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Technical Paper

Towards In-Cylinder Flow Informed Engine Control Strategies Using Linear Stochastic Estimation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0717
Many modern I.C. engines rely on some form of active control of injection, timing and/or ignition timing to help combat tailpipe out emissions, increase the fuel economy and improve engine drivability. However, development of these strategies is often optimised to suit the average cycle at each condition; an assumption that can lead to sub-optimal performance, especially an increase in particulate (PN) emissions as I.C. engine operation, and in-particular its charge motion is subject to cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV). Literature shows that the locations of otherwise repeatable large-scale flow structures may vary by as much 25% of the bore dimension; this could have an impact on fuel break-up and distribution and therefore subsequent combustion performance and emissions.
Technical Paper

Application of Multi-Objective Optimization Techniques for Improved Emissions and Fuel Economy over Transient Manoeuvres

2019-04-02
2019-01-1177
This paper presents a novel approach to augment existing engine calibrations to deliver improved engine performance during a transient, through the application of multi-objective optimization techniques to the calibration of the Variable Valve Timing (VVT) system of a 1.0 litre gasoline engine. Current mature calibration approaches for the VVT system are predominantly based on steady state techniques which fail to consider the engine dynamic behaviour in real world driving, which is heavily transient. In this study the total integrated fuel consumption and engine-out NOx emissions over a 2-minute segment of the transient Worldwide Light-duty Test Cycle are minimised in a constrained multi-objective optimisation framework to achieve an updated calibration for the VVT control. The cycle segment was identified as an area with high NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Design for Characterization of Force Transmissibility through Bearings in Electric Machines and Transmissions

2018-06-13
2018-01-1473
With the increasing stringent emissions legislation on ICEs, alongside requirements for enhanced fuel efficiency as key driving factors for many OEMs, there are many research activities supported by the automotive industry that focus on the development of hybrid and pure EVs. This change in direction from engine downsizing to the use of electric motors presents many new challenges concerning NVH performance, durability and component life. This paper presents the development of experimental methodology into the measurement of NVH characteristics in these new powertrains, thus characterizing the structure borne noise transmissibility through the shaft and the bearing to the housing. A feasibility study and design of a new system level test rig have been conducted to allow for sinusoidal radial loading of the shaft, which is synchronized with the shaft’s rotary frequency under high-speed transient conditions in order to evaluate the phenomena in the system.
Journal Article

A Drag Coefficient for Test Cycle Application

2018-04-03
2018-01-0742
The drag coefficient at zero yaw angle is the single parameter usually used to define the aerodynamic drag characteristics of a passenger car. However, this is usually the minimum drag condition and will, for example, lead to an underestimate of the effect of aerodynamic drag on fuel consumption because the important influence of the natural wind has been excluded. An alternative measure of aerodynamic drag should take into account the effect of nonzero yaw angles and a variant of wind-averaged drag is suggested as the best option. A wind-averaged drag coefficient (CDW) is usually derived for a particular vehicle speed using a representative wind speed distribution. In the particular case where the road speed distribution is specified, as for a drive cycle to determine fuel economy, a relevant drag coefficient can be derived by using a weighted road speed.
Technical Paper

Tribodynamics of a New De-Clutch Mechanism Aimed for Engine Downsizing in Off-Road Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2017-06-05
2017-01-1835
Clutches are commonly utilised in passenger type and off-road heavy-duty vehicles to disconnect the engine from the driveline and other parasitic loads. In off-road heavy-duty vehicles, along with fuel efficiency start-up functionality at extended ambient conditions, such as low temperature and intake absolute pressure are crucial. Off-road vehicle manufacturers can overcome the parasitic loads in these conditions by oversizing the engine. Caterpillar Inc. as the pioneer in off-road technology has developed a novel clutch design to allow for engine downsizing while vehicle’s performance is not affected. The tribological behaviour of the clutch will be crucial to start engagement promptly and reach the maximum clutch capacity in the shortest possible time and smoothest way in terms of dynamics. A multi-body dynamics model of the clutch system is developed in MSC ADAMS. The flywheel is introducing the same speed and torque as the engine (represents the engine input to the clutch).
Technical Paper

