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Technical Paper

Development of a Riding Simulator for Motorcycles

2018-10-30
2018-32-0031
We developed the motorcycles based on RIDEOLOGY (Ride + Ideology) concept. In the past, the “Ride” was studied by a sensory evaluation with actual driving. However, the recent progress in numerical analysis, there have been developed driving simulators. It allows more quantitative measurement in a sensory evaluation. Therefore, we also developed a riding simulator specialized for motorcycles. In order to develop such riding simulator, there are some technical challenges for motorcycles. First, we need to reproduce roll motion height of motorcycles. Compared to four-wheeled vehicles, motorcycles have a higher center of rotation. Second, we need to reproduce vehicle motion control by rider’s changing body position. A rider controls vehicle’s lean by shifting his center of gravity. Therefore, it is necessary to construct a measurement system of rider’s body position. Third, we need to improve senses of speed and reality.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Stability Analysis of High-Speed Traction Drive CVT for Aircraft Power Generation

2018-10-30
2018-01-1936
The traction-drive integrated drive generator (T-IDG®) has been developed since 1999 to replace current hydrostatic transmission drive generators mounted on Japanese military aircraft. The T-IDG® consists of a generator and a half-toroidal traction-drive continuously variable transmission (CVT), which maintains a constant output speed of 24000 rpm, that is, a 400 Hz AC power supply. To cope with recent trends of more electric aircraft (MEA) and the need for weight reduction, a high-speed traction-drive CVT is advantageous over other transmissions. The torque on the half-toroidal variator is transmitted through multiple power rollers. The equal load sharing among power rollers is typically controlled by a mechanical hydraulic feedback system, whose stability is one of the main issues for the high-speed traction-drive CVT. Previous studies have shown that insufficient damping and stiffness of the mechanical hydraulic feedback system cause self-induced vibration.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Intake Port for Improvement of Fuel Consumption and Torque

2017-11-05
2017-32-0055
In this study on the motorcycle engine, we investigated the geometry of the newly developed intake port with an objective of improving the fuel consumption and the torque in practical range. Herein we present the results obtained. We believe that an effective measure for achieving the stated objective is to improve the combustion speed and combustion stability. To realize that, it is necessary to increase the turbulence during combustion and improve the homogeneity of air-fuel mixture. To investigate the feasible shape of the port, the CFD simulation (including fuel spray analysis) was performed and a geometry that improved the turbulent kinetic energy and mixture homogeneity at the time of ignition was selected. For confirming the combustion improvement effect achieved by tumble strengthening, an engine test was conducted with the same amount of intake air as that used in.
Technical Paper

Development of the Compact and Light Wheel Forces and Moments Sensor for Motorcycles

2016-11-08
2016-32-0053
Owing to the recent developments in sensors with reduced size and weight, it is now possible to install sensors on a body of a motorcycle to monitor its behavior during running. The analysis of maneuverability and stability has been performed based on the data resulted from measurements by these sensors. The tire forces and moments is an important measurement item in maneuverability and stability studies. However, the tire forces and moments is difficult to measure directly, therefore, it is a common practice to measure the force and the moment acting on the center of the wheel. The measuring device is called a wheel forces and moments sensor, and it is widely used for cars. The development of a wheel forces and moments sensor for motorcycles has difficulty particular to motorcycles. First, motorcycles run with their bodies largely banked, which restricts positioning the sensors.
Technical Paper

Chassis Development for the Motorcycle With High Power Output Supercharged Engine

2015-11-17
2015-32-0723
In motorcycles, the size and output performance of the engine itself has a major effect on the maneuverability of the motorcycle. In particular for cases where a high output engine is mounted on a lightweight frame, these effects are even more of a concern. In the case of developing a racing motorcycle with a high power engine, the behavior of the motorcycle differs depending on the output range used and there are a lot of cases where changes to the basic dimensions of the motorcycle as well as the main components are required. Here, there are a lot of cases where the rider and drive-able courses are limited to compatibility with distinct specifications and when considering use as a general mass production motorcycle by riders with varying levels of skills and in various environments, it difficult to determine how to provide support.
Technical Paper

Development of a Supercharged Engine for Motorcycle with a Centrifugal Supercharger

2015-11-17
2015-32-0729
1 In the development of motorcycle engines, a strong feeling of power, an element of being fun to ride has continued strong demand. However, demand to meet environmental performance, a conflicting element, has increased dramatically in recent years and a breakthrough technology that achieves both environmental performance and a feeling of power is in demand. Here, the newly developed engine has greatly enhanced feeling of power while clearing stringent environmental restrictions through use of a centrifugal type supercharger. However, there were several problems that had to be resolved with regards to application of a supercharger to a motorcycle engine. In applying a supercharger to a motorcycle, a major problem is the best way to keep the engine size from increasing in size. The engine, which is the heaviest parts on a motorcycle greatly affects motorcycle maneuverability so it must be compact and the mass concentrated.
Technical Paper

