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Technical Paper

The Control Strategy for 4WD Hybrid Vehicle Based on Wavelet Transform

2021-04-06
2021-01-0785
In this paper, in order to avoid the frequent switching of engine operating points and improve the fuel economy during driving, this paper proposes a control strategy for the 4-wheel drive (4WD) hybrid vehicle based on wavelet transform. First of all, the system configuration and the original control strategy of the 4WD hybrid vehicle were introduced and analyzed, which summarized the shortcomings of this control strategy. Then, based on the analyze of the original control strategy, the wavelet transform was used to overcome its weaknesses. By taking advantage over the superiority of the wavelet transform method in multi signal disposition, the demand power of vehicle was decomposed into the stable drive power and the instantaneous response power, which were distributed to engine and electric motor respectively. This process was carried out under different driving modes.
Technical Paper

Research on Adaptive Cruise Control Strategy Considering the Disturbance of Preceding Vehicle and Multi-Objective Optimization

2021-04-06
2021-01-0338
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) includes three modes: cruise control, car following control, and autonomous emergency braking. Among them, the car following control mode is mainly used to manage the speed and vehicle spacing approach the preceding vehicle within the range of smooth acceleration changes. In addition, although the motion information signal of the preceding vehicle can be collected by auxiliary equipment, it is still a random variable and normally regarded as a disturbance to affect the performance of vehicle controller. Therefore, this paper proposed an ACC strategy considering the disturbance of the preceding vehicle and multi-objective optimization.
Technical Paper

Arrangement and Control Method of Cooperative Vehicle Platoon

2021-04-06
2021-01-0113
With the development of cellular communication technology and for the sake of reducing drag resistance, the multi-lane platoon technology will be more prosperous in the future. In this article, the cooperative vehicle platoon method on the public road is represented. The method’s architecture is mainly composed of the following parts: decision-making, path planning and control command generation. The decision-making uses the finite state machine to make decision and judgment on the cooperative lane change of vehicles, and starts to execute the lane change step when the lane change requirements are met. In terms of path planning, with the goal of ensuring comfort, the continuity of the vehicle state and no collision between vehicles, a fifth-order polynomial is used to fit every vehicle trajectory. In terms of control command generation module, a model predictive control algorithm is used to solve the multi-vehicle centralized optimization control problem.
Technical Paper

Accurate Pressure Control Based on Driver Braking Intention Identification for a Novel Integrated Braking System

2021-04-06
2021-01-0100
With the development of intelligent and electric vehicles, higher requirements are put forward for the active braking and regenerative braking ability of the braking system. The traditional braking system equipped with vacuum booster has difficulty meeting the demand, therefore it has gradually been replaced by the integrated braking system. In this paper, a novel Integrated Braking System (IBS) is presented, which mainly contains a pedal feel simulator, a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a series of transmission mechanisms, and the hydraulic control unit. As an integrative system of mechanics-electronics-hydraulics, the IBS has complex nonlinear characteristics, which challenge the accurate pressure control. Furthermore, it is a completely decoupled braking system, the pedal force doesn’t participate in pressure-building, so it is necessary to precisely identify driver’s braking intention.
Technical Paper

Multi-task Learning of Semantics,Geometry and Motion for Vision-based End-to-End Self-Driving

2021-04-06
2021-01-0194
It’s hard to achieve complete self-driving using hand-crafting generalized decision-making rules, while the end-to-end self-driving system is low in complexity, does not require hand-crafting rules, and can deal with complex situations. Modular-based self-driving systems require multi-task fusion and high-precision maps, resulting in high system complexity and increased costs. In end-to-end self-driving, we usually only use camera to obtain scene status information, so image processing is very important. Numerous deep learning applications benefit from multi-task learning, as the multi-task learning can accelerate model training and improve accuracy with combine all tasks into one model, which reduces the amount of calculation and allows these systems to run in real-time. Therefore, the approach of obtaining rich scene state information based on multi-task learning is very attractive. In this paper, we propose an approach to multi-task learning for semantics, geometry and motion.
Technical Paper

