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Technical Paper

Accurate Pressure Control Strategy of Electronic Stability Program Based on the Building Characteristics of High-Speed Switching Valve

2019-04-02
2019-01-1107
The Electronic Stability Program (ESP), as a key actuator of traditional automobile braking system, plays an important role in the development of intelligent vehicles by accurately controlling the pressure of wheels. However, the ESP is a highly nonlinear controlled object due to the changing of the working temperature, humidity, and hydraulic load. In this paper, an accurate pressure control strategy of single wheel during active braking of ESP is proposed, which doesn’t rely on the specific parameters of the hydraulic system and ESP. First, the structure and working principle of ESP have been introduced. Then, we discuss the possibility of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) control based on the mathematical model of the high-speed switching valve. Subsequently, the pressure building characteristics of the inlet and outlet valves are analyzed by the hardware in the Loop (HiL) experimental platform.
Technical Paper

Research on Multi-Vehicle Coordinated Lane Change of Connected and Automated Vehicles on the Highway

2019-04-02
2019-01-0678
With the rapid development of modern economy and society, traffic congestion has become an increasingly serious problem. Vehicle cooperative driving can alleviate traffic congestion and improve road traffic capacity. Compare with vehicle separate control, cooperative driving combines various vehicle systems, and highly integrates information on obstacle location, vehicle status and driving intention. Then the controller uniformly issues instructions to ensure the orderly driving of the platoon. In the cooperative driving platoon, the displacement difference and the speed difference between vehicles have a certain relationship, which reduces the possibility of traffic accidents and then improves the safety of driving. In the process of cooperative driving, if there are multiple vehicles whose speeds don’t meet the current lane requirements, or if there are obstacles ahead, multi-vehicle lane change measures must be taken.
Technical Paper

Effects of Environmental Parameters on Real-World NOx Emissions and Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Using an OBD Approach

2018-09-10
2018-01-1817
OBD (On-Board Diagnostic) test system is applied to research influences of environmental parameters (altitude and environment temperature) on real-world NOx emission and fuel consumption for heavy-duty diesel trucks in this paper. The research results indicate that altitude and environment temperature have great influence on NOx emission rate and fuel consumption. High altitude in range of 3000~4000 m results in NOx emission rate is lower than low and moderate temperature because of air intake amount decreasing. However the fuel consumption rate is higher than lower altitude because altitude influences real-time changes of air inflow and combustion conditions in the cylinder of the engine. NOx emission rate and fuel consumption is more stable at different vehicle speed, VSP and RPM at high altitude, and NOx emission rate fluctuate dramatically at low and moderate altitude. The fuel consumption rate is higher at 10~20 °C than that at lower and higher temperature.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy PID Based Optimization of Starting Control for AMT Clutch of Heavy-duty Trucks

2018-04-03
2018-01-1166
Starting control has become a troublesome issue in the developing field of the control system for heavy-duty trucks, due to the complexity of vehicle driving and the variability of driver's intention. The too fast clutch engagement may result in serious impact, influence on the comfort and fatigue life, and even the engine flameout, while the too slow clutch engagement may lead to long time of friction, the increased temperature, and accelerated wear of friction pair, as well as influence on the power performance and fatigue life[1]. Therefore, the key technique of starting control is clutch engagement control, for which the fuzzy PID based optimization of starting control for AMT clutch is proposed, with the pneumatic AMT clutch of heavy-duty trucks as the research object.
Technical Paper