The Potential of Thermoelectric Generator in Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-0189
This paper reports on an investigation into the potential for a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to improve the fuel economy of a mild hybrid vehicle. A simulation model of a parallel hybrid vehicle equipped with a TEG in the exhaust system is presented. This model is made up by three sub-models: a parallel hybrid vehicle model, an exhaust model and a TEG model. The model is based on a quasi-static approach, which runs a fast and simple estimation of the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The model is validated against both experimental and published data. Using this model, the annual fuel saving, CO2 reduction and net present value (NPV) of the TEG’s life time fuel saving are all investigated. The model is also used as a flexible tool for analysis of the sensitivity of vehicle fuel consumption to the TEG design parameters. The analysis results give an effective basis for optimization of the TEG design.
Technical Paper

MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output) Control for Optimising the Future Gasoline Powertrain - A Survey

2017-03-28
2017-01-0600
This paper surveys publications on automotive powertrain control, relating to modern GTDI (Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection) engines. The requirements for gasoline engines are optimising the airpath but future legislation suggests not only a finely controlled airpath but also some level of electrification. Fundamentals of controls modelling are revisited and advancements are highlighted. In particular, a modern GTDI airpath is presented based on basic building blocks (volumes, turbocharger, throttle, valves and variable cam timing or VCT) with an example of a system interaction, based on boost pressure and lambda control. Further, an advanced airpath could be considered with applications to downsizing and fuel economy. A further electrification step is reviewed which involves interactions with the airpath and requires a robust energy management strategy. Examples are taken of energy recovery and e-machine placement.
Journal Article

Design and Optimisation of the Propulsion Control Strategy for a Pneumatic Hybrid City Bus

2016-04-05
2016-01-1175
A control strategy has been designed for a city bus equipped with a pneumatic hybrid propulsion system. The control system design is based on the precise management of energy flows during both energy storage and regeneration. Energy recovered from the braking process is stored in the form of compressed air that is redeployed for engine start and to supplement the engine air supply during vehicle acceleration. Operation modes are changed dynamically and the energy distribution is controlled to realize three principal functions: Stop-Start, Boost and Regenerative Braking. A forward facing simulation model facilitates an analysis of the vehicle dynamic performance, engine transient response, fuel economy and energy usage.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Drag of Passenger Cars at Yaw

2015-04-14
2015-01-1559
The aerodynamic drag characteristics of a passenger car are typically defined by a single parameter, the drag coefficient at zero yaw angle. While this has been acceptable in the past, it may not allow a true comparison between vehicles with regard to the impact of drag on performance, especially fuel economy. An alternative measure of aerodynamic drag should take into account the effect of non-zero yaw angles and some proposals have been made in the past, including variations of wind-averaged drag coefficient. For almost all cars the drag increases with yaw, but the increase can vary significantly between vehicles. In this paper the effect of various parameters on the drag rise with yaw are considered for a range of different vehicle types. The increase of drag with yaw is shown to be an essentially induced drag, which is strongly dependent on both side force and lift. Shape factors which influence the sensitivity of drag with yaw are discussed.
Technical Paper

Optimal Control Inputs for Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-1221
Hybrid electric vehicles offer significant fuel economy benefits, because battery and fuel can be used as complementing energy sources. This paper presents the use of dynamic programming to find the optimal blend of power sources, leading to the lowest fuel consumption and the lowest level of harmful emissions. It is found that the optimal engine behavior differs substantially to an on-line adaptive control system previously designed for the Lotus Evora 414E. When analyzing the trade-off between emission and fuel consumption, CO and HC emissions show a traditional Pareto curve, whereas NOx emissions show a near linear relationship with a high penalty. These global optimization results are not directly applicable for online control, but they can guide the design of a more efficient hybrid control system.
Technical Paper