Active Interior Noise Control for Passenger Vehicle Using the Notch Dual-Channel Algorithms with Two Different Predictive Filters

2021-02-18
2020-01-5228
Active control of low-frequency engine order noise helps to improve the passenger’s sense of hearing, so it has become one of the hot topics in the automotive field. Depth improvement of active noise control (ANC) performance from the perspective of novel algorithms has attracted the attention of researchers. The conventional notch dual-channel filtered-x least mean square (NDFxLMS) algorithm shows acceptable noise reduction for the elimination of engine order noise. To further enhance the steady-state ANC effect, this paper proposed two new notch algorithms: the notch dual-channel filtered-x recursive least square (NDFxRLS) algorithm and the notch dual-channel affine projection (NDAP) algorithm. Vehicle simulation tests show that both the proposed algorithms, especially the NDFxRLS algorithm, have a satisfying performance for the cancellation of interior noise from the engine.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Classification of Driver’s Style and Skill Using Fully-Connected Deep Neural Networks

2021-02-03
2020-01-5107
Driving style and skill classification are of great significance in human-oriented advanced driver-assistance system (ADAS) development. In this paper, we propose Fully-Connected Deep Neural Networks (FC-DNN) to classify drivers’ styles and skills with naturalistic driving data. Followed by the data collection and pre-processing, FC-DNN with a series of deep learning optimization algorithms are applied. In the experimental part, the proposed model is validated and compared with other commonly used supervised learning methods including the k-nearest neighbors (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), and multilayer perceptron (MLP). The results show that the proposed model has a higher Macro F1 score than other methods. In addition, we discussed the effect of different time window sizes on experimental results. The results show that the driving information of 1s can improve the final evaluation score of the model.
Technical Paper

Temperature Compensation Control Strategy of Creep Mode for Hydraulic Hub-Motor Drive Vehicle

2020-06-09
2020-01-5059
Based on traditional heavy commercial vehicles, a hydraulic hub-motor drive vehicle (HHMDV) is equipped with a set of hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system (HHMAS) to improve the traction performance and adaptability under complex conditions. In the case of low-speed operation or mechanical transmission failure, the creep mode (CM) can be used to drive the vehicle. Aiming at a common hydraulic system problem that flow loss increases due to temperature variation, a temperature compensation control strategy of the CM is proposed in this paper. By analyzing the speed regulation characteristics of the closed loop of the system in the CM, combined with the efficiency of the hydraulic variable pump (HP) and the hydraulic quantitative motor (HM), and aiming at adjusting the engine work in the optimal curve of the engine, the temperature compensation factor is introduced to control the HP displacement with hydraulic stepless speed regulation.
Technical Paper

Temperature Compensation Control Strategy of Assist Mode for Hydraulic Hub-Motor Drive Vehicle

2020-04-21
2020-01-5046
Based on the traditional heavy commercial vehicle, hydraulic hub-motor drive vehicle (HHMDV) is equipped with a hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary drive system, which makes the vehicle change from the rear-wheel drive to the four-wheel drive to improve the traction performance on low-adhesion road. In the typical operating mode of the vehicle, the leakage of the hydraulic system increases because of the oil temperature rising, this makes the control precision of the hydraulic system drop. Therefore, a temperature compensation control strategy for the assist mode is proposed in this paper. According to the principle of flow continuity, considering the loss of the system and the expected wheel speed, the control strategy of multifactor target pump displacement based on temperature compensation is derived. The control strategy is verified by the co-simulation platform of MATLAB/Simulink and AMESim.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Curved Road Collision Prevention Warning System of Automobile Based on V2X

2020-04-14
2020-01-0707
The high popularity of automobiles has led to frequent collisions. According to the latest statistics of the United Nations, about 1.25 million people worldwide die from road traffic accidents each year. In order to improve the safety of vehicles in driving, the active safety system has become a research hotspot of various car companies and research institutions around the world. Among them, the more mature and popular active security system are Forward Collision Warning(FCW) and Autonomous Emergency Braking(AEB). However, the current active safety system is based on traditional sensors such as radar and camera. Therefore, the system itself has many limitations due to the shortage of traditional sensors. Compared to traditional sensors, Vehicle to Everything (V2X) technology has the advantages of richer vehicle parameter information, no perceived blind spots, dynamic prediction of dangerous vehicle status, and no occlusion restriction.
Technical Paper