A Study of Function Control in the Electric Motorcycle

2015-11-17
2015-32-0753
Generally, it is thought that control is simpler than an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)-Motorcycle(MC) as for the Electric Vehicle(EV) type MC. However, there is few characteristic to the ICE-MC to the EV-MC and it cannot get good performance without control for EV-MC. We study the methodology for design and evaluation an EV-MC. In this approach, we developed the prototype EV-MC having manual transmission. In our study, we think that EV-MC having manual transmission is feature in comparison with other general EV-MC. From this feature, we had to develop the function control in addition to standard EV-MC function control. This paper provides a function control for EV-MC having manual transmission. In this paper, we arrange the problem points of EV-MC which put electric propulsion motor and manual transmission together at first. And report the result that studied a method to solve the problem points.
Technical Paper

Development of Fatigue Durability Evaluation Technology for Motorcycle Frame

2015-11-17
2015-32-0811
In the development of a motorcycle frame, the balance between high performance and reliability and a short development period are important. In this study, a fatigue durability evaluation technique for a motorcycle frame was developed to enable highly accurate development within a short period of time. Furthermore, we developed a shaking table excitation system as a means to supplement the road test.
Journal Article

Acceleration Performance Analysis for Rubber V-Belt CVT with Belt Tension Clutching

2015-11-17
2015-32-0731
The power train system for Utility Vehicles (UVs) or All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) mainly consists of a rubber V-belt CVT. The adjustment of the CVT specification requires many steps to realize the shifting operations of the CVT so as to satisfy the acceleration feeling of the driver. In this paper, we report on the simulation technology that predicts the transient behavior during an acceleration of the vehicle equipped with a belt tension clutching CVT, which has both functions of the shift operation and the clutch action. By using the developed simulation technique, it has become possible to adjust the CVT specifications efficiently.
Technical Paper

Refill Friction Spot Joining for Aerospace Application

2015-09-15
2015-01-2614
In the modern aircraft manufacturing, the cost reduction, the manufacturing time reduction, and the weight saving of aircraft are strongly demanded. The Refill Friction Spot Joining [1,2](FSJ, in other words FSSW, Friction Stir Spot Welding), which is one of innovative solid-state joining methodologies based on the Friction Stir Welding[3], is a promising technology that can replace rivets and fasteners. This technology is expected to offer cost reduction and weight saving for the aircraft manufacturing. In this study, to make stronger and reliable joints, the shoulder-plunging process of Refill FSJ was employed. The weldability of the Alodine or Chromic Acid Anodize coated materials along with a faying-surface sealant was investigated. The joint properties, such as tensile shear strengths and corrosion resistance, were evaluated.
Technical Paper

The Feasibility Study of a Design Concept of Electric Motorcycle

2015-09-01
2015-01-1775
As for automobile, the mass production period of Electric Vehicle(EV) has begun by the rapid progress of the battery performance. But for EV-Motorcycle(MC), it is limited for the venture companies' releases. The design and evaluation methodologies are not yet established or standardized so far. This paper provides the practical and the experimental examples. To study the feasibility of EV-MC, we developed the prototypes in the present technical and suppliers' parts environments, and evaluated them by the practical view of the MC usage. The developed EV-MC has the equivalent driving performance of the 250cc internal combustion engine(ICE)-MC and a cruising range of 100km in normal use.
Technical Paper

A Study of Electric Motorcycle

2014-11-11
2014-32-0012
As for automobile, the mass production period of Electric Vehicle(EV) has begun by the rapid progress of the battery performance. But for EV- Motorcycle(MC), it is limited for the venture companies' releases. The design and evaluation methodologies are not yet established or standardized so far. This paper provides the practical and the experimental examples. To study the feasibility of EV-MC, we developed the prototypes in the present technical and suppliers' parts environments, and evaluated them by the practical view of the MC usage. The developed EV-MC has the equivalent driving performance of the 250cc internal combustion engine(ICE)-MC and a cruising range of 100km in normal use. In the prototype development, the reliability and the ability of protection design of the battery in the whole vehicle against the environmental loads are mainly studied, especially, heat and cold, water, shock, and the accident impact.
Technical Paper

Development of Technology for Measuring Dynamic Deformation of Motorcycle Bodies

2013-10-15
2013-32-9165
In this study, a technology for measuring dynamic deformation of motorcycle bodies in running is developed. The deformation has significant association with the maneuverability and stability of motorcycles. The developed system by combining the numerical simulation and the measurement of strains enable application of the measurement of dynamic deformation of motorcycles. This paper reports technical details of the system and measurement results of dynamic deformation of motorcycle bodies.
Technical Paper

Evaluation Method for Motorcycle Mode Fuel Consumption using a One-Dimensional Engine Simulation