Objective Evaluation Model of Automatic Transmission Shift Quality Based on Multi-Hierarchical Grey Relational Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-0405
Improvement of shift quality evaluation has become more prevalent over the past few years in the development of automatic transmission electronic control system. For the problems of the subjective shift quality evaluation that subjectivity is too strong, the standard cannot be unified and the definition of the objective evaluation index is not clear at present, this paper studies on the methods of objective evaluation of shift quality based on the multi-hierarchical grey relational analysis. Firstly, objective evaluation index system is constructed based on physical quantities, such as the engine speed, the longitudinal acceleration of the vehicle and so on, which broadens the scope of the traditional objective evaluation index further.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Using WLTC for Fuel Consumption Certification of Chinese Light-Duty Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0654
This paper presents the feasibility study of using the worldwide harmonized light vehicles test cycle (WLTC) for the fuel consumption certification of Chinese Light-duty (LD) vehicles. First, the key steps and the technical routes of the development process of WLTC are summarized. Second, the operation data of 3082 vehicles in 41 typical cities of China are collected throughout the year. Then, the characteristics of the acquisition data are compared with WLTC. Finally, the feasibility of using WLTC for fuel consumption certification of Chinese LD vehicles is analyzed in three aspects, includes operation characteristics, weighting factors and fuel consumption. The result shows that there is obvious difference between WLTC and Chinese reality, and WLTC is not suitable for the fuel consumption certification of Chinese LD vehicles.
Technical Paper

Control Optimization of a Charge Sustaining Hybrid Powertrain for Motorsports

2018-04-03
2018-01-0416
The automotive industry is aggressively pursuing fuel efficiency improvements through hybridization of production vehicles, and there are an increasing number of racing series adopting similar architectures to maintain relevance with current passenger car trends. Hybrid powertrains offer both performance and fuel economy benefits in a motorsport setting, but they greatly increase control complexity and add additional degrees of freedom to the design optimization process. The increased complexity creates opportunity for performance gains, but simulation based tools are necessary since hybrid powertrain design and control strategies are closely coupled and their optimal interactions are not straightforward to predict. One optimization-related advantage that motorsports applications have over production vehicles is that the power demand of circuit racing has strong repeatability due to the nature of the track and the professional skill-level of the driver.
Journal Article

A Lane-Changing Decision-Making Method for Intelligent Vehicle Based on Acceleration Field

2018-04-03
2018-01-0599
Taking full advantage of available traffic environment information, making control decisions, and then planning trajectory systematically under structured roads conditions is a critical part of intelligent vehicle. In this article, a lane-changing decision-making method for intelligent vehicle is proposed based on acceleration field. Firstly, an acceleration field related to relative velocity and relative distance was built based on the analysis of braking process, and acceleration was taken as an indicator of safety evaluation. Then, a lane-changing decision method was set up with acceleration field while considering driver’s habits, traffic efficiency and safety. Furthermore, velocity regulation was also introduced in the lane-changing decision method to make it more flexible.
Technical Paper

Hierarchical Framework for Adaptive Cruise Control with Model Predictive Control Method

2017-09-23
2017-01-1963
Adaptive cruise control (ACC), as one of the advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), has become increasingly popular in improving both driving safety and comfort. Since the objectives of ACC can be multi-dimensional, and often conflict with each other, it is a challenging task in its control design. The research presented in this paper takes ACC control design as a constrained optimization problem with multiple objectives. A hierarchical framework for ACC control is introduced, aimed to achieve optimal performance on driving safety and comfort, speed and/or distance tracking, and fuel economy whenever possible. Under the hierarchical framework, the operational mode is determined in the upper layer, in which a model predictive control (MPC) based spacing controller is employed to deal with the multiple control objectives. On the other hand, the lower layer is for actuator control, such as braking and driving control for vehicle longitudinal dynamics.
Technical Paper

Study on the Gear Meshing and Order Tracking of a Transfer Case

2017-03-28
2017-01-1119
Gear transmission is widely used in mechanical transmission system and acts an important role in automotive industry. Manufacturing errors, assembly looseness, gear wear issues may result in gear backlash, noise and fatigue damage seriously affecting efficiency and service life of gear transmission. For gear transmission assembled, it is important to monitor the conditions of gear meshing and prevent the occurrence of dangerous situations. How to define the issues of gear tooth wear, misaligned bearing, gear eccentricity, backlash, and how to find faulty planetary gear sets and specific issues existing in gear transmission are meaningful and significant to ensure the quality of product. This paper starts from the analysis on gearing mechanism. Based on the behaviors represented by the issues, gear tooth wear, misaligned bearing, gear eccentricity and backlash are demonstrated and explained in detail.
Technical Paper