Research on Control Strategy Optimization for Shifting Process of Pure Electric Vehicle Based on Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm

2020-04-14
2020-01-0971
With more and more countries proposing timetables for stopping selling of fuel vehicles, China has also issued a “dual-slope” policy. As electric vehicles are the most promising new energy vehicle, which is worth researching. The integration and control of the motor and gearbox have gradually become a hot research topic due to low cost with better performance. This paper takes an electric vehicle equipped with permanent magnet synchronous motor and two-gear automatic transmission without synchronizer and clutch as the research object.
Technical Paper

A Path Planning and Model Predictive Control for Automatic Parking System

2020-04-14
2020-01-0121
With the increasing number of urban cars, parking has become the primary problem that people face in daily life. Therefore, many scholars have studied the automatic parking system. In the existing research, most of the path planning methods use the combined path of arc and straight line. In this method, the path curvature is not continuous, which indirectly leads to the low accuracy of path tracking. The parking path designed using the fifth-order polynomial is continuous, but its curvature is too large to meet the steering constraints in some cases. In this paper, a continuous-curvature parking path is proposed. The parking path tracker based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm is designed under the constraints of the control accuracy and vehicle steering. Firstly, in order to make the curvature of the parking path continuous, this paper superimposes the fifth-order polynomial with the sigmoid function, and the curve obtained has the continuous and relatively small curvature.
Technical Paper

Trajectory Planning and Tracking for Four-Wheel-Steering Autonomous Vehicle with V2V Communication

2020-04-14
2020-01-0114
Lane-changing is a typical traffic scene effecting on road traffic with high request for reliability, robustness and driving comfort to improve the road safety and transportation efficiency. The development of connected autonomous vehicles with V2V communication provide more advanced control strategies to research of lane-changing. Meanwhile, four-wheel steering is an effective way to improve flexibility of vehicle. The front and rear wheels rotate in opposite direction to reduce the turning radius to improve the servo agility operation at the low speed while those rotate in same direction to reduce the probability of the slip accident to improve the stability at the high speed. Hence, this paper established Four-Wheel-Steering(4WS) vehicle dynamic model and quasi real lane-changing scenes to analyze the motion constraints of the vehicles.
Technical Paper

Intention-aware Lane Changing Assistance Strategy Basing on Traffic Situation Assessment

2020-04-14
2020-01-0127
Traffic accidents avoidance is one of the main advantages for automated vehicles. As one of the main causes of vehicle collision accidents, lane changing of the ego vehicle in case that the obstacle vehicles appear in the blind spot with uncertain motion intentions is one of the main goals for the automated vehicle. An intention-aware lane changing collision assistance strategy basing on traffic situation assessment in the complex traffic scenarios is proposed in this paper. Typical Regions of Interest (ROI) within the detection range of the blind spots are selected basing on the road topology structures and state space consisting of the ego vehicle and the obstacle vehicles. Then the motion intentions of the obstacle vehicles in ROI are identified basing on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM) and the corresponding motion trajectories are predicted basing on the state equation.
Technical Paper

Pressure Tracking Control of Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster System

2020-04-14
2020-01-0211
The Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster system (EMBB) is a kind of novel braking booster system, which integrates active braking, regenerative braking, and other functions. It usually composes of a servo motor and the transmission mechanism. EMBB can greatly meet the development needs of vehicle intelligentization and electrification. During active braking, EMBB is required to respond quickly to the braking request and track the target pressure accurately. However, due to the highly nonlinearity of the hydraulic system and EMBB, traditional control algorithms especially for PID algorithm do not work well for pressure control. And a large amount of calibration work is required when applying PID algorithms to pressure control in engineering.
Technical Paper

Research on Compensation Redundancy Control for Basic Force Boosting Failure of Electro-Booster Brake System

