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Journal Article

Development of Heat Resistant Titanium Alloy for Exhaust Valves Applicable for Motorcycles

Amidst of the recent concerns on depletion of natural resources, a new heat resistant titanium alloy has been developed using the minimum amount of rare metals. Using Ti-811 as a basis and modifying the alloy composition to Ti-7Al-2Mo-0.2Si-0.15C-0.2Nb, the mechanical property, the creep resistance and the oxidation resistance at high temperatures are improved. At the same time, with the β transformation point shifted to a higher temperature, the hot formability is also improved. The newly developed alloy has made it possible to expand the application of titanium material to exhaust valves in reciprocating engines.
Journal Article

Development of High Fatigue Strength for Powder-Forged Connecting Rods

Technology has been developed to increase the fatigue strength of powder-forged connecting rods. The fatigue strength of powder-forged materials was increased without adding special alloy components or lowering workability by adjusting the ratios of the conventional main mixed powders (iron, carbon, copper). In addition to solid solution strengthening of the ferrite using copper, reducing porosity, which is a material surface defect, is also an effective method of increasing fatigue strength. Reducing carbon content greatly reduced the occurrence of defects in the forging stage. The results of this research showed that the fatigue strength of high strength powder-forged connecting rods can be increased by 30% or more over that of conventional materials, allowing powder-forged connecting rods to be applied to even higher output and higher load engines than before.
Technical Paper

Development of 1600 N/mm2 Class Ultra-High Strength Bolts

1 Many different bolts are employed in automobiles for different purposes and uses, and their strength generally ranges from 700 N/mm2 to 1200 N/mm2. Automobiles face the issue of making improvements in fuel economy as an environmental measure, and there is consequently a requirement to lighten component parts. The creationof higher-strength bolts is an important factor in achieving lighter weight. Increasing the strength, however, can also bring about an increased incidence of delayed fracture, and the conventional solution used to require the application of special steels such as expensive maraging steel. The present development addressed this issue by focusing on high carbon steel rod, which had been considered less susceptible to delayed fracture, although heading was also considered to be difficult. Heading techniques were therefore devised that made it possible not only to form bolts from this material, but also to provide satisfactory strength.
Technical Paper

The development of lead-free machinable aluminum alloy for environmental protection

The influence of additional elements of aluminum alloy, especially of the elements other than conventional low melting point metals on machinability was investigated. Namely, the respective influences of Si, Ni, Mn and Fe on the machinability of AA6061 alloy used as base material were investigated. With the increase in the amount of each element the machinability of the alloy was improved. Si was the most effective among them, and Ni, Mn and Fe followed it in this order. It was found by microscopic observation that machinability was improved in proportion to the dispersion density of the second phase particles formed by the respective additional elements.
Technical Paper

Research on the Application of Aluminum Door Beams for Automobiles

The effect of cross-section and type of alloy on the performance of aluminum extrusions as door beams was investigated. As a result, aluminum door beams were developed which have bending properties comparing favorably with those of door beams made of high tensile strength steel with a tensile strength of 1470 N/mm2. Furthermore, a technology to design door beams with the required performance and bending properties dealing with various car models was developed by making the most of the versatility of aluminum extrusions produced in various types of cross-sections.
Technical Paper

Filiform Corrosion of Aluminum Auto Body Sheet in Accelerated and Outdoor Environments

This paper discusses a portion of a larger program on filiform corrosion concentrating on test methodologies and environmental mechanisms that contribute to filiform corrosion. It is organized into four sections, the first covers background of filiform corrosion, materials used in the study, and procedures for the sample preparation and testing. Following this, there are sections on outdoor testing, accelerated testing, and environmental parameters all of which include some procedural information, results and conclusions.
Technical Paper

Influence of Surface Treatments on Durability of Painted Aluminum Alloys

Increasing use of aluminum in automotive components has led to lower fuel consumption and enhanced performance of automotive designs. From a manufacturing standpoint, aluminum provides the additional advantage of utilizing same processes as steel. Performance and durability of painted aluminum cars, however, is dependent on proper optimization of process conditions. As part of an extensive study of factors influencing corrosion resistance of painted aluminum, the present study deals with the influence of pretreatment and coating variables and the interaction of alloy composition with zinc phosphate and electrocoat. Interfacial analysis of corrosion products indicates the relative influence of alloying elements on stability of the metal/phosphate/electrocoat interface. As a result, guidelines and recommendations on aluminum processing in an automotive manufacturing floor have been developed.
Technical Paper

