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Technical Paper

Influence of ethanol blending on knocking in a lean burn SI engine

2019-12-19
2019-01-2152
Lean burn is one method for improving thermal efficiency in spark ignition (SI) engines. Suppression of knocking provides higher thermal efficiency, and ethanol blending is considered an effective way to suppress knocking due to its high octane and high latent heat of evaporation. We investigate the effect of ethanol blending on knocking in an SI engine under lean operating conditions. The Livengood-Wu (LW) integral was performed based on ignition delay duration estimated from a zero-dimensional detailed chemical reaction calculation with pressure and temperature histories. Knocking was suppressed and thermal efficiency increased with ethanol-gasoline blending fuel, even at 0.5 equivalence ratio. Decrease in unburned gas temperature by latent heat of evaporation had a comparable influence on knocking suppression, which was supported by LW integral analysis.
Technical Paper

Effect of exhaust gas composition on EGR deposit formation

2019-12-19
2019-01-2358
Serious problems occur in an exhaust gas recirculation system due to an adhesive hard deposit. It is important to clarify the mechanism of the hard deposit formation to suppress it. In this study, the effect of exhaust gas composition on hard deposit formation was investigated. The amount of the hard deposit formed under various operating conditions while keeping the total hydrocarbon concentration constant was different. The component analyses of the exhaust gas and the hard deposit clarified that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the exhaust gas strongly affected the hard deposit formation.
Technical Paper

Impact of Engine Oil Additives on Nanostructure and Oxidation Kinetics of Diesel and Synthetic Biodiesel Particulate Matters using Electron Microscopy

2019-12-19
2019-01-2351
Physicochemical characteristics of particulate matters which are influenced by engine oil additives from engine combustion of diesel and synthetic biodiesel: hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) were successfully investigated using electron microscopy, electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The agglomerate structure of diesel PM, HVO PM and diesel blending lubricant PM are similar in micro-scales. However, nanostructure of soot is a spherical shape composed of curve line crystallites while the metal oxide ash nanostructure is composed of parallel straight line hatch patterns. The oxidation kinetics of fuel blending lubricant PMs are higher than neat fuel PMs due to catalytic effect of incombustible metal additives from engine lubricating oil.
Technical Paper

Ignition Experiments by Nanosecond Repetitively Pulsed Discharges in Intense Turbulence for Super Lean Burn at Engine Condition

2019-12-19
2019-01-2160
Ignition by Nanosecond Repetitively Pulsed Discharges (NRPD) at EXponential Increase of Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE-EXI) region under super lean SI engine conditions was studied. Fundamental experiments were conducted with a turbulent ignition test chamber with twin counter-rotating fans. The MIE-EXI region by arc discharge appeared over 6500 rpm of fan speed. In the MIE-EXI region (7000 rpm), successful ignition was achieved by establishing coupled ignition kernels with NRPD at 15 kHz although ignition was unsuccessful at 1 kHz. Results show that ignition by NRPD has potential advantages for lean burn applications. Preliminary engine test results with NRPD were also demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Research of Fuel Components to Expand lean-limit in Super lean-burn condition

2019-12-19
2019-01-2257
The thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines can be improved dramatically with the right combination of engine technology and fuel technology. Super lean-burn technology is attracting attention as a means of boosting thermal efficiency. However, there is a limit to how lean a fuel-air mixture can be before combustion becomes unstable or misfire occurs. The authors evaluated the effects of various chemical compositions on the lean limit under super lean-burn conditions. By changing the composition of the fuel, it was possible to achieve excess air ratios of over 2.0, resulting in high thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Control Using Multi Pulse Ultrahigh Pressure Injection

