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Technical Paper

Influence of Injection Strategies on Engine Efficiency for a Methanol PPC Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0116
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is one of several advanced combustion concepts for the conventional diesel engine. PPC uses a separation between end of fuel injection and start of combustion, also called ignition dwell, to increase the mixing of fuel and oxidizer. This has been shown to be beneficial for simultaneously reducing harmful emissions and fuel consumption. The ignition dwell can be increased by means of exhaust gas recirculation or lower intake temperature. However, the most effective means is to use a fuel with high research octane number (RON). Methanol has a RON of 109 and a recent study found that methanol can be used effectively in PPC mode, with multiple injections, to yield high brake efficiency. However, the early start of injection (SOI) timings in this study were noted as a potential issue due to increased combustion sensitivity. Therefore, the present study attempts to quantify the changes in engine performance for different injection strategies.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Kinetic Mechanisms for Numerical Simulation of Methanol Combustion in DICI Heavy-Duty Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0208
The combustion process in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is mainly governed by ignition wave propagation. The in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, and the emission characteristics are thus largely driven by the chemical kinetics of the fuel. As a result, CFD simulation of such combustion process is very sensitive to the employed reaction mechanism, which model the real chemical kinetics of the fuel. In order to perform engine simulation with a range of operating conditions and cylinder-piston geometry for the design and optimization purpose, it is essential to have a chemical kinetic mechanism that is both accurate and computational inexpensive. In this paper, we report on the evaluation of several chemical kinetic mechanisms for methanol combustion, including large mechanisms and skeletal/reduced mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Gasoline Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions with a Wide-Range EGR in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0761
A large number of measurement techniques have been developed or adapted from other fields to measure various parameters of engine particulates. With the strict limits given by regulations on pollutant emissions, many advanced combustion strategies have been developed towards cleaner combustion. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely applied to suppress nitrogen oxide (NOx) and reduce soot emissions. On the other hand, gasoline starts to be utilized in compression ignition engines due to great potential in soot reduction and high engine efficiency. New engine trends raise the need for good sensitivity and suitable accuracy of the PM measurement techniques to detect particulates with smaller size and low particulate mass emissions. In this work, we present a comparison between different measurement techniques for particulate matter (PM) emissions in a compression ignition engine running on gasoline fuel. A wide-range of EGR was used with lambda varied from 3 down to 1.
Technical Paper

The Relevance of Different Fuel Indices to Describe Autoignition Behaviour of Gasoline in Light Duty DICI Engine under PPC Mode

2019-04-02
2019-01-1147
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) with gasoline fuels is a new promising combustion concept for future internal combustion engines. However, many researchers have argued the capabilities of research octane number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) to describe the autoignition behaviour of gasoline fuels in advanced combustion concepts like PPC. The objective of this study is to propose a new method, called PPC number, to characterize the auto ignition quality of gasoline fuels in a light-duty direct injected compression ignition engine under PPC conditions. The experimental investigations were performed on a 4-cylinder Volvo D4 2 litre engine. The ignition delay which was defined as the crank angle degrees between the start of injection (SOI) and start of combustion (SOC) was used to represent the auto ignition quality of a fuel.
Technical Paper

Effect of Piston Geometry on Stratification Formation in the Transition from HCCI to PPC

2018-09-10
2018-01-1800
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is an advanced combustion strategy that has been proposed to provide higher efficiency and lower emissions than conventional compression ignition, as well as greater controllability than homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). Stratification of the fuel-air mixture is the key to achieving these benefits. The injection strategy, injector-piston geometry design and fuel properties are factors commonly manipulated to adjust the stratification level. In the authors’ previous research, the effects of injection strategy and fuel properties on the stratification formation process were investigated. The results revealed that, for a direct-injection compression ignition engine, by sweeping the injection timing from −180° aTDC (after top dead center) to −20° aTDC, the sweep could be divided into three different regimes: an HCCI regime, a Transition regime and a PPC regime, based on the changing of mixture stratification conditions.
Journal Article

Investigation of Particle Number Emission Characteristics in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO)

