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Technical Paper

Performance Comparison of Real-Time and General-Purpose Operating Systems in Parallel Physical Simulation with High Computational Cost

2014-04-01
2014-01-0200
Real-time simulation is a valuable tool in the design and test of vehicles and vehicle parts, mainly when interfacing with hardware modules working at a given rate, as in hardware-in-the-loop testing. Real-time operating-systems (RTOS) are designed for minimizing the latency of critical operations such as interrupt dispatch, task switch or inter-process communication (IPC). General-purpose operating-systems (GPOS), instead, are designed for maximizing throughput in heavy-load systems. In complex simulations where the amount of work to do in one step is high, achieving real-time depends not only in the latency of the event starting the step, but also on the capacity of the system for computing one step in the available time. While it is demonstrated that RTOS present lower latencies than GPOS, the choice is not clear when maximizing throughput is also critical.
Technical Paper

Functional Testing of Alternator Pulleys in Chassis Dynamometer

2013-10-07
2013-36-0124
Alternators usually have a solid pulley to connect it to the Front-End Accessory Drive (FEAD) system. Current stringent emissions regulations and fuel economy push for new alternatives to meet goals such as, for instance, reduced idle speed and engine downsizing. However, achieving these goals could ultimately generate NVH issues, such as belt slip chirp noise, or reduced accessory-drive support bearing life due to the high vibration levels in the FEAD. Furthermore, increased demand for on-board electric/electronics systems are requiring the use of larger alternators, with bigger inertia, becoming an additional source of vibration.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Global Dynamics of Rotating Systems like Jet Engines, with Special Emphasis on Harmonic Analysis in the Presence of Bearing with Clearances

2013-09-17
2013-01-2120
The paper presents first a description of the methods used for the analysis of global dynamics of rotating systems like jet engines but also auxiliary power units. Different methodologies are described so to model rotating parts using beam, but also Fourier multi-harmonic, three dimensional models or to take into account cyclic symmetry and multistage cyclic symmetry concepts. Advantages and disadvantages of the different model types are discussed and compared. The coupling of the rotating parts with casings and stators is then discussed both in the inertial frame and in the rotating frame. The effect on global dynamics of bearing and other linking devices is taken into account for different type of analysis from critical speed analysis, to harmonic and transient analysis. The effect of gears and gear boxes coupling different rotors (like it is the case for auxiliary power units in a jet engine) is then discussed and appropriate methods described so to model this coupling effect.
Technical Paper

ESC Hydraulic Circuit Modeling and Model Reduction in the Aim of Reaching Real Time Capability

2013-05-15
2013-36-0013
An ESC hydraulic modulator contains on/off valves and proportional valves. A complex model of one proportional valve is detailed and used as a basis for model reduction the activity index technique. One interesting aspect is that the technology of the proportional valves remains (i.e. ball valves under conical seat). As such, the parameters are physical parameters forming the ones to master (manufacturing tolerances) by the supplier to also master the dynamic behavior of the system. Once this has been done, a complete model of half an ESC braking circuit is built including the pump, the reservoir, the pipes and hoses as well as the calipers. The activity index technique is thus reused on the circuit to further reduce it to finally obtain a modeling level acceptable for real time purpose.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Mounting System Layout for Decoupling Rigid-Body Modes in the Vehicle Concept Design Stage

2013-04-08
2013-01-1706
This paper presents a method and corresponding software implementation for powertrain (PWT) mounting system layout design for decoupling rigid-body modes in the torque roll axis system. The novelty in the proposed method is that it requires a minimal set of inputs for determining mount topology, orientation and stiffness properties for decoupling powertrain modes, and as such it can be used at early design stages, unlike the conventional approaches based on analysis and optimization techniques. Consequently, PWT mounts can be positioned and oriented close to their optimal configuration, allowing to develop more realistic full vehicle models for conceptual (or early stage) designs and to run a more accurate dynamic analysis concerning secondary ride and vibrations. The proposed methodology is illustrated on a powertrain mounting system design example case.
Technical Paper