2019-04-02
2019-01-1155
Compression ignition (CI) engines provide higher thermal efficiency compared to other internal combustion engines although large amounts of NOx and soot are produced during combustion. NOx and soot emissions can be reduced by using Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. However, the problems of PCCI combustion include limited operating range, unstable start of combustion and an increase in combustion noise. The multi-pulse ultrahigh pressure injection allows fuel to be injected near TDC, improving mixture formation and enhancing the possibility to extend the operating range of PCCI combustion. The objective of this paper is to control and extend the operating range of PCCI combustion using multi-pulse ultrahigh pressure injection. This has not been studied before. Combustion characteristics were investigated using apparent rate of heat release analysis, heat balance analysis, exhaust emission measurement and soot concentration measurement.
Technical Paper

Impact of TiO2 and V2O5 on Sintered Mullite Porous Microstructure and Soot Oxidation Kinetics Using SEM and TGA

2019-03-25
2019-01-1407
The exhaust emissions from diesel combustion are the sources of particulate matter emitted to the atmosphere, which are components of air pollution that implicated in human health such as lung cancer. At present the diesel particulate filter can remove PM from the exhaust gas before emitted to the atmosphere. This research is investigating morphology and structure of acicular mullite to develop the fabrication process filter in order to study particulate matters trapping and oxidation mechanisms. This paper used two main substances to study the structure of diesel particulate filter (DPFs); Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and Silicon dioxide (SiO2). These are mainly in the conventional DPFs. The variable substances are Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Vanadium oxide (V2O5), which added to investigate and produce the acicular mullite DPFs structure. The mullite samples were sintered at 1300 oC with holding time of 1 h.
Technical Paper

A Cycle-to-Cycle Variation Extraction Method for Flow Field Analysis in SI IC Engines Based on Turbulence Scales

2019-01-15
2019-01-0042
To adhere to stringent environmental regulations, SI (spark ignition) engines are required to achieve higher thermal efficiency. In recent years, EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) systems and lean-burn operation has been recognized as key technologies. Under such operating conditions, reducing CCV (cycle-to-cycle variation) in combustion is critical to the enhancement of overall engine performance. Flow-field CCV is one of the considerable factors affecting combustion in engines. Conventionally, in research on flow fields in SI engines, the ensemble average is used to separate the measured velocity field into a mean component and a fluctuation component, the latter of which contains a CCV component and a turbulent component. To extract the CCV of the flow field, previous studies employed spatial filter, temporal filter, and POD (proper orthogonal decomposition) methods.
Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature-Pressure Time History on Auto-Ignition Delay of Air-Fuel Mixture

2018-09-10
2018-01-1799
When the compression ratio of the spark ignition engine is set high as a method of improving the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, it is often combined with the direct fuel injection system for knock mitigation. In port injection, there are also situations where the fuel is guided into the cylinder while the vaporization is insufficient, especially at the cold start. If the fuel is introduced into the cylinder in a liquid state, the temperature in the cylinder will change due to sensible heat and latent heat of the fuel during vaporization. Further, if the fuel is unevenly distributed in the cylinder, the effect of the specific heat is added, and the local temperature difference is expanded through the compression process. In this research, an experiment was conducted using a rapid compression machine for the purpose of discussing the effect of the temperature-pressure time history of fuel on ignition delay time.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance and Emission of Ethanol Fumigated Diesel Engine

2017-11-05
2017-32-0101
Primary energy source such as fossil fuel keep decreasing due to various kind of usage. According to less amount of the fossil fuel, human seeks for an alternative fuel source such as alcohol. Alcohol like ethanol can be produced easily from strarchy plant. But using alcohol as blended fuel with diesel fuel doesn't work well because alcohol has low cetane number, lack of lubricity and very low miscibility with diesel fuel. To overcome this, fumigation system or port fuel injection of alcohol seems interesting. Although it requires more complicate system but it can compensate the miscibility issue and alcohol can be used in higher dose to give more energy. Diesel engine produces a lot of emission such as NOx and some other carbon content emission like HC, CO and soot due to they run in lean condition as their characteristic. Modern diesel engines are now coupled with exhaust gas recirculation system to help reduce in main emission like NOx.
Technical Paper

Effect of Biofuel and Soot on Metal Wear Characteristic Using Electron Microscopy and 3D Image Processing

