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Journal Article

Improvement of DME HCCI Engine Performance by Fuel Injection Strategies and EGR

2008-06-23
2008-01-1659
The combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a DME fueled HCCI engine were investigated. Different fuel injection strategies were tested under various injection quantities and timings with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The combustion phase in HCCI was changed by an in-cylinder direct injection and EGR, due to changes in the in-cylinder temperature and mixture homogeneity. The gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEPgross) increased and the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions decreased as the equivalence ratio was augmented. The IMEPgross with direct injection was greater than with the port injection due to retarded ignition timing resulting from latent heat of direct injected DME fuel. It was because that most of burn duration was completed before top dead center owing to higher ignitability for DME with high cetane number. However, HC and CO emissions were similar for both injection locations.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Simulation and Experimental Analysis of Needle Response and Controlled Injection Rate Shape Characteristics in a Piezo-driven Diesel Injector

2006-04-03
2006-01-1119
The More precise control of the multiple-injection is required in common-rail injection system of direct injection diesel engine to meet the low NOx emission and optimal PM filter system. The main parameter for obtaining the multiple-injections is the mechanism controlling the injector needle energizing and movement. In this study, a piezo-driven diesel injector, as a new method driven by piezoelectric energy, has been applied with a purpose to develop the analysis model of the piezo actuator to predict the dynamics characteristics of the hydraulic component (injector) by using the AMESim code and to evaluate the effect of this control capability on spray formation processes. Aimed at simulating the hydraulic behavior of the piezo-driven injector, the circuit model has been developed and verified by comparison with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Effects of Stratified EGR on the Performance of a Liquid Phase LPG Injection Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0982
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and lean burn utilize the diluents into the engine cylinder to control combustion leading to enhanced fuel economy and reduced emissions. However, the occurrence of excessive cyclic variation with high diluent rates, brings about an undesirable combustion instability within the engine cylinder resulting in the deterioration of both engine performance and emissions. Proper stratification of mixture and diluents could improve the combustion stability under high diluent environment. EGR stratification within the cylinder was made by adopting a fast-response solenoid valve in the midst of EGR line and controlling its timing and duty. With EGR in both homogeneous mode and stratified mode, in-cylinder pressure and emissions were measured. The thermodynamic heat release analysis showed that the burning duration was decreased in case of stratified EGR. It was found that the stratification of EGR hardly affected the emissions.
Technical Paper

Fuel Stratification in a Liquid-Phase LPG Injection Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1777
To investigate the mixture distributions in an LPG engine with Liquid phase port injection for heavy duty vehicles, an optical single cylinder engine, which is optically accessible both in side and bottom view, and laser diagnostic system were incorporated to apply PLIF (planar laser induced fluorescence) technique. Acetone was used as a dopant in LPG fuel, which was excited by KrF excimer laser (248nm), and its fluorescence images were acquired with ICCD camera. The effects of fuel injection timing, swirl intensity and excess air ratio were investigated. For the case of open valve injection, favorable stratification of fuel, both in axial and radial direction, was clearly observed compared to the closed valve injection, where reverse stratification in axial direction was observed. At the Ricardo swirl ratio of 3.4, it was apparent that excessive axial stratification of fuel got dominant, which would lead to poor engine performances.
Technical Paper

Flame Propagation Characteristics in a Heavy Duty LPG Engine with Liquid Phase Port Injection

2002-05-06
2002-01-1736
Combustion and flame propagation characteristics of the liquid phase LPG injection (LPLI) engine were investigated in a single cylinder optical engine. Lean burn operation is needed to reduce thermal stress of exhaust manifold and engine knock in a heavy duty LPG engine. An LPLI system has advantages on lean operation. Optimized engine design parameters such as swirl, injection timing and piston geometry can improve lean burn performance with LPLI system. In this study, the effects of piston geometry along with injection timing and swirl ratio on flame propagation characteristics were investigated. A series of bottom-view flame images were taken from direct visualization using a UV intensified high-speed CCD camera. Concepts of flame area speed, in addition to flame propagation patterns and thermodynamic heat release analysis, was introduced to analyze the flame propagation characteristics.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Gas Fueled SI Engine under Lean Burn Conditions

1999-10-25
1999-01-3512
The concentrations of individual exhaust hydrocarbon species were measured as a function of air-fuel ratio and EGR in a 2-liter four-cylinder engine using a gas chromatography, for natural gas and LPG. NMHC in addition to the species of HC, other emissions such as CO2, CO and NOx were at 1800rpm for two compression ratios (8.6 and 10.6) and various EGR ratios up to 7%. Fuel conversion efficiencies were also investigated together with emissions to study the effect of engine parameters on the combustion performances in gas engines especially under the lean burn conditions. It was found that CO2 emission decreased leaner mixture strength, the higher compression ratio and certainly with smaller C value of fuel. HC emissions from LPG engine consisted primarily of propane (larger 60%), ethylene and propylene, while main emissions from natural gas were methane (larger than 60%), ethane, ethylene and propane on the average.
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