Effect of Compression Ring Elastodynamics Behaviour upon Blowby and Power Loss

2014-04-01
2014-01-1669
The automotive industry is subject to increasing pressure to reduce the CO2 emissions and improve fuel efficiency in internal combustion engines. Improvements may be achieved in a number of ways. The parasitic losses throughout the engine cycle emanate from friction in all engine contact conjunctions in addition to pumping losses. In particular one main contributory conjunction is the piston ring pack assembly. At low engine speeds, the contribution of friction to the total losses within the engine is increased significantly compared with the thermodynamic losses. Additionally, the sealing capability of the ring is crucial in determining the power output of the engine with any loss of sealing contributing to power loss, as well as blowby. Most reported studies on compression ring-cylinder conjunction do not take into account complex ring in-plane and out-of-plane elastodynamics.
Technical Paper

Study on Optimization of Regenerative Braking Control Strategy in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine City Bus using Pneumatic Hybrid Technology

2014-04-01
2014-01-1807
Recovering the braking energy and reusing it can significantly improve the fuel economy of a vehicle which is subject to frequent braking events such as a city bus. As one way to achieve this goal, pneumatic hybrid technology converts kinetic energy to pneumatic energy by compressing air into tanks during braking, and then reuses the compressed air to power an air starter to realize a regenerative Stop-Start function. Unlike the pure electric or hybrid electric passenger car, the pneumatic hybrid city bus uses the rear axle to achieve regenerative braking function. In this paper we discuss research into the blending of pneumatic regenerative braking and mechanical frictional braking at the rear axle. The aim of the braking function is to recover as much energy as possible and at the same time distribute the total braking effort between the front and rear axles to achieve stable braking performance.
Journal Article

Real-Time Optimal Energy Management of Heavy Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1748
The performance of energy flow management strategies is essential for the success of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which are considered amongst the most promising solutions for improving fuel economy as well as reducing exhaust emissions. The heavy duty HEVs engaged in cycles characterized by start-stop configuration has attracted widely interests, especially in off-road applications. In this paper, a fuzzy equivalent consumption minimization strategy (F-ECMS) is proposed as an intelligent real-time energy management solution for heavy duty HEVs. The online optimization problem is formulated as minimizing a cost function, in terms of weighted fuel power and electrical power. A fuzzy rule-based approach is applied on the weight tuning within the cost function, with respect to the variations of the battery state-of-charge (SOC) and elapsed time.
Technical Paper

Using Pneumatic Hybrid Technology to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Eliminate Turbo-Lag

2013-04-08
2013-01-1452
For the vehicles with frequent stop-start operations, fuel consumption can be reduced significantly by implementing stop-start operation. As one way to realize this goal, the pneumatic hybrid technology converts kinetic energy to pneumatic energy by compressing air into air tanks installed on the vehicle. The compressed air can then be reused to drive an air starter to realize a regenerative stop-start function. Furthermore, the pneumatic hybrid can eliminate turbo-lag by injecting compressed air into manifold and a correspondingly larger amount of fuel into the cylinder to build-up full-load torque almost immediately. This paper takes the pneumatic hybrid engine as the research object, focusing on evaluating the improvement of fuel economy of multiple air tanks in different test cycles. Also theoretical analysis the benefits of extra boost on reducing turbo-lag to achieve better performance.
Technical Paper

Explicit Model Predictive Control of the Diesel Engine Fuel Path

2012-04-16
2012-01-0893
For diesel engines, fuel path control plays a key role in achieving optimal emissions and fuel economy performance. There are several fuel path parameters that strongly affect the engine performance by changing the combustion process, by modifying for example, start of injection and fuel rail pressure. This is a multi-input multi-output problem. Linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a good approach for such a system with optimal solution. However, fuel path has fast dynamics. On-line optimisation MPC is not the good choice to cope with such fast dynamics. Explicit MPC uses off-line optimisation, therefore, it can be used to control the system with fast dynamics.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Potential of Intra-Cycle Combustion Control for Direct Injection Diesel Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1158
The injection timing of a Diesel internal combustion engine typically follows a prescribed sequence depending on the operating condition using open loop control. Due to advances in sensors and digital electronics it is now possible to implement closed loop control based on in cylinder pressure values. Typically this control action is slow, and it may take several cycles or at least one cycle (cycle-to-cycle control). Using high speed sensors, it becomes technically possible to measure pressure deviations and correct them within the same cycle (intra-cycle control). For example the in cylinder pressure after the pilot inject can be measured, and the timing of the main injection can be adjusted in timing and duration to compensate any deviations in pressure from the expected reference value. This level of control can significantly reduce the deviations between cycles and cylinders, and it can also improve the transient behavior of the engine.
Technical Paper