2017-11-05
2017-32-0095
The soot contamination in used engine oils of diesel engine vehicles was about 1% by weight. The soot and metal wear particle sizes might be in the range of 0-1 µm and 1-25 µm, respectively. The characteristics of soot affecting on metal wear was investigated. Soot particle contamination in diesel engine oil was simulated using carbon black. Micro-nanostructure of soot particles were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser diffraction spectroscopy (LDS). The metal wear behavior was studied by means of a Four-Ball tribology test with wear measured. Wear roughness in micro-scale was investigated by high resolution optical microscopy (OM) , 3D rendering optical technique and SEM image processing method. It was found that the ball wear scar diameter increased proportionally to the soot primary particle size. The effect of biodiesel contamination were also increasing in wear scar diameter.
Technical Paper

Impact of Biodiesel on Small CI Engine Combustion Behavior and Particle Emission Characteristic

2017-11-05
2017-32-0094
Diesel engines are high thermal efficiency because of high compression ratio but produce high concentration of particulate matter (PM) because of direct injection fuel diffusion combustion. PM must be removed from the exhaust gas to protect human health. This research describes biodiesel engine performance, efficiency and combustion behavior using combustion pressure analyzer. It was clearly observed that PM emitted from CI engines can be reduced by using renewable bio-oxygenated fuels. The morphology and nanostructure of fossil fuel and biofuel PMs were investigated by using a Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The morphology of biodiesel and diesel doesn’t have much different in the viewpoint of particulate matter trapping using DPF micro surface pores. The agglomerated ultrafine particles and primary nanoparticles sizes of diesel and biodiesel engine’s PM are approximately 50-500 nm and 20-50 nm, respectively.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Composition on Ignition Delay and Knocking in Lean Burn SI Engine

2017-11-05
2017-32-0112
Super lean burn technology is conceived as one of methods for improving the thermal efficiency of SI engines[1][2]. For lean burn, reduction of heat loss and the due to decrease in flame temperature can be expected. However, as the premixed gas dilutes, the combustion speed decreases, so the combustion fluctuation between cycles increases. Also, to improve the thermal efficiency, the ignition timing is advanced to advance the combustion phase. However, when the combustion phase is excessively advanced, knocking occurs, which hinders the improvement of thermal efficiency. Knocking is a phenomenon in which unburned gas in a combustion chamber compressed by a piston and combustion gas suffer compression auto-ignition. It is necessary to avoid knocking because the amplitude of the large pressure wave may cause noise and damage to the engine. Also, knocking is not a steady phenomenon but a phenomenon that fluctuates from cycle to cycle.
Technical Paper

Effects of Spark Discharge Characteristic on Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of Combustion for Lean SI Operation with High Tumble Flow

2017-11-05
2017-32-0111
It has been shown that lean burn is effective for improving the thermal efficiency of gasoline SI engines. This happens because the reduction of heat loss by decrease of flame temperature. On the other hand, the fuel dilution of the premixed gas makes the combustion speed low, and cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion are increased by excessive dilution, it is difficult to increase the thermal efficiency of the gasoline SI engine. Influence of ignition by spark discharge is considered as a factor of combustion variation, and it is necessary to understand the effects of spark discharge characteristics on the lean combustion process. Spark discharge in the SI engines supplies energy to the premixed-gas via a discharge channel in the spark plug gap which ignites the premixed-gas. The discharge channel is elongated by in-cylinder gas flow and its behavior varies in each cycles.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Analysis in a Diesel Engine Based on a Heat Flux Measurement Using a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