2020-04-14
2020-01-0216
As a new brake-by-wire solution, the electro-booster (Ebooster) brake system can work with the electronic stability program (ESP) equipped in the real vehicle to realize various excellent functions such as basic force boosting (BFB), active braking and energy recovery, which is promoting the development of smart vehicles. Among them, the BFB is the function of Ebooster's servo force to assist the driver's brake pedal force establishing high-intensity braking pressure. After the BFB function failure of the Ebooster, it was not possible to provide sufficient brake pressure for the driver's normal braking, and eventually led to traffic accidents. In this paper, a compensation redundancy control strategy based on ESP is proposed for the BFB failure of the self-designed Ebooster.
Technical Paper

Research on Yaw Stability Control of Unmanned Vehicle Based on Integrated Electromechanical Brake Booster

2020-04-14
2020-01-0212
The Electromechanical Brake Booster system (EMBB) integrates active braking and energy recovery and becomes a novel brake-by-wire solution that substitutes the vacuum booster. While the intelligent unmanned vehicle is in unstable state, the EMBB can improve the vehicle yaw stability more quickly and safely. In this paper, a new type of integrated EMBB has been designed, which mainly includes two parts: servo motor unit and hydraulic control unit. Aiming at the dynamic instability problem of intelligent unmanned vehicle, a three-layer vehicle yaw stability control structure including decision layer, distribution layer and execution layer is proposed based on integrated EMBB. Firstly, the decision layer calculates the ideal yaw rate and the side slip angle of the vehicle with the classic 2DOF vehicle dynamics model. The boundary of the stable region is determined by the phase plane method and the additional yaw moment is determined by the feedback PI control algorithm.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Assistance Tool for Evaluating the Effect of Tire Characteristics on Vehicle Pull Problem

2020-04-14
2020-01-1237
The vehicle pull problem is very important to driving safety. Major factors that may cause the pull problem related to tire include variations of geometric dimension (e.g. RPK) and stiffness (e.g. cornering stiffness, aligning stiffness), plysteer and conicity. In previous research, the influencing mechanism of these factors was well studied. But in fact, vehicle pull problem caused by tire is probabilistic. When we assemble four tires onto the car, there could be 384 different assembly arrangements. If there are significant differences among these four tires, there will also be significant differences in the influence of different tire assembly schemes on vehicle pull, which has not been systematically discussed in previous studies. If we want to evaluate the pull performance of all these arrangements by vehicle test, it will be a time consuming process which will take almost 24 working days, along with a high test expense.
Technical Paper

Research on Control Algorithm of Active Steering Control Based on the Driver Intention

2019-11-04
2019-01-5064
Active steering technology can improve the operability of the driver by the involvement to the steering system. Driver is the major controller of the vehicle Therefore, the involvement of advanced technologies including the active steering technology shouldn’t interfere with the intention of the driver, and the driver should still have great control of the vehicle. The aim of this paper is to solve the problem of the driver’s control when the active steering system works to improve the flexibility of the low speed and the stability of the high speed, and the active steering model based on the driver’s steering intention is established. Through the CarSim simulation software, this paper adopts 9 parameters related to the vehicle steering of the DLC (Double Line Change). And PCA (Principal Component Analysis) algorithm, a tool of statistical analysis, is applied to select 4 parameters which can stand for the DLC from the 9 parameters, which makes the data processing easier.
Technical Paper

Control Synthesis for Distributed Vehicle Platoon Under Different Topological Communication Structures

2019-04-02
2019-01-0494
The wireless inter-vehicle communication provide a manner to achieve multi-vehicle cooperative driving, and the platoon of automotive vehicle can significantly improve traffic efficiency and ensure traffic safety. Previous researches mostly focus on the state of the proceeding vehicle, and transmit information from self to the succeeding vehicle. Nevertheless, this structure possesses high requirements for controller design and shows poor effect in system stability. In this paper, the state of vehicles is not only related to the information of neighbor vehicles, while V2V communication transmit information over a wide range of area. To begin with, the node dynamic model of vehicle is described by linear integrator with inertia delay and the space control strategy is proposed with different topological communication structures as BF, LBF, PBF, etc.
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