2018-04-03
2018-01-0909
Diesel engines are one of the most important power generating units these days. Increasing greenhouse gas emission level and the need for energy security has prompted increasing research into alternative fuels for diesel engines. Biodiesel is the most popular among the alternatives for diesel fuel as it is biodegradable and renewable and can be produced domestically from vegetable oils. In recent years, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) has also gained popularity due to some of its advantages over biodiesel such as higher cetane number, lower deposit formation, storage stability, etc. HVO is a renewable, paraffinic biobased alternative fuel for diesel engines similar to biodiesel. Unlike biodiesel, the production process for HVO involves hydrogen as catalyst instead of methanol which removes oxygen content from vegetable oil.
Technical Paper

Humid Air Motor: A Novel Concept to Decrease the Emissions Using the Exhaust Heat

2017-10-08
2017-01-2369
Humid air motor (HAM) is an engine operated with humidified inlet charge. System simulations study on HAM showed the waste heat recovery potential over a conventional system. An HAM setup was constructed, to comprehend the potential benefits in real-time, the HAM setup was built around a 13-litre six cylinder Volvo diesel engine. The HAM engine process is explained in detail in this paper. Emission analysis is also performed for all three modes of operation. The experiments were carried out at part load operating point of the engine to understand the effects of humidified charge on combustion, efficiency, and emissions. Experiments were conducted without EGR, with EGR, and with humidified inlet charge. These three modes of operation provided the potential benefits of each system. Exhaust heat was used for partial humidification process. Results show that HAM operation, without compromising on efficiency, reduces NOx and soot significantly over the engine operated without EGR.
Technical Paper

Combined Low and High Pressure EGR for Higher Brake Efficiency with Partially Premixed Combustion

2017-10-08
2017-01-2267
The concept of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) in internal combustion engines has shown to yield high gross indicated efficiencies, but at the expense of gas exchange efficiencies. Most of the experimental research on partially premixed combustion has been conducted on compression ignition engines designed to operate on diesel fuel and relatively high exhaust temperatures. The partially premixed combustion concept on the other hand relies on dilution with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates to slow down the combustion which results in low exhaust temperatures, but also high mass flows over cylinder, valves, ports and manifolds. A careful design of the gas exchange system, EGR arrangement and heat exchangers is therefore of utter importance. Experiments were performed on a heavy-duty, compression ignition engine using a fuel consisting of 80 volume % 95 RON service station gasoline and 20 volume % n-heptane.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effect of Elevated Coolant Temperatures on HD Engines

2017-10-08
2017-01-2223
In recent years, stricter regulations on emissions and higher demands for more fuel efficient vehicles have led to a greater focus on increasing the efficiency of the internal combustion engine. Nowadays, there is increasing interest in the recovery of waste heat from different engine sources such as the coolant and exhaust gases using, for example, a Rankine cycle. In diesel engines 15% to 30% of the energy from the fuel can be lost to the coolant and hence, does not contribute to producing work on the piston. This paper looks at reducing the heat losses to the coolant by increasing coolant temperatures within a single cylinder Scania D13 engine and studying the effects of this on the energy balance within the engine as well as the combustion characteristics. To do this, a GT Power model was first validated against experimental data from the engine.
Technical Paper

Parametric Analysis of the Effect of Pilot Quantity, Combustion Phasing and EGR on Efficiencies of a Gasoline PPC Light-Duty Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0084
In this paper, a parametric analysis on the main engine calibration parameters applied on gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is performed. Theoretically, the PPC concept permits to improve both the engine efficiencies and the NOx-soot trade-off simultaneously compared to the conventional diesel combustion. This work is based on the design of experiments (DoE), statistical approach, and investigates on the engine calibration parameters that might affect the efficiencies and the emissions of a gasoline PPC. The full factorial DoE analysis based on three levels and three factors (33 factorial design) is performed at three engine operating conditions of the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycles (WLTC). The pilot quantity (Qpil), the crank angle position when 50% of the total heat is released (CA50), and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) factors are considered. The goal is to identify an engine calibration with high efficiency and low emissions.
Journal Article