2017-11-05
2017-32-0115
To investigate the heat transfer phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine, a correlation for the heat transfer coefficient in a combustion chamber of a diesel engine was investigated based on heat flux measured by the authors in the previous study(8) using the rapid compression and expansion machine. In the correlation defined in the present study, thermodynamically estimated two-zone temperatures in the burned zone and the unburned zone are applied. The characteristic velocity given in the correlation is related to the speed of spray flame impinging on the wall during the fuel injection period. After the fuel injection period, the velocity term of the Woschni’s equation is applied. It was shown that the proposed correlation well expresses heat transfer phenomena in diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Combined Effects of Spark Discharge Pattern and Tumble Level on Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of Combustion at Lean Limits of SI Engine Operation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0677
Improving the thermal efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engine is strongly required due to its widespread use but considerably less efficiency than that of compression ignition (CI) engine. Although lean SI engine operation can offer substantial improvements of the thermal efficiency relative to that of traditional stoichiometric SI operation, the cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion increases with the level of air dilution, and becomes unacceptable. To improve the stability of lean operation, this study examines the effects of spark discharge pattern and tumble level on cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion at lean limits. The spark discharge pattern was altered by a custom inductive ignition system using ten spark coils and the tumble level was increased by a custom adapter installed in the intake port (tumble adapter).
Journal Article

Scanning Electron Microscopic Visualization of Bridge Formation inside the Porous Channels of Diesel Particulate Filters

2016-10-24
2016-01-9079
Time-lapse images of particulate matter (PM) deposition on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) at the PM-particle scale were obtained via field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). This particle scale time-series visualization showed the detailed processes of PM accumulation inside the DPF. First, PM introduced into a micro-pore of the DPF wall was deposited onto the surface of SiC grains composing the DPF, where it formed dendritic structures. The dendrite structures were locally grown at the contracted flow area between the SiC grains by accumulation of PM, ultimately constructing a bridge and closing the porous channel. To investigate the dominant parameters governing bridge formation, the filtration efficiency by Brownian diffusion and by interception obtained using theoretical filtration efficiency analysis of a spherical collector model were compared with the visualization results.
Technical Paper

Effect of Heat Release Pattern of Flame during Propagation on Auto-Ignition Process of End-Gas

2016-04-05
2016-01-0701
Knock is a factor hindering enhancement of the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engines, and is an unsteady phenomenon that does not necessarily occur each cycle. In addition, the heat release history of the flame also fluctuates from cycle to cycle, and the auto-ignition process of the unburned mixture (end-gas), compressed by the global increase in pressure due to release of chemical energy, is affected by this fluctuation. Regarding auto-ignition of the end-gas, which can be the origin of knock, this study focused on the fluctuation of the flame heat release pattern, and used a zero-dimensional (0D) detailed chemical reaction calculation in an attempt to analyze and examine the consequence on the end-gas compression and auto-ignition process of changes in the i) start of combustion, ii) combustion duration and iii) center of heat release of the flame.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Biodiesel Particle Emission in Trapping and Regeneration Processes on Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filter

2015-11-17
2015-32-0821
As well-known, the diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency at the same load as compared with internal combustion engine but its disadvantage is particulate matter (PM) emitted to the atmosphere. The studies of this paper were divided into two parts. The first part studied the quantity of PM from the both diesel and biodiesel fuels at 80% load (2400 rpm) by the trapping process on diesel particulate filter (DPF) used in a partial flow dilution tunnel. The second part studied the regeneration process of PM under the flow rate of oxygen and nitrogen gas of 13.5 L/min with 10%, 15%, and 21% of oxygen gas. The result showed that amount of PM from biodiesel fuel was lower around two times than PM from diesel fuel. The duration in regeneration process of biodiesel's PM was shorter than diesel while increasing of oxygen percentage can reduce regeneration time.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Measurements of Phosphor Thermometry and PIV for High-Temperature Gas Flows

2015-09-01
2015-01-2002
This study reports a novel alternative technique that can achieve simultaneous two-dimensional temperature and velocity measurements in gas flow. This method is combining phosphor thermometry and PIV operated by a single laser unit. The temperature distribution was obtained from phosphorescence by using two-color method, and the velocity distribution was obtained from two phosphor particle images which were taken in time series during the persistence of the phosphorescence. The measured temperature and velocity were agreed with that measured by thermocouple and that expected as theoretical distribution in the high-temperature gas flows, respectively.
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