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Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Methanol Ignition Sequence in an Optical PPC Engine with Multiple Injection Strategies

2019-09-09
2019-24-0007
Methanol is a genuine candidate on the alternative fuel market for internal combustion engines, especially within the heavy-duty transportation sector. Partially premixed combustion (PPC) engine concept, known for its high efficiency and low emission rates, can be promoted further with methanol fuel due to its unique thermo-physical properties. The low stoichiometric air to fuel ratio allows to utilize late injection timings, which reduces the wall-wetting effects, and thus can lead to less unburned hydrocarbons. Moreover, combustion of methanol as an alcohol fuel, is free from soot emissions, which allows to extend the operation range of the engine. However, due to the high latent heat of vaporization, the ignition event requires a high inlet temperature to achieve ignition event. In this paper LES simulations together with experimental measurements on an heavy-duty optical engine are used to study methanol PPC engine.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of an Ignition Front in a Heavy Duty Partially Premixed Combustion Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0010
In partially premixed combustion engines high octane number fuels are injected into the cylinder during the late part of the compression cycle, giving the fuel and oxidizer enough time to mix into a desirable stratified mixture. If ignited by auto-ignition such a gas composition can react in a combustion mode dominated by ignition wave propagation. 3D-CFD modeling of such a combustion mode is challenging as the rate of fuel consumption can be dependent on both mixing history and turbulence acting on the reaction wave. This paper presents a large eddy simulation (LES) study of the effects of stratification in scalar concentration (enthalpy and reactant mass fraction) due to large scale turbulence on the propagation of reaction waves in PPC combustion engines. The studied case is a closed cycle simulation of a single cylinder of a Scania D13 engine running PRF81 (81% iso-octane and 19% n-heptane).
Technical Paper

A Coupled Tabulated Kinetics and Flame Propagation Model for the Simulation of Fumigated Medium Speed Dual-Fuel Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0098
The present work describes the numerical modeling of medium-speed marine engines, operating in a fumigated dual-fuel mode, i.e. with the second fuel injected in the ports. This engine technology allows reducing engine-out emissions while maintaining the engine efficiency and can be fairly easily retrofitted from current diesel engines. The main premixed fuel that is added can be a low-carbon one and can additionally be of a renewable nature, thereby reducing or even completely removing the global warming impact. To fully optimize the operational parameters of such a large marine engine, computational fluid dynamics can be very helpful. Accurately describing the combustion process in such an engine is key, as the prediction of the heat release and the pollutant formation is crucial. Auto-ignition of the diesel fuel needs to be captured, followed by the combustion and flame propagation of the premixed fuel.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Timing on the Ignition and Mode of Combustion in a HD PPC Engine Running Low Load

2019-04-02
2019-01-0211
This work aims to study the effect of fuel inhomogeneity on the ignition process and subsequent combustion in a compression ignition Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) engine using a primary reference fuel (PRF) in low load conditions. Five cases with injection timings ranging from the start of injection (SOI) at -70 crank angle degrees (CAD) to -17 CAD have been studied numerically and experimentally in a heavy duty (HD) piston bowl geometry. Intake temperature is adjusted to keep the combustion phasing constant. Three dimensional numerical simulations are performed in a closed cycle sector domain using the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation with k-ϵ turbulence closure and direct coupling of finite rate chemistry. The results are compared with engine experiments. The predicted trends in required intake temperature and auto-ignition location for a constant combustion phasing are consistent with experiments.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Kinetic Mechanisms for Numerical Simulation of Methanol Combustion in DICI Heavy-Duty Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0208
The combustion process in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is mainly governed by ignition wave propagation. The in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, and the emission characteristics are thus largely driven by the chemical kinetics of the fuel. As a result, CFD simulation of such combustion process is very sensitive to the employed reaction mechanism, which model the real chemical kinetics of the fuel. In order to perform engine simulation with a range of operating conditions and cylinder-piston geometry for the design and optimization purpose, it is essential to have a chemical kinetic mechanism that is both accurate and computational inexpensive. In this paper, we report on the evaluation of several chemical kinetic mechanisms for methanol combustion, including large mechanisms and skeletal/reduced mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Heat Loss Analysis for Various Piston Geometries in a Heavy-Duty Methanol PPC Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1726
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) in internal combustion engine as a low temperature combustion strategy has shown great potential to achieve high thermodynamic efficiency. Methanol due to its unique properties is considered as a preferable PPC engine fuel. The injection timing to achieve methanol PPC conditions should be set very close to TDC, allowing to utilize spray-bowl interaction to further improve combustion process in terms of emissions and heat losses. In this study CFD simulations are performed to investigate spray-bowl interaction for a number of different piston designs and its impact on the heat transfer and the overall piston performance. The validation case is based on a single cylinder heavy-duty Scania D13 engine with a compression ratio 15. The operation point is set to low load 5.42 IMEPg bar with SOI -3 aTDC.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Injection Pressure on the NOx Emission Rates in a Heavy-Duty DICI Engine Running on Methanol.

