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Technical Paper

Streamlined Tails - The Effects of Truncation on Aerodynamic Drag

2020-04-14
2020-01-0673
Significant aerodynamic drag reduction is obtained on a bluff body by tapering the rear body. In the 1930’s it was found that a practical low drag car body could be achieved by cutting off the tail of a streamlined shape. The rear end of a car with a truncated tail is commonly referred to as a Kamm back. It has often been interpreted as implying that the drag of this type of body is almost the same as that for a fully streamlined shape. From a review of the limited research into truncated streamlined tails it is shown in this paper that, while true for some near axisymmetric bodies, it is not the case for many more car-like shapes. For these shapes the drag reduction from an elongated tail varies almost linearly with the reduction in cross section area. A CFD simulation to determine the drag reduction from a truncated streamlined tail of variable length on the simple Windsor Body is shown by way of confirmation.
Technical Paper

Review of Selection Criteria for Sensor and Actuator Configurations Suitable for Internal Combustion Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0758
This literature review considers the problem of finding a suitable configuration of sensors and actuators for the control of an internal combustion engine. It takes a look at the methods, algorithms, processes, metrics, applications, research groups and patents relevant for this topic. Several formal metric have been proposed, but practical use remains limited. Maximal information criteria are theoretically optimal for selecting sensors, but hard to apply to a system as complex and nonlinear as an engine. Thus, we reviewed methods applied to neighboring fields including nonlinear systems and non-minimal phase systems. Furthermore, the closed loop nature of control means that information is not the only consideration, and speed, stability and robustness have to be considered. The optimal use of sensor information also requires the use of models, observers, state estimators or virtual sensors, and practical acceptance of these remains limited.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Soot Concentration in a Prototype Multi-Hole Diesel Injector by High-Speed Color Diffused Back Illumination Technique

2017-10-08
2017-01-2255
A prototype multi-hole diesel injector operating with n-heptane fuel from a high-pressure common rail system is used in a high-pressure and high-temperature test rig capable of reaching 1100 Kelvin and 150 bar under different oxygen concentrations. A novel optical set-up capable of visualizing the soot cloud evolution in the fuel jet from 30 to 85 millimeters from the nozzle exit with the high-speed color diffused back illumination technique is used as a result of the insertion of a high-pressure window in the injector holder opposite to the frontal window of the vessel. The experiments performed in this work used one wavelength provide information about physical of the soot properties, experimental results variating the operational conditions show the reduction of soot formation with an increase in injection pressure, a reduction in ambient temperature, a reduction in oxygen concentration or a reduction in ambient density.
Journal Article

Off-Road Tire-Terrain Interaction: An Analytical Solution

2016-09-27
2016-01-8029
A novel semi-analytical solution has been developed for the calculation of the static and dynamic response of an off road tire interacting with a deformable terrain, which utilizes soil parameters independent of the size of the contact patch (size-independent). The models involved in the solution presented, can be categorized in rigid and/or pneumatic tires, with or without tread pattern. After a concise literature review of related methods, a detailed presentation of the semi-analytical solution is presented, along with assumptions and limitations. A flowchart is provided, showing the main steps of the numerical implementation, and various test cases have been examined, characterized in terms of vertical load, tire dimensions, soil properties, deformability of the tire, and tread pattern. It has been found that the proposed model can qualitatively capture the response of a rolling wheel on deformable terrain.
Technical Paper

A Pragmatic Model-Based Product Engineering Process

2014-04-01
2014-01-0308
Complexity of electronics and embedded software systems in automobiles has been increasing over the years. This necessitates the need for an effective and exhaustive development and validation process in order to deliver fault free vehicles at reduced time to market. Model-based Product Engineering (MBPE) is a new process for development and validation of embedded control software. The process is generic and defines the engineering activities to plan and assess the progress and quality of the software developed for automotive applications. The MBPE process is comprised of six levels (one design level and five verification and validation levels) ranging from the vehicle requirements phase to the start of production. The process describes the work products to be delivered during the course of product development and also aligns the delivery plan to overall vehicle development milestones.
Technical Paper

Interaction Between Ceramic Matrix Composite and Organic Pad Materials and its Impact on the Friction Performance

2011-09-18
2011-01-2350
Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) have been increasingly used as alternative materials of the rotors of friction brakes. However there is still a need for a better understanding of fundamentals of CMC rotors and their associated friction materials. In this paper, the friction performance at the initial stage was characterized by testing on a laboratory-scale dynamometer and a car for brakes consisting of rotors made of carbon-fiber-reinforced carbon-silicon carbide (Cf/C-SiC) composite, and pads with organic liners. The characteristics of friction surface and its evolution were studied through focused imaging on the surface of the rotor after testing on the dynamometer. Both dynamometer and vehicle tests showed that bedding was essential to reach the required coefficient of friction (CoF). Sustainable transfer layer was successfully deposited on the surface of silicon in the early stage of bedding, but the deposition became difficult on that of carbon constituents and silicon carbide.
Technical Paper

Recent Advances in Powertrain Sound Quality Hardware Tuning Devices and Perspectives on Future Advances

2009-05-19
2009-01-2192
Over the past decade there have been significant advances made in the technology used to engineer Powertrain Sound Quality into automobiles. These have included exhaust system technologies incorporating active and semi-active valves, intake system technologies involving passive and direct feedback devices, and technologies aimed at tuning the structure-borne content of vehicle interior sound. All of these technologies have been deployed to complement the traditional control of NVH issues through the enhancement of Powertrain Sound Quality. The aim of this paper is to provide an historical review of the recent industry-wide advances made in these technologies and to provide the author's perspective on what issues have been addressed and what opportunities have been delivered.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulation of Side Glass Surface Noise Spectra for a Bluff SUV

2006-04-03
2006-01-0137
Simulation of local flow structures in the A-pillar/side glass region of bluff SUV geometries, typical of Land Rover vehicles, presents a considerable challenge. Features such as relatively tight A-pillar radii and upright windscreens produce flows that are difficult to simulate. However, the usefulness of aerodynamics simulations in the early assessment of wind noise depends particularly on the local accuracy obtained in this region. This paper extends work previously published by the author(1) with additional data and analysis. An extended review of the relevant published literature is also provided. Then the degree to which a commercial Lattice-Boltzman solver (Exa PowerFLOW™) is currently able to capture both the local flow structure and surface pressure distribution (both time averaged and unsteady) is evaluated. Influential factors in the simulation are shown to be spatial resolution, turbulence and boundary layer modelling.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Issues in the Application of a Novel Process Description Environment for Machine Design and Control Developed under the Foresight Vehicle Programme

2002-03-04
2002-01-0466
In the globalization of the automotive businesses, manufacturing companies and their suppliers are forced to distribute the various lifecycle phases in different geographical locations. Misunderstandings arising from the variety of personnel involved, each with different requirements, backgrounds, roles, cultures and skills for example can result in increased cost and development time. To enable collaborating companies to have a common platform for interaction, the COMPANION project at Loughborough University has been undertaken to develop a common model-based environment for manufacturing automotive engines. Through the use of this environment, the stakeholders will be able to “visualize” consistently the evolution of automated systems at every lifecycle stage i.e. requirements definition, specification, design, analysis, build, evaluation, maintenance, diagnostics and recycle.
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