A Source-Transfer-Receiver Approach to NVH Engineering of Hybrid/Electric Vehicles

2012-11-25
2012-36-0646
Vehicles with electrified powertrains are being introduced at an increasing pace. On the level of interior sound, one is often inclined to assume that NVH problems in EV have disappeared together with the combustion engine. Three observations demonstrate that this is not the case. First of all, only the dominant engine sound disappears, not the noise from tire, wind or auxiliaries, which consequently become increasingly audible due to the removal of the broadband engine masking sound. Secondly, new noise sources like tonal sounds from the electro-mechanical drive systems emerge and often have, despite their low overall noise levels, a high annoyance rating. Thirdly, the fact that engine/exhaust sounds are often used to contribute to the “character” of the vehicle leads to an open question how to realize an appealing brand sound with EV. Hybrid vehicles are furthermore characterized by mode-switching effects, with impact on both continuity feeling and sound consistency problems.
Technical Paper

Advanced Modeling Approaches for the Evaluation of Interior Vehicle Acoustics over the Full Range of Frequencies

2012-06-13
2012-01-1546
Stringent legislation by governmental agencies concerning human exposure to noise and vibrations on the one hand and the growing consumer awareness and need for comforts on the other hand are forcing automotive manufacturers to improve their products. Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) techniques and software tools enable virtual optimization thereby eliminating the need to build and test expensive prototypes. Deterministic, element-based approaches as the Finite Element (FE) and/or Boundary Element (BE) methods have become the tools of choice for analyzing the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of vehicles. However, these two techniques are limited to low-frequency applications due to the need for high mesh densities at mid and high frequencies resulting in higher computational costs and higher numerical errors associated with the polynomial approximations of the acoustic field variables. This paper discusses two types of approaches, viz.
Technical Paper

Using High-Fidelity Multibody Vehicle Models in Real-Time Simulations

2012-04-16
2012-01-0927
Digital or virtual prototyping by means of a multibody simulation model (MBS) is a standard part of the automotive design process. A high-fidelity model is built and often correlated against test data to increase its accuracy. Once built the MBS model can then be used for high fidelity analysis in ride comfort, handling as well as durability. Next to the MBS model, current industry practice is to develop a reduced degree of freedom model for the design and validation of control or intelligent systems. The models used in the control system design are required to execute in hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations where it is necessary to run real-time. The reason for the creation of the reduced degree of freedom models so far has been that the high-fidelity or off-line model does not execute fast enough to be used in an HIL simulation.
Journal Article

Fatigue Life Simulation on Fiber Reinforced Composites - Overview and Methods of Analysis for the Automotive Industry

2012-04-16
2012-01-0730
The need of weight reduction for fuel reduction and CO₂ regulations enforces the use of light-weight materials for structural parts also. The importance of reinforced composites will grow in this area. While the structural behavior and the simulation up to high strain-rate processes for those materials have been in the focus of investigation for many years, nowadays the simulation of high cycle fatigue behavior is getting important as well. Efficient fatigue analysis for metals was developed by understanding the microscopic behavior (crack nucleation and initiation) and bringing it to the macroscopic level by combining it with the matching test data (SN curves, etc.). Similar approaches can be applied to composite materials as well.
Technical Paper

Passenger Vehicle Pass-By Noise Test Using Generalized Inverse Beamforming

2011-10-04
2011-36-0408
The investigation of critical noise sources on pass-by noise tests is demanding development of the current techniques in order to locate and quantify these sources. One recent approach is to use beamforming techniques to this purpose. The phased array information can be processed using several methods, for example, conventional delay-and-sum algorithms, deconvolution based algorithms, such as DAMAS, and more recently, the generalized inverse beamforming. This later method, presents the advantage of separating coherent sources with better dynamic range than conventional beamforming. Also, recent developments, such as Iteratively Re-Weigthing Least Squares, increases the localization accuracy allowing it to be used in a challenging problem as a fast moving source detection, a non-stationary condition. The work will raise the main advantages and disadvantages on this method using a practical case, a passenger vehicle pass-by test.
Technical Paper

