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Technical Paper

Lane Line Detection by LiDAR Intensity Value Interpolation

2019-10-22
2019-01-2607
Lane marks are an important aspect for autonomous driving. Autonomous vehicles rely on lane mark information to determine a safe and legal path to drive. In this paper an approach to estimate lane lines on straight or slightly curved roads using a LiDAR unit for autonomous vehicles is presented. By comparing the difference in elevation of LiDAR channels, a drivable region is defined. The presented approach used in this paper differs from previous LiDAR lane line detection methods by reducing the drivable region from three to two dimensions exploring only the x-y trace. In addition, potential lane markings are extracted by filtering a range of intensity values as opposed to the traditional approach of comparing neighboring intensity values. Further, by calculating the standard deviation of the potential lane markings in the y-axis, the data can be further refined to specific points of interest.
Technical Paper

A Non-Contact Technique for Vibration Measurement of Automotive Structures

2019-06-05
2019-01-1503
The automotive and aerospace industries are increasingly using the light-weight material to improve the vehicle performance. However, using light-weight material can increase the airborne and structure-borne noise. A special attention needs to be paid in designing the structures and measuring their dynamics. Conventionally, the structure is excited using an impulse hammer or a mechanical shaker and the response is measured using uniaxial or multi-axial accelerometers to obtain the dynamics of the structure. However, using contact-based transducers can mass load the structure and provide data at a few discrete points. Hence, obtaining the true dynamics of the structure conventionally can be challenging. In the past few years, stereo-photogrammetry and three-dimensional digital image correlation have received special attention in collecting operating data for structural analysis. These non-contact optical techniques provide a wealth of distributed data over the entire structure.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Study of Perceived Vibration Quality for Human Hands

2019-06-05
2019-01-1522
A large body of knowledge exists regarding the effects of vibration on human beings; however, the emphasis is generally on the damaging effects of vibration. Very little information has been published regarding the effect of vibration on perceived consumer product quality. The perceived loudness of a product is quantified using the Fletcher-Munson equal loudness curves, but the equivalent curves for perceived vibration amplitude as a function of amplitude and frequency are not readily available. This “vibration quality” information would be valuable in the design and evaluation of many consumer products, including automobiles. Vibration information is used in the automobile design process where targets for steering wheel, seat track, and pedal vibration are common. For this purpose, the vibration information is considered proprietary and is generally applicable to a narrow frequency range. In this investigation, work paralleling the original Fletcher-Munson study is presented.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study Using FE Model for Tire Load Estimation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0175
For virtual simulation of the vehicle attributes such as handling, durability, and ride, an accurate representation of pneumatic tire behavior is very crucial. With the advancement in autonomous vehicles as well as the development of Driver Assisted Systems (DAS), the need for an Intelligent Tire Model is even more on the increase. Integrating sensors into the inner liner of a tire has proved to be the most promising way in extracting the real-time tire patch-road interface data which serves as a crucial zone in developing control algorithms for an automobile. The model under development in Kettering University (KU-iTire), can predict the subsequent braking-traction requirement to avoid slip condition at the interface by implementing new algorithms to process the acceleration signals perceived from an accelerometer installed in the inner liner on the tire.
Technical Paper