Exhaust PM Emissions Analysis of Alcohol Fueled Heavy-Duty Engine Utilizing PPC

2016-10-17
2016-01-2288
The focus has recently been directed towards the engine out soot from Diesel engines. Running an engine in PPC (Partially Premixed Combustion) mode has a proven tendency of reducing these emissions significantly. In addition to combustion strategy, several studies have suggested that using alcohol fuels aid in reducing soot emissions to ultra-low levels. This study analyzes and compares the characteristics of PM emissions from naphtha gasoline PPC, ethanol PPC, methanol PPC and methanol diffusion combustion in terms of soot mass concentration, number concentration and particle size distribution in a single cylinder Scania D13 engine, while varying the intake O2. Intake temperature and injection pressure sweeps were also conducted. The fuels emitting the highest mass concentration of particles (Micro Soot Sensor) were gasoline and methanol followed by ethanol. The two alcohols tested emitted nucleation mode particles only, whereas gasoline emitted accumulation mode particles as well.
Journal Article

Double Compression Expansion Engine Concepts: A Path to High Efficiency

2015-04-14
2015-01-1260
Internal combustion engine (ICE) fuel efficiency is a balance between good indicated efficiency and mechanical efficiency. High indicated efficiency is reached with a very diluted air/fuel-mixture and high load resulting in high peak cylinder pressure (PCP). On the other hand, high mechanical efficiency is obtained with very low peak cylinder pressure as the piston rings and bearings can be made with less friction. This paper presents studies of a combustion engine which consists of a two stage compression and expansion cycle. By splitting the engine into two different cycles, high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) cycles respectively, it is possible to reach high levels of both indicated and mechanical efficiency simultaneously. The HP cycle is designed similar to today's turbo-charged diesel engine but with an even higher boost pressure, resulting in high PCP. To cope with high PCP, the engine needs to be rigid.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR and Intake Pressure on PPC of Conventional Diesel, Gasoline and Ethanol in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2702
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has the potential of simultaneously providing high engine efficiency and low emissions. Previous research has shown that with proper combination of Exhaust-Gas Recirculation (EGR) and Air-Fuel equivalence ratio, it is possible to reduce engine-out emissions while still keeping the engine efficiency high. In this paper, the effect of changes in intake pressure (boost) and EGR fraction on PPC engine performance (e.g. ignition delay, burn duration, maximum pressure rise rate) and emissions (carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), soot and NOX) was investigated in a single-cylinder, heavy-duty diesel engine. Swedish diesel fuel (MK1), RON 69 gasoline fuel and 99.5 vol% ethanol were tested. Fixed fueling rate and single injection strategy were employed.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation on Injection Strategy and Gasoline Quality Impact on In-Cylinder Temperature Distribution and Heat Transfer in PPC

2013-09-08
2013-24-0009
Recently, internal combustion engine design has been moving towards downsized, more efficient engines. One key in designing a more efficient engine is the control of heat losses, i.e., improvements of the thermodynamic cycle. Therefore, there is increasing interest in examining and documenting the heat transfer process of an internal combustion engine. A heavy-duty diesel engine was modeled with a commercial CFD code in order to examine the effects of two different gasoline fuels, and the injection strategy used, on heat transfer within the engine cylinder in a partially premixed combustion (PPC) mode. The investigation on the fuel quality and injection strategy indicates that the introduction of a pilot injection is more beneficial in order to lower heat transfer, than adjusting the fuel quality. This is due to reduced wall exposure to higher temperature gases and more equally distributed heat losses in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Surrogate Fuels Effect on Ignition Delay and Low Temperature Reaction during Partially Premixed Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-0903
Fuel effects on ignition delay and low temperature reactions (LTR) during partially premixed combustion (PPC) were analyzed using Design of Experiments (DoE). The test matrix included seventeen mixtures of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene and ethanol covering a broad range of ignition quality and fuel chemistry. Experiments were performed on a light-duty diesel engine at 8 bar IMEPg, 1500 rpm with a variation in combustion phasing, inlet oxygen concentration and injection pressure. A single injection strategy was used and the start of injection and injection duration were adjusted to achieve the desired load and combustion phasing. The experimental data show that fuels with higher Research Octane Number (RON) values generally produced longer ignition delays. In addition, the alcohol content had significantly stronger effect on ignition delay than the aromatic content.
Technical Paper

