model. Drivers always hope that the vehicle center can travel according to a predetermined trajectory. However, there is often a deviation between the vehicle center predicted by the driver and the actual center. As for this phenomenon, a conception of driver preview eccentricity is proposed. In order to analyze the influence of the proposed conception on vehicle driving track, a multi-axle steering vehicle model is built and some basic expressions of important parameters are deduced from this model firstly. Then, the developmental driver model with the factor of preview eccentricity based on preview-follower theory is established in the state of low velocity quasi-static. Subsequently, this model for long vehicles is extended to a dynamic driver model.
Technical Paper

Optimal Anti-vibration Design of Vehicle-mounted Vibration Isolation Platform

2018-04-03
2018-01-1400
A vehicle-mounted anti-vibration system is designed to semi-actively reduce accelerations acting on vibration isolation platform under different road conditions. To provide the basis for optimal anti-vibration design, the kinematics and dynamics of the platform are analyzed to investigate the relationship between leg length, strength, the platform position and vibration properties. As the platform is fixed on vehicle, a combined vehicle-platform model is necessary for verifying the performance and applying some suitable control algorithms. Also, typical digital testing roads will be built using road load spectrum. To optimize the platform parameters, especially stiffness and damping, an active control system is designed at first. An anti-vibration system including a semi-active inerter is designed to match the control forces which are calculated from the above active system.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy PID Based Optimization of Starting Control for AMT Clutch of Heavy-duty Trucks

2018-04-03
2018-01-1166
Starting control has become a troublesome issue in the developing field of the control system for heavy-duty trucks, due to the complexity of vehicle driving and the variability of driver's intention. The too fast clutch engagement may result in serious impact, influence on the comfort and fatigue life, and even the engine flameout, while the too slow clutch engagement may lead to long time of friction, the increased temperature, and accelerated wear of friction pair, as well as influence on the power performance and fatigue life[1]. Therefore, the key technique of starting control is clutch engagement control, for which the fuzzy PID based optimization of starting control for AMT clutch is proposed, with the pneumatic AMT clutch of heavy-duty trucks as the research object.
Technical Paper

Automatic Drive Train Management System for 4WD Vehicle Based on Road Situation Identification

2018-04-03
2018-01-0987
The slip ratio of vehicle driving wheels is easily beyond a reasonable range in the complex and changeable driving conditions. In order to achieve the adaptive acceleration slip regulation of four-wheel driving (4WD) vehicle, a fuzzy control strategy of Automatic Drive Train Management (ADM) system based on road situation identification was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the influence on the control strategy of ADM system was analyzed from two aspects, which included the different road adhesion coefficients and the vehicle’s ramp driving state. In the meantime several quantitative expressions of relevant control parameters were derived. Secondly, the fuzzy logic control algorithm was adopted to design a road situation identification subsystem and a ramp driving state identification subsystem respectively. The former was based on the μ-S curve model, and the latter was based on the vehicle driving equilibrium equation.
Technical Paper

Research on a Novel Electro-Hydraulic Brake System and Pressure Control Strategy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0764
Based on the research and analysis of the current brake systems, this paper presents a novel electro-hydraulic brake system, which can better meet the functional requirements. The system mainly contains a master cylinder, two brake hydraulic cylinders and drive motors, two transmission mechanisms, thirteen solenoid valves, pedal force simulator, etc. Since the proposed brake system uses a dual motor along with two brake hydraulic cylinders, it has advantages in providing fast pressure response, flexible working modes, high precision and strong fault tolerance. In order to facilitate the study of pressure control algorithm for the proposed brake system, a mathematical model of the brake system is firstly established, then a multiplexed time-division pressure control algorithm is proposed to realize the simultaneous or partially simultaneous pressure control, which ensures the high precision and short response time.
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