On the Safety of Autonomous Driving: A Dynamic Deep Object Detection Approach

2019-04-02
2019-01-1044
To improve the safety of automated driving, the paramount target of this intelligent system is to detect and segment the obstacle such as car and pedestrian, precisely. Object detection in self-driving vehicle has chiefly accomplished by making decision and detecting objects through each frame of video. However, there are diverse group of methods in both machine learning and machine vision to improve the performance of system. It is significant to factor in the function of the time in the detection phase. In other word, considering the inputs of system, which have been emitted from eclectic type of sensors such as camera, radar, and LIDAR, as time-varying signals, can be helpful to engross ‘time’ as a fundamental feature in modeling for forecasting the object, while car is moving on the way. In this paper, we focus on eliciting a model through the time to increase the accuracy of object detection in self-driving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Development of a Slip Model for a Basic Rigid Ring Ride Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-1116
With the recent advances in rapid modeling and rapid prototyping, accurate simulation models for tires are very desirable. Selection of a tire slip model depends on the required frequency range and nonlinearity associated with the dynamics of the vehicle. This paper presents a brief overview of three major slip concepts including “Stationary slip”, “Physical transient slip”, and “Pragmatic transient slip”; tire models use these slip concepts to incorporate tire slip behavior. The review illustrates that there can be no single accurate slip model which could be ideally used for all modes of vehicle dynamics simulations. For this study, a rigid ring based semi-analytical tire model for intermediate frequency (up to 100 Hz) is used.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on the Effect of Enhanced Mixing on Combustion and Emissions in Diesel Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0606
A numerical and experimental study of the use of air motion control, piston bowl shape, and injector configuration on combustion and emissions in diesel engines has been conducted. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of flow control within the piston bowl during compression to enhance fuel air mixing to achieve a uniform air-fuel mixture to reduce soot and NO emissions. In addition to flow control different piston bowl geometries and injector spray angles have been considered and simulated using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and experiments. The results include cylinder pressure and emissions measurements and contour plots of fuel mass fraction, soot, and NO. The results show that soot and NO emissions can be reduced by proper flow control and piston bowl design.
Journal Article

Design and Optimization of a 98%-Efficiency On-Board Level-2 Battery Charger Using E-Mode GaN HEMTs for Electric Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1219
Most of the present EV on-board chargers utilize a three-stage design, e.g., AC/DC rectifier, DC to high-frequency AC inverter, and AC to DC rectifier, which limits the wall-to-battery efficiency to ∼94%. To further increase the efficiency and power density, a matrix converter is an excellent candidate directly converting grid AC to high-frequency AC thereby saves one stage. However, its control complexity and the high cost of building the back-to-back switches are barriers its acceptance. Instead, this paper adopts the 650V E-mode GaN HEMTs to build a level-2 on-board charger using the indirect matrix topology. The input voltage is 80∼260VAC, the battery voltage is 200∼500VDC and the rated power is 7.2kW. Variable switching frequency is combined with phase-shift control to realize the zero-voltage switching. To further increase the system efficiency, four GaN HEMTs are paralleled to form one switching module with a novel gate-drive technology.
Technical Paper

Injury Sources for Second Row Occupants in Frontal Crashes Considering Age and Restraint Condition Influence

2015-04-14
2015-01-1451
The current study examined field data in order to document injury rates, injured body regions, and injury sources for persons seated in the second row of passenger vehicles. It was also intended to identify whether these varied with respect to age and restraint use in vehicles manufactured in recent years. Data from the 2007-2012 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS/CDS) was used to describe occupants seated in the second row of vehicles in frontal crashes. Injury plots, comparison of means and logistic regression analysis were used to seek factors associated with increased risk of injury. Restraint use reduced the risk of AIS ≥ 2 injury from approximately 1.8% to 5.8% overall. Seventy nine percent of the occupants in the weighted data set used either a lap and shoulder belt or child restraint system. The most frequently indicated injury source for persons with a MAIS ≥ 2 was “seat, back support”, across restraint conditions and for all but the youngest occupants.
Journal Article

Lean Implementation in Integrated Design and Manufacturing

2013-04-08
2013-01-1329
Lean applications in product development usually start with manufacturing due to the relative experience of measuring improvements and identifying wastes in physical settings. The full potential of lean implementation in any product development, however, can only be realized when applied throughout the process, starting with early process. Considering that the first and most essential principle in lean implementation is the characterization of value from the customer's perspective, it is imperative that the proper definition of value is realized at the beginning of the process. In addition, streaming and flowing of this customer's specified value should be realized throughout the process from start to finish. This paper discusses the application of lean principles to integrated design and manufacturing phases of the Product Development Process.
Journal Article