Drive Rattle Elastodynamic Response of Manual Automotive Transmissions

2011-05-17
2011-01-1586
Modern automotive industry is driven by improved fuel efficiency, whilst simultaneously increasing output power and reducing size/weight of vehicle components. This trend has the drawback of inducing various Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) concerns in the drivetrain, since fairly low energy excitation often suffices to excite natural modes of thin walled structures, such as the transmission bell housing. Transmission rattle is one of the many undesired NVH issues, originating from irregularities in engine torque output. The crankshaft speed fluctuations are transferred through the transmission input shaft. Transmission compactness also allows repetitive interaction of conjugate loose gear pairs. The engine fluctuations disturb the otherwise unintended, but orderly meshing of these loose gears. This often leads to radiation of a characteristic air-borne noise from the impact sites.
Technical Paper

BSFC Investigation Using Variable Valve Timing in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1525
Variable valve actuation in heavy duty diesel engines is not well documented, because of diesel engine feature, such as, unthrottled air handling, which gives little room to improve pumping loss; a very high compression ratio, which makes the clearance between the piston and valve small at the top dead center. In order to avoid strike the piston while maximizing the valve movement scope, different strategies are adopted in this paper: (1) While exhaust valve closing is fixed, exhaust valve opening is changed; (2) While exhaust valve closing is fixed, late exhaust valve opening: (3) While inlet valve opening is fixed, inlet valve closing is changed; (4) Delayed Inlet valve and exhaust valve openings and closings; (5) Changing exhaust valve timing; (6) changing inlet valve timing; (7) Changing both inlet and exhaust timing, will be used.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Unthrottled, Single and Two-valve Induction Strategies Utilising Direct Gasoline Injection: Emissions, Heat-release and Fuel Consumption Analysis

2008-06-23
2008-01-1626
For a spark-ignition engine, the parasitic loss suffered as a result of conventional throttling has long been recognised as a major reason for poor part-load fuel efficiency. While lean, stratified charge, operation addresses this issue, exhaust gas aftertreatment is more challenging compared with homogeneous operation and three-way catalyst after-treatment. This paper adopts a different approach: homogeneous charge direct injection (DI) operation with variable valve actuations which reduce throttling losses. In particular, low-lift and early inlet valve closing (EIVC) strategies are investigated. Results from a thermodynamic single cylinder engine are presented that quantify the effect of two low-lift camshafts and one standard high-lift camshaft operating EIVC strategies at four engine running conditions; both, two- and single-inlet valve operation were investigated. Tests were conducted for both port and DI fuelling, under stoichiometric conditions.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Spray/Wall Interaction Models under the Conditions Related to Diesel HCCI Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1632
Diesel homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines with early injection can result in significant spray/wall impingement which seriously affects the fuel efficiency and emissions. In this paper, the spray/wall interaction models which are available in the literatures are reviewed, and the characteristics of modeling including spray impingement regime, splash threshold, mass fraction, size and velocity of the second droplets are summarized. Then three well developed spray/wall interaction models, O'Rourke and Amsden (OA) model, Bai and Gosman (BG) model and Han, Xu and Trigui (HXT) model, are implemented into KIVA-3V code, and validated by the experimental data from recent literatures under the conditions related to diesel HCCI engines. By comparing the spray pattern, droplet mass, size and velocity after the impingement, the thickness of the wall film and vapor distribution with the experimental data, the performance of these three models are evaluated.
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