A Multi-mode Control Strategy for EV Based on Typical Situation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0438
A multitude of recent studies are suggestive of the EV as a paramount representative of the NEV, its development direction is transformed from “individuals adapt to vehicles” to “vehicles serve for occupants”. The multi-mode drive control technology is relatively mature in traditional auto control sphere, however, a host of EV continues to use a single control strategy, which lacks of flexibility and diversity, little if nothing interprets the vehicle performances. Furthermore, due to the complex road environment and peculiarity of vehicle occupants that different requirement has been made for vehicle performance. To solve above problems, this paper uses the key technology of mathematical statistics process in MATLAB, such as the mean, linear fitting and discrete algorithms to clean up, screening and classification the original data in general rules, and based on short trips in the segments of kinematics analysis method to establish a representative of quintessential driving cycle.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Small Restricted Turbocharged Racecar Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0061
This paper summarized the development methodology and technical experiences on Formula Student racecar engines acquired by Jilin University from 2011 to 2015. This series of engines are all based on 600cc 4-cylinder motorcycle gasoline engines and were modified to turbocharged engines which met the Formula Student technical regulations, in order to achieve higher power output, wider torque band as well as lower fuel consumption. During the development process, multiple research projects have been conducted surrounding the turbocharging technology. These research projects have covered multiple areas including the matching of the flow rate characteristics of the engine and the turbocharger, the design of intake and exhaust systems, research on the wastegate as well as its actuator, the tuning and control of the boost pressure as well as the design of the lubrication system for the turbocharger, etc.
Technical Paper

Auxiliary Drive Control Strategy of Hydraulic Hub-Motor Auxiliary System for Heavy Truck

2016-09-27
2016-01-8113
To improve traditional heavy commercial vehicles performance, this paper introduces a novel hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system, which could achieve auxiliary driving and auxiliary braking function. Firstly, the system configuration and operation modes are described. In order to achieve coordinating control and distribution of the engine power between mechanical and hydraulic paths, the paper proposes an optimal algorithm based on enhance of vehicle slip efficiency and the results show that displacement of hydraulic variable pump relates with the transmission gear ratio. And then the hydraulic pump displacement controller is designed, in which the feedforward and feedback strategy is adopted. Considering the characteristics of hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system, a layered auxiliary drive control strategy is proposed in the paper, which includes signal layers, core control layers and executive layers.
Journal Article

Resolution of a Low Speed Vehicle Vibration Issue in EV Mode for a Hybrid Vehicle Prototype

2016-04-05
2016-01-1307
A vehicle vibration issue emerged for a hybrid prototype during low speed driving in EV mode. This work is focused on the effort to identify the root cause and resolve the issue. The endeavor begins by performing a motor test in moderate acceleration with an imposed constant torque load. All relevant information is simultaneously recorded, including vehicle speed, vibration of motor structure and seat track, motor rpm, voltage and current signals, etc. Then analyses are carried out to strive for a better understanding of the vibration characteristics and identify its mechanism. It is found that the torque ripple from the driving motor is the root cause of the low speed vehicle vibration in EV mode, and the torque ripple is found to be induced by the current distortion resulted from the current sensor drift and electromagnetic interference due to high current signals.
Technical Paper

Electrochemical Characteristics of Cubic ZnFe2O4 Anode for Li-Ion Batteries at Low Temperature