A New Approach for Very Low Particulate Mass Emissions Measurement

2013-04-08
2013-01-1557
Pending reductions in light duty vehicle PM emissions standards from 10 to 3 mg/mi and below will push the limits of the gravimetric measurement method. At these levels the PM mass collected approaches the mass of non-particle gaseous species that adsorb onto the filter from exhaust and ambient air. This introduces an intrinsic lower limit to filter based measurement that is independent of improvements achieved in weighing metrology. The statistical variability of back-up filter measurements at these levels makes them an ineffective means for correcting the adsorption artifact. The proposed subtraction of a facility based estimate of the artifact will partially alleviate the mass bias from adsorption, but its impact on weighing variability remains a problem that can reach a significant fraction of the upcoming 3 and future 1 mg/mi standards. This paper proposes an improved PM mass method that combines the gravimetric filter approach with real time aerosol measurement.
Technical Paper

Child Restraint Systems: Top Tether Effectiveness in Side Impact Collisions

2013-04-08
2013-01-0601
Use of the top tether attachment in three commonly available anchor points provides added restraint of child restraint systems (CRS). Three tether attachment positions were used; floor, behind the head rest (parcel deck) and at the ceiling. The three anchor points are comparable in efficacy while no tether allows increased travel of the anthropomorphic test device (ATD) head. Two series of six tests were conducted at a max speed of 20 mph and peak deceleration of 16 G's using a deceleration sled test apparatus. The first series of tests was conducted at a 90 degree impact angle. On average there is 9% less head travel when using the tether attachment compared to not using the tether attachment, all other conditions begin equal. The second series of tests was conducted at a 73 degree impact angle, there is 15% less head travel when using the tether attachment compared to not using the tether attachment, all other conditions begin equal.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Joint Torque Characteristics for a Mechanical Counter - Pressure Spacesuit

2009-07-12
2009-01-2536
Mechanical counter-pressure (MCP) spacesuit designs have been a promising, but elusive alternative to historical and current gas pressurized spacesuit technology since the Apollo program. One of the important potential advantages of the approach is enhanced mobility as a result of reduced bulk and joint torques, but the literature provides essentially no quantitative joint torque data or quantitative analytical support. Decisions on the value of investment in MCP technology and on the direction of technology development are hampered by this lack of information since the perceived mobility advantages are an important factor. An experimental study of a simple mechanical counter-pressure suit (elbow) hinge joint has been performed to provide some test data and analytical background on this issue to support future evaluation of the technology potential and future development efforts.
Technical Paper

Effect of Head and Neck Anthropometry on the Normal Range of Motion of the Cervical Spine of Prepubescent Children

2009-06-09
2009-01-2302
Application of cervical spine range of motion data and related anthropometric measures of the head and neck include physical therapy, product design, and computational modeling. This study utilized the Cervical Range of Motion device (CROM) to define the normal range of motion of the cervical spine for subjects five (5) through ten (10) years of age. And, the data was collected and analyzed with respect to anatomical measures such as head circumference, face height, neck length, and neck circumference. This study correlates these static anthropometric measures to the kinematic measurement of head flexion, extension, lateral extension, and rotation.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Trailer Rear Impact Guard - Interdependence of Guard Strength, Energy Absorption, Occupant Acceleration Forces and Passenger Compartment Intrusion

2008-04-14
2008-01-0155
FMVSS 223 and 224 set standards for “Rear Impact Protection” for trailers and semi-trailers with a gross weight rating greater than 10000 pounds. A limited amount of experimental data is available for evaluating the different performance attributes of rear impact guards. The crash tests are usually limited to fixed parameters such as impact speed, guard height, strength and energy absorption, etc. There also seems to be some misunderstanding of the interdependence of guard strength and energy absorption, and their combined effect on the guard's ability to limit underride while keeping occupant acceleration forces in a safe range. In this paper, we validated the Finite Element (FE) model of an existing rear impact guard against actual FMVSS 223 tests. We also modified a previously evaluated FE model of a 1990 Ford Taurus by updating its hood geometry and material properties.
Technical Paper