2013-10-15
2013-32-9162
Motorcycle has broad spectrum of developments, such as excellent engine performance, low fuel consumption, emission and noise reduction. As global warming become a serious issue internationally, reduction of fuel consumption is especially of importance. In this study, an evaluation method for the WMTC mode fuel consumption using a one-dimensional engine simulation is investigated. The fuel consumption for the WMTC mode can be predicted in a short time without a complicated vehicle model to simulate transient behavior. The proposed method mostly showed good agreement with measured data for middle-class motorcycle using a chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Development of Alternative Fuel Content Estimation Method and Apparatus

2013-10-15
2013-32-9156
Environmental and energy independence concerns have stimulated the development of an apparatus for alternative fuel. It estimates the ethanol content in the fuel in order to perform a reliable combustion. One means for measuring the ratio of ethanol present in the fuel tank is to provide a fuel composition sensor. However, such a fuel composition sensor increases the number of parts and causes the cost issues in motorcycles. We used an oxygen sensor disposed to the exhaust pipe to estimate the ethanol content without increasing the parts and costs. The common method of the estimation is the oxygen feed-back in stoichiometric air fuel ratio condition. Unfortunately, two-wheel vehicles are often operated in rich conditions and have less chance of stoichiometric condition. In this study, we used a one-liter four-cylinder motorcycle, and have developed a practical method to estimate the ethanol content even in the not-stoichiometric condition.
Technical Paper

Stability Control of Motorcycle

2011-11-08
2011-32-0558
We developed active control more suitable for sports riding than the previous electronic stability control system for enjoying sports riding by many users. One of them, the traction control system S-KTRC (Sports Kawasaki TRaction Control) uses the sensor output like not only the slippage calculated from the front and rear wheel speed but also engine speed, throttle position, and gear position etc. As the result, conditions of the motorcycle and rider's intention are calculated by ‘Motorcycle model’ in the ECU continuously. By this ‘Motorcycle model’, S-KTRC confirms the real time conditions and predicts the succeeded condition, every 5milliseconds to decide to govern torque. The ABS system KIBS (Kawasaki Intelligent anti-lock Brake System), it is possible to control the rear wheel's lift by using the pressure data of the front brake at the sudden braking operation.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Vibration Fatigue Life for Motorcycle Exhaust Systems

2011-11-08
2011-32-0642
In this study, the technology that can predict fatigue life for motorcycle exhaust systems is developed. To predict the fatigue life, analyzing the engine vibration, modeling the vibration characteristics of exhaust systems and evaluating the fatigue damage of welded joints are considered essential. This paper shows an integrated numerical simulation and evaluation method. Furthermore, it is also shown with the result of a component vibration test of the muffler assembly to validate the technology. The results indicate a good correlation between the numerical simulation and the test.
Journal Article

Development of a Control Method to Reduce Acceleration Shock in Motorcycles

2010-09-28
2010-32-0106
The purpose of this paper is to propose a control method to reduce acceleration shock in motorcycles. Reducing the acceleration shock is very important in improving driveability of motorcycles. Motorcycles equipped with manual transmission have some backlashes in the transmission, with large backlash especially in dog clutch portions. We have figured out that one of the main causes of the acceleration shock is the collision of the dogs at high relative angular velocity during acceleration. Also, our data analysis has revealed that there is a correlation between a peak value of the longitudinal body acceleration and the relative angular velocity at the moment of the dog collision. A simulation was undertaken to verify this phenomenon, and its results have made it clear that we need to decrease the relative angular velocity at the moment of the dog collision so as to reduce the acceleration shock.
Technical Paper

Development of Fail-safe Method for Motorcycle's Electronic Throttle Control System

2009-11-03
2009-32-0124
In recent years, even motorcycles impose demands for engine power controls that are more flexible and precise. The Electronic Throttle Control (ETC) system is one of the methods that addresses this need. However, the most important issue facing the installation of the ETC system on the motorcycle is handling failures. To avoid this problem, we developed an ETC system for motorcycles that can properly effect engine power control in case of a failure. This ETC system contains in duplicate the major components to detect failures and switch to a failure mode properly. To effect control that is optimally suited to the type of failure, this system switches between three types of failure modes. These failure modes are designed to minimize risks in case of a failure and maximize the operational capability while the rider is on the way to have the motorcycle repaired.
Technical Paper

Optimal Motorcycle Configuration with Performance Limitations

2007-10-30
2007-32-0123
Motorcycle configurations, such as CG (center of gravity) location, have come to be fixed to the current ones by trial and error since motorcycle was born. Generally motorcycles' ratio of CG height to wheelbase is relatively higher than four-wheel cars'. We have analyzed the optimal motorcycle CG location with relatively simple formulas, which we have derived to calculate the maximum acceleration with three performance limitations and calculate the maximum speed and the shortest time to run through a course. The results show that the calculated speed is significantly close to actual sport motorcycle's and that the optimal CG locations for various courses are bounded in a certain limited area which is near actual sport motorcycle's.
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