Electric Motor Noise in a Lightweight Steel Vehicle

2011-05-17
2011-01-1724
The present work attempts a complete noise and vibration analysis for an electric vehicle at concept stage. The candidate vehicle is the Future Steel Vehicle (FSV), a lightweight steel body with an electric motor developed by WorldAutoSteel [1,2,3]. Measurements were conducted on two small Mitsubishi vehicles that both share the same body, yet one is equipped with an internal combustion engine and the other with an electric motor. The outcome was used as a starting point to identify assets and pitfalls of electric motor noise and draw a set of Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) targets for FSV. Compared to a combustion engine, the electric motor shows significantly lower sound pressure levels, except for an isolated high frequency peak heard at high speeds (3500 Hz when the vehicle drives at top speed). The prominence of this peak is lowered by increased use of acoustic absorbent materials in the motor compartment.
Technical Paper

Synthesis of Drive-by Noise Based on Numerically Evaluated Source-Receiver Transfer Functions Employing the FMBEM

2011-05-17
2011-01-1610
Prediction of the drive-by noise level in the early design stage of an automotive vehicle is feasible if the source signatures and source-receiver transfer functions may be determined from simulations based on the available CAD/CAE models. This paper reports on the performance of a drive-by noise synthesis procedure in which the transfer functions are numerically evaluated by employing the Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method (FMBEM). The proposed synthesis procedure first computes the steady-state receiver contributions of the sources as appearing from a number of vehicle positions along the drive path. In a second step, these contributions are then combined into a single transient signal from a moving vehicle for each source-receiver pair by means of a travel time correction.
Technical Paper

A Method to Combine a Tire Model with a Flexible Rim Model in a Hybrid MBS/FEM Simulation Setup

2011-04-12
2011-01-0186
During the last ten years, there is a significant tendency in automotive design to use lower aspect ratio tires and meanwhile also more and more run-flat tires. In appropriate publications, the influences of these tire types on the dynamic loads - transferred from the road passing wheel center into the car - have been investigated pretty well, including comparative wheel force transducer measurements as well as simulation results. It could be shown that the fatigue input into the vehicle tends to increase when using low aspect ratio tires and particularly when using run-flat tires. But which influences do we get for the loading and fatigue behavior of the respective rims? While the influences on the vehicle are relatively easy to detect by using wheel force transducers, the local forces acting on the rim flange (when for example passing a high obstacle) are much more difficult to detect (in measurement as well as in simulation).
Journal Article

The Damage Operator Approach: Fatigue, Creep and Viscoplasticity Modeling in Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue

2011-04-12
2011-01-0485
In the last decades the development time of vehicles has been drastically reduced due to the application of advanced numerical and experimental methods. Specifications concerning durability and other functional attributes for every new model improve for every vehicle. In particular, for machines and components under variable multiaxial loading, fatigue evaluation is one of the most important steps in the design process. Appropriate material testing and simulation is the key to efficient life prediction. However, the life of automotive components, power plants and other high-temperature facilities depends mostly on thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). This is due to the normally variable service conditions, which contain the phases of startup, full load, partial load and shut-down.
Technical Paper

Radiated Fuel Tank Slosh Noise Simulation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0495
With the introduction of hybrid vehicles and the associated elimination of engine and exhaust masking noises, sounds from other sources is becoming more noticeable. Fuel tank sloshing is one of these sources. Fuel sloshing occurs when a vehicle is accelerated in any direction and can create noise that may be perceived as a quality issue by the customer. To reduce slosh noise, a fuel tank has to be carefully designed. Reduction in slosh noise using test- based methods can be very costly and timely. This paper shows how, using the combination of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic), FE (Finite Element) and Acoustic simulation methods, the radiated fuel tank slosh noise performance can be evaluated using CAE methods. Although the de-coupled fluid /structure interaction (FSI) method was used for the examples in this paper, the acoustic simulation method is not limited to the decoupled FSI method.
Technical Paper