State Space Formulation by Bond Graph Models for Vehicle System Dynamics

2008-04-14
2008-01-0430
Modeling and simulation of dynamic systems is not always a simple task. In this paper, the mathematical model of a 4 Degree Of Freedom (DOF) ride model is presented using a bond-graph technique with state energy variables. We believe that for the physical model as described in this research, the use of a bond-graph approach is the only feasible solution. Any attempt to use classical methods such as Lagrange equations or Newton's second law, will create tremendous difficulties in the transformation of a set of second order linear differential equations to a set of first order differential equations without violating the existence and the uniqueness of the solution of the differential equations, the only approach is the elimination of the damping of the tires, which makes the model unrealistic. The bond-graph model is transformed to a mathematical model. Matlab is used for writing a computer script that solves the engineering problem.
Journal Article

Task and Message Scheduling for a FlexCAN-based Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Drivetrain Functional Unit

2008-04-14
2008-01-0480
A Task and Message Schedule for a FlexCAN-based Hybrid-Electric vehicle (HEV) functional unit is described. The resulting schedule is a component of an incremental message and task scheduling approach based on a time-driven message schedule and priority-driven task schedule. The HEV functional unit involves the combined control and monitoring functions of an internal combustion engine working in parallel with a permanent magnet synchronous motor. The control algorithm for the synchronous motor has been simulated using VHDL-AMS. The global message system is supported by FlexCAN and the task scheduler system is supported by a priority based OS (e.g., OSEK or AUTOSAR).
Technical Paper

Characterization of a Catalytic Converter Internal Flow

2007-10-29
2007-01-4024
This paper includes a numerical and experimental study of fluid flow in automotive catalytic converters. The numerical work involves using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to perform three-dimensional calculations of turbulent flow in an inlet pipe, inlet cone, catalyst substrate (porous medium), outlet cone, and outlet pipe. The experimental work includes using hot-wire anemometry to measure the velocity profile at the outlet of the catalyst substrate, and pressure drop measurements across the system. Very often, the designer may have to resort to offset inlet and outlet cones, or angled inlet pipes due to space limitations. Hence, it is very difficult to achieve a good flow distribution at the inlet cross section of the catalyst substrate. Therefore, it is important to study the effect of the geometry of the catalytic converter on flow uniformity in the substrate.
Technical Paper

External Knee Geometry Surface Variation as a Function of Subject Anthropometry and Flexion Angle for Human and Surrogate Subjects

2007-04-16
2007-01-1162
The current study was designed to compare the surface anatomy of the knee for different human subject anthropometries using a 3-D, non-contact digitizer which converted the anatomy into point clouds. The subjects were studied at flexion angles of 60, 90, and 120 degrees. Multiple subjects fitting narrow anthropometrical specifications were studied: 5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 95th percentile male. These data were then compared to a corresponding anthropometrical crash dummy knee which served as an unambiguous control. Intersubject human comparisons showed surface geometry variations which were an order of magnitude smaller than comparisons between the human and dummy knee. Large errors between the human and dummy were associated with the muscle bulk proximal and distal to the popliteal region and the rounder shape of the human knee.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Frontal Crush Stiffness Coefficients for Car-to-Heavy Truck Underride Collisions

2007-04-16
2007-01-0731
The first objective of this paper was to evaluate a public domain finite element (FE) model of a 1990 Ford Taurus from the perspective of crush energy absorption. The validity of the FE model was examined by first comparing simulation results to several published full-frontal crash tests. Secondly, the suitability of the model for underride simulation was evaluated against two series of full-scale crash tests into vertically offset rigid barriers. Next, the evaluated FE model was used to pursue the main objective of this work, namely to develop an approach for estimating underride crush energy. The linear-spring methodology was adopted whereby the underride crush stiffness was determined by relating the residual upper radiator support deformation to crush energy. An underride crush stiffness estimation method was proposed based on modifying the full-frontal stiffness coefficients.
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