2016-04-05
2016-01-1215
The poor low-temperature behavior of Li-ion batteries has limited its application in the field of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. Many previous studies concentrate on developing new type of electrolyte to solve this problem. However, according to recent research, the key limitation at low temperature is the low diffusivity of lithium ion in the anode electrodes. Hence, it is potential to study anode materials to improve low-temperature behavior of LIBs. ZnFe2O4 with higher theoretical capacity is low toxicity and abundance, contributing to its commercial application. Different ZnFe2O4 crystalline shapes have different particle sizes. Among them, the cubic ZnFe2O4 with smaller particle size will increase its own electronic and ionic conductance at lower temperature. In this regard, we evaluated low-temperature performance of LIBs with ZnFe2O4 cubes as anode materials at -25°C.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy Supervisory Based Variable Frequency Control Strategy for Active Battery/Supercapacitor Combination in Electric Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1203
This paper describes a novel power management control strategy of battery and supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system to improve system efficiency and battery lifetime. In the presented research, the high and low frequency power demand in the load is separated by a Haar wavelet transform algorithm to overcome the problem of battery overload work and associated degeneration in battery lifetime resulting from an ineffective distribution between battery and supercapacitor. The purpose of frequency distribution is that the supercapacitor is used to share high frequency power components of load power demand to smooth the power demand applied to battery. However, the sole frequency control often fails to realize the optimal utilization of supercapacitor because of the uncertain variation in the driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Performance Analysis of Multi-Speed Torque Coupler for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1149
A novel torque-coupling architecture for hybrid electric vehicles is proposed. The torque-coupling device is based on automated manual transmission (AMT), which is highly efficient and provides six gears for the engine and three gears for each motor to enable the engine and the motors to work at high-efficiency levels in most cases. The proposed power-shift AMT (P-AMT) does not have a hydraulic torque converter and wet clutches, which dampen the driveline shock. Thus, the drivability control of the P-AMT becomes a challenging issue. Accurate engine, motor model and transmission model have been built and the dynamic control of the gear shift process of PAMT in hybrid mode is simulated. The electric motors compensate for the traction loss during the gear shift of the engine.
Technical Paper

Development of Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Management System for Electric Vehicles Based on a Power Sharing Strategy Using Terrain Information

2016-04-05
2016-01-1242
Since road electric vehicles typically require a significantly variable and random load power demand in response to traffic conditions, such as frequent sequences of acceleration and deceleration and uphill followed by downhill runs. In this context, the energy management system of electric vehicle must ensure an effective power distribution between battery and supercapacitor to satisfy load demand. In this paper, the power management control strategy of hybrid energy storage system is developed by introducing terrain information to optimize system efficiency and battery lifetime. In this presented research, we aim at developing a power management control strategy considering the influence of the terrain information on system efficiency and battery lifetime.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Double Planetary Gear Sets

2015-04-14
2015-01-1216
Hybrid Electric Vehicles with a power split system provide a variety of possibilities to promote the fuel economy of vehicles and better adapt to various driving conditions. In this paper, a new power split system of a hybrid electric bus which consists of double planetary gear sets and a clutch is introduced. The system is able to decouple both the torque and speed of the engine from the road load, which makes it possible for the engine to operate on its optimal operation line (OOL). Considering the features of the system configuration and bus driving cycle, the driving mode of the bus is divided into Electric Vehicle (EV) mode, Electric Variable Transmission (EVT) mode and Parallel mode. By controlling the engagement of the clutch at high vehicle speed (after the mechanical point), the system operates in the parallel mode rather than EVT mode. This avoids the problem that the system efficiency sharply declines in high speed region which EVT configurations are generally faced with.
Technical Paper

Optimization for Driveline Parameters of Self-Dumping Truck Based on Particle Swarm Algorithm

2015-04-14
2015-01-0472
In this study, with the aim of reducing fuel consumption and improving power performance, the optimization for the driveline parameters of a self-dumping truck was performed by using a vehicle performance simulation model. The accuracy of this model was checked by the power performance and fuel economy tests. Then the transmission ratios and final drive ratio were taken as design variables. Meanwhile, the power performance of the self-dumping truck was evaluated through standing start acceleration time from 0 to 70km/h, maximum speed and maximum gradeability, while the combined fuel consumption of C-WTVC drive cycle was taken as an evaluation index of fuel economy. The multi-objective optimization for the power performance and fuel economy was then performed based on particle swarm optimization algorithm, and the Pareto optimal set was obtained. Furthermore, the entropy method was proposed to determine the weight of fuel consumption and acceleration time.
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