MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output) Control for Optimising the Future Gasoline Powertrain - A Survey
This paper surveys publications on automotive powertrain control, relating to modern GTDI (Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection) engines. The requirements for gasoline engines are optimising the airpath but future legislation suggests not only a finely controlled airpath but also some level of electrification. Fundamentals of controls modelling are revisited and advancements are highlighted. In particular, a modern GTDI airpath is presented based on basic building blocks (volumes, turbocharger, throttle, valves and variable cam timing or VCT) with an example of a system interaction, based on boost pressure and lambda control. Further, an advanced airpath could be considered with applications to downsizing and fuel economy. A further electrification step is reviewed which involves interactions with the airpath and requires a robust energy management strategy. Examples are taken of energy recovery and e-machine placement.