Advanced State Estimator Design for an Active Suspension

2011-01-19
2011-26-0068
Active suspension systems aim at increasing safety by improving vehicle ride and handling performance while ensuring superior passenger comfort. Good control of this active system can only be achieved by providing the control algorithm with reliable and accurate signals for the required quantities. This paper presents the design and development of a state estimator that accurately provides the information required by a sky-hook controller, using a minimum of sensors. The vehicle inertial parameters are estimated by an algorithm based on Monte Carlo simulations and anthropometric data. All state updating is performed using Kalman filters. The resulting performance enhancement has been proven during test drives.
Technical Paper

Simulating Acoustic Engine Performance Over a Broad Frequency Range

2011-01-19
2011-26-0019
Acoustic performance of vehicle engines is a real challenge for powertrain design engineers. Quiet engines are required to reduce noise pollution and satisfy pass-by noise regulations, but also to improve the driving comfort. Simulation techniques such as the Boundary Element Method (BEM) have already been available for some time and allow predicting the vibro-acoustic response of engines. Although the accuracy of these simulation techniques has been proven, a challenge still remains in the required computation time. Given the large amount of speeds for a full engine run-up and the need to cover a large frequency range, computation times are significant, which limits the possibility to perform many design iterations to optimize the system. In 2001, Acoustic Transfer Vectors (ATV) [1] have been presented to adequately deal with multiple rpm. The ATV provide the acoustic response for unit surface velocities and are therefore independent from the engine's actual surface vibrations.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Transient Body Deformation During Handling Maneuvers

2010-04-12
2010-01-0945
A multi-body dynamics model that considers elastic deformation of the body was formulated in order to predict transient body deformation, a factor that affects handling. A comparative analysis with body deformation during handling maneuvers identified using a modal forced response method was conducted, and a good correlation was obtained between vehicle dynamic performance, transient body deformation, and the body modal contribution factor.
Technical Paper

Extraction of Static Car Body Stiffness from Dynamic Measurements

2010-04-12
2010-01-0228
This paper describes a practical approach to extract the global static stiffness of a body in white (BIW) from dynamic measurements in free-free conditions. Based on a limited set of measured frequency response functions (FRF), the torsional and bending stiffness values are calculated using an FRF based substructuring approach in combination with inverse force identification. A second approach consists of a modal approach whereby the static car body stiffness is deduced from a full free-free modal identification including residual stiffness estimation at the clamping and load positions. As an extra important result this approach allows for evaluating the modal contribution of the flexible car body modes to the global static stiffness values. The methods have been extensively investigated using finite element modeling data and verified on a series of body in white measurements.
Technical Paper

Optimizing R&H and NVH Performances Early in the Design Process via Multi Body Simulation

2009-05-19
2009-01-2087
This paper presents a CAE based approach to accurately simulate and optimize Ride and Handling metrics. Because of the wide range of vehicle phenomena involved, across the variety of frequency ranges, it is essential that the vehicle model includes proper representation of the dynamic properties of the various subsystems (e.g. tires, steering, PT, etc.) Precise correlation between test and simulation for standalone vehicle components and systems is achieved by replicating in the MBS (Multi-body Simulation) the same tests and boundary conditions. This allows the analyst to correctly define those crucial elements and parameters which have the greatest effect on the R&H attribute to be investigated. Setting up the simulation to correctly represent only one single maneuver simulation at a time would not allow the analyst to consider how the dynamic properties of the chassis design variables should be tuned to achieve to best balance and trade-offs.
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