Holistic Thermal Energy Modelling For Full Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)
Full Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are usually defined by their capability to drive in a fully electric mode, offering the advantage that they do not produce any emissions at the point of use. This is particularly important in built up areas, where localised emissions in the form of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM), may worsen health issues such as respiratory disease. However, high degrees of electrification also mean that waste heat from the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) is often not available for heating the cabin and maintaining the temperature of the powertrain and emissions control system. If not managed properly, this can result in increased fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and reduced electric-only range at moderately high or low ambient temperatures negating many of the benefits of the electrification.