Potential ESC Performance of a Multi-Cylinder Heavy Duty PPC Truck Engine: System Simulations based on Single Cylinder Experiments

2013-04-08
2013-01-0268
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has demonstrated remarkably high gross indicated engine efficiencies combined with very low engine out emissions. The PPC concept relies on heavy boosting combined with dilution and partial premixing of the charge. The latter is usually achieved with high EGR rates and a separation of the fuel injection from the combustion event. Since more of the produced heat is used for work rather than being wasted with the exhaust gases, concerns have been raised regarding whether it is possible to achieve the required boosting pressures and EGR rates throughout the typical operating regime of a heavy duty (HD) diesel engine through turbocharging only. If supercharging would be required its cost in terms of work would mean a substantial loss of the gain in brake efficiencies of the PPC engine over current HD diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Waste Heat Recovery from Multiple Heat Sources in a HD Truck Diesel Engine Using a Rankine Cycle - A Theoretical Evaluation

2012-09-10
2012-01-1602
Few previous publications investigate the possibility of combining multiple waste heat sources in a combustion engine waste heat recovery system. A waste heat recovery system for a HD truck diesel engine is evaluated for utilizing multiple heat sources found in a conventional HD diesel engine. In this type of engine more than 50% of heat energy goes futile. The majority of the heat energy is lost through engine exhaust and cooling devices such as EGRC (Exhaust gas recirculation cooler), CAC (Charge air cooler) and engine cooling. In this paper, the potential of usable heat recuperation from these devices using thermodynamic analysis was studied, and also an effort is made to recuperate most of the available heat energy that would otherwise be lost. A well-known way of recuperating this heat energy is by employing a Rankine cycle circuit with these devices as heat sources (single loop or dual loop), and thus this study is focused on using a Rankine cycle for the heat recovery system.
Technical Paper

The Usefulness of Negative Valve Overlap for Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion, PPC

2012-09-10
2012-01-1578
Partially premixed combustion has the potential of high efficiency and simultaneous low soot and NOx emissions. Running the engine in PPC mode with high octane number fuels has the advantage of a longer premix period of fuel and air which reduces soot emissions, even at higher loads. The problem is the ignitability at low load and idle operating conditions. The objective is to investigate the usefulness of negative valve overlap on a light duty diesel engine running with gasoline partially premixed combustion at low load operating conditions. The idea is to use negative valve overlap to trap hot residual gases to elevate the global in-cylinder temperature to promote auto-ignition of the high octane number fuel. This is of practical interest at low engine speed and load operating conditions because it can be assumed that the available boost is limited. The problem with NVO at low load operating conditions is that the exhaust gas temperature is low.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Partially Premixed Combustion Characteristics in Low Load Range with Regards to Fuel Octane Number in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0684
The impact of ignition quality and chemical properties on engine performance and emissions during low load partially premixed combustion (PPC) in a light-duty diesel engine were investigated. Four fuels in the gasoline boiling range, together with Swedish diesel (MK1), were operated at loads between 2 and 8 bar IMEPg at 1500 rpm, with 50% heat released located at 6 crank angle degrees (CAD) after top dead center (TDC). A single injection strategy was used, wherein the start of injection (SOI) and the injection duration were adjusted to achieve desired loads with maintained CA50, as the injection pressure was kept constant at 1000 bar. The objective of this work was to examine the low-load limit for PPC at approximately 50% EGR and λ=1.5, since these levels had been suggested as optimal in earlier studies. The low-load limits with stable combustion were between 5 and 7 bar gross IMEP for the gasoline fuels, higher limit for higher RON values.
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