Laser Welding of Aluminum Alloy Plate, Extrusion and Casting

This paper studies the influence of welding parameters on the mechanical properties of butt joints, using aluminum plates, extrusion and casting by CO2 laser. As a result of this study, good welds have been obtained by optimum power output of laser and welding speed for each material. It also shows that the feeding of filler metal can improve joint efficiency and can perform tensile failure position away from weld metal and can extend the tolerance of root gap for butt joints. These technique lead to improve joint strength of laser welds as strong as that of arc welds. Also bending property and fatigue strength are equal to that of other conventional welds. This investigation confirms that laser welding for joining of aluminum alloys can be used, and that the techniques in this study will be able to be applied for automobile structures.
Technical Paper

Static and Dynamic Structural Performance of Extruded Aluminum Reinforcing Beams for Bumpers

This paper reports a method to evaluate structural performance of extruded aluminum thin-walled box section beams for automobile bumper reinforcement. According to U. S. Federal safety performance requirements for automobile bumper systems, the systems should be able to bear the dynamic load of pendulum impact. To evaluate performance of the bumper system, two stages of research were executed: (1) Bending tests and analyses under quasi-static loading, and (2) Dynamic pendulum tests and their simulation using the finite element method. As a result of these investigations, the relationship between the collapse moment of the beam and the permanent set caused by pendulum test, the effect of absorbers, and the effect of torsional force are discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of Galvanized Aluminum Alloy Sheet for Body Panels with an Excellent Filiform Corrosion Resistance

Filiform corrosion phenomenon and its prevention method for 5000 series aluminum alloy sheet have been investigated. The painted aluminum alloy sheets were subject significantly to filiform corrosion caused by formation of a mottled and coarse zinc phosphate film during chemical conversion process. On the other hand, galvanized aluminum alloy sheet showed an uniform and fine phosphate film in a brief time and the filiform corrosion resistance was improved markedly. The test results of press-forming and corrosion for the prototype engine hoods made of this newly developed galvanized sheets have revealed a good formability and an excellent filiform corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

Weathering Test of Hem Model Set Inside Automotive Door

In order to simulate the perforation corrosion of an automobile, hem model samples made of various kinds of coated steel sheets were set inside of the door outer panel and the door was exposed in the open air with once a week 5% salt spraying. After two years, the model samples were disassembled for investigation. Perforation corrosion occurred most severely just above the lapped portion of outer and inner specimens. Red rust samples taken from the hem model and from a field vehicle run in Detroit did not show clear pearks of spectra by X-ray diffraction analysis, whearas the one formed by a conventional cyclic corrosion test showed peaks of Fe3O4. These facts indicate that this new test well simulates the corrosion environment of an actual automobile hem portion. Corrosion resistance of many kinds of coated steel sheets was studied by this new test method. Perforation depth became smaller as a coating weight of pure zinc electroplated steel sheet increased.
Technical Paper

Organic Coated Steel Sheet for Automotive Body Panel

A thin organic coated steel sheet (HI-SUPER-DN) has been recently developed for automotive body panel applications. The steel sheet consists of a Zn-Ni alloy-plated layer, a chromate film and a thin organic coated layer, which is composed of colloidal silica, organic polymer and an organic additive. Corrosion resistance, formability of the coated layer, weidability and electropaintability of the steel sheet required for automotive body panel were studied. An increase in the colloidal silica in the organic coated layer improves corrosion resistance. However, the formability of the organic coated layer deteriorates with such as increase in the colloidal silica. We have optimized the ratio of colloidal silica to organic polymer so as to balance both the corrosion resistance and the formability of the organic coated layer. Futhermore, the bake-hardenability of the steel sheet was maintained by a relatively low temperature baking of the chromate film and the organic coated layer.
Technical Paper

Effect of Chemical Composition on Sag Resistance of Suspension Spring

This paper summarizes a laboratory study aimed at revealing the effect of chemical elements. Si, Cr, Mo and V, on the sag resistance and developing new steels with all the characteristics required for suspension coil spring in comparison with AISI 9260. It was found that as far as sag resistance is concerned an optimum silicon content exist (1.5 silicon) and chromium deteriorates sag resistance and molybdenum and vanadium improve it. Further studies showed that Si-Cr-V steels are the best spring steels available, particularly 1.5Si-0.5Cr-G.2V steel has all the required characteristics, e.g., good sag resistance, good decarburizing resistance and sufficient hardenability.