2017-10-08
2017-01-2194
Heavy-duty direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engine running on methanol is studied at a high compression ratio (CR) of 27. The fuel is injected with a common-rail injector close to the top-dead-center (TDC) with two injection pressures of 800 bar and 1600 bar. Numerical simulations using Reynold Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS), Lagrangian Particle Tracking (LPT), and Well-Stirred-Reactor (WSR) models are employed to investigate local conditions of injection and combustion process to identify the mechanism behind the trend of increasing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions at higher injection pressures found in the experiments. It is shown that the numerical simulations successfully replicate the change of ignition delay time and capture variation of NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Estimation of Asymmetry of In-Cylinder Flow in a Light Duty Direct Injection Engine with Re-Entrant Piston Bowl

2017-10-08
2017-01-2209
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) can be applied to decrease emissions and increase fuel efficiency in direct injection, compression ignition (DICI) combustion engines. PPC is strongly influenced by the mixing of fuel and oxidizer, which for a given fuel is controlled mainly by (a) the fuel injection, (b) the in-cylinder flow, and (c) the geometry and dynamics of the engine. As the injection timings can vary over a wide range in PPC combustion, detailed knowledge of the in-cylinder flow over the whole intake and compression strokes can improve our understanding of PPC combustion. In computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the in-cylinder flow is sometimes simplified and modeled as a solid-body rotation profile at some time prior to injection to produce a realistic flow field at the moment of injection. In real engines, the in-cylinder flow motion is governed by the intake manifold, the valve motion, and the engine geometry.
Technical Paper

Effect of Start of Injection on the Combustion Characteristics in a Heavy-Duty DICI Engine Running on Methanol

2017-03-28
2017-01-0560
Methanol as an alternative fuel in internal combustion engines has an advantage in decreasing emissions of greenhouse gases and soot. Hence, developing of a high performance internal combustion engine operating with methanol has attracted the attention in industry and academic research community. This paper presents a numerical study of methanol combustion at different start-of-injection (SOI) in a direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engine supported by experimental studies. The aim is to investigate the combustion behavior of methanol with single and double injection at close to top-dead-center (TDC) conditions. The experimental engine is a modified version of a heavy duty D13 Scania engine. URANS simulations are performed for various injection timings with delayed SOI towards TDC, aiming at analyzing the characteristics of partially premixed combustion (PPC).
Technical Paper

Injection of Fuel at High Pressure Conditions: LES Study

2011-09-11
2011-24-0041
This paper presents a large eddy simulation study of the liquid spray mixing with hot ambient gas in a constant volume vessel under engine-like conditions with the injection pressure of 1500 bar, ambient density 22.8 kg/m₃, ambient temperature of 900 K and an injector nozzle of 0.09 mm. The simulation results are compared with the experiments carried out by Pickett et al., under similar conditions. Under modern direct injection diesel engine conditions, it has been argued that the liquid core region is small and the droplets after atomization are fine so that the process of spray evaporation and mixing with the air is controlled by the heat and mass transfer between the ambient hot gas and central fuel flow. To examine this hypothesis a simple spray breakup model is tested in the present LES simulation. The simulations are performed using an open source compressible flow solver, in OpenFOAM.
Technical Paper

Effects of Negative Valve Overlap on the Auto-ignition Process of Lean Ethanol/Air Mixture in HCCI-Engines

2010-10-25
2010-01-2235
This paper presents a computational study of the effects of fuel and thermal stratifications on homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process in a personal car sized internal combustion engine. Stratified HCCI conditions are generated using a negative valve overlap (NVO) technique. The aims of this study are to improve the understanding of the flow dynamics, the heat and mass transfer process and the onset of auto-ignition in stratified charges under different internal EGR rate and NVO conditions. The fuel is ethanol supplied through port-fuel injection; the fuel/air mixture is assumed to be homogenous before discharging to the cylinder. Large eddy simulation (LES) is used to resolve in detailed level the flow structures, and the mixing and heat transfer between the residual gas and fresh fuel/air mixtures in the intake and compression strokes.
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