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Technical Paper

Optimization and Evaluation of a Low Temperature Waste Heat Recovery System for a Heavy Duty Engine over a Transient Cycle

2020-09-15
2020-01-2033
Powertrain efficiency is a critical factor in lowering fuel consumption and reducing the emission of greenhouse gases for an internal combustion engine. One method to increase the powertrain efficiency is to recover some of the wasted heat from the engine using a waste heat recovery system e.g. an organic Rankine cycle. Most waste heat recovery systems in use today for combustion engines use the waste heat from the exhaust gases due to the high temperatures and hence, high energy quality. However, the coolant represents a major source of waste heat in the engine that is mostly overlooked due to its lower temperature. This paper studies the potential of using elevated coolant temperatures in internal combustion engines to improve the viability of low temperature waste heat recovery.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effect of Glow Plugs on Low Load Gasoline PPC

2020-09-15
2020-01-2067
Low temperature combustion (LTC), is a promising alternative for combustion engines, because it combines the positive aspects of both CI and SI engines, high efficiency and low emissions. Another positive aspect of LTC is that it can operate with gasoline of different octane ratings. Still, higher octane gasolines prove to be difficult to operate at low load conditions leading to high combustion instability (COV) that leads also to high emissions. This drawback can be reduced by increasing the intake air temperature or increasing compression ratio, but it is not a viable strategy in conventional applications. For a diesel engine running under LTC conditions, a possibility is to use the existing hardware, glow plugs in this case, to increase the in-cylinder temperature at low loads and facilitate an improved combustion event.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection Timing on Equivalence Ratio Stratification of Methanol and Isooctane in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2069
CO2 is a greenhouse gas that is believed to be one of the main contributors to global warming. Recent studies show that a combination of methanol as a renewable fuel and advanced combustion concepts could be a promising future solution to alleviate this problem. However, high unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions can be stated as the main drawback in low load operations when using methanol under advanced combustion concepts. This issue can be mitigated by modifying the stratification of the local equivalence ratio to achieve a favorable level. The stratifications evolved, and the regimes that can simultaneously produce low emissions, and high combustion efficiency can be identified by sweeping the injection timing from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Understanding how the stratification of the local equivalence ratio for methanol evolves during the sweep is essential to gain these benefits.
Technical Paper

In-Cycle Closed-Loop Combustion Control for Pilot Misfire Compensation

2020-09-15
2020-01-2086
Pilot injections are normally used for the reduction of diesel engine emissions and combustion noise. Nonetheless, with a penalty on the indicated thermal efficiency. The cost is reduced by the minimization of the pilot mass, which on its counterpart increases the risk of pilot misfire. Pilot misfire can have a higher penalty on the indicated efficiency if it is not compensated adequately. This paper investigates how in-cycle closed-loop combustion control techniques can reduce the effects of pilot misfire events. By closed-loop combustion control, pilot misfire can be detected and counteracted in-cycle. Two injection strategies are investigated. The first is the control of the main injection, the second includes an additional second pilot injection. Based on the in-cycle misfire diagnose, two architectures are investigated. The first uses a cycle-to-cycle controller to set the main injection under each scenario.
Technical Paper

Optical Characterization of Methanol Sprays and Mixture Formation in a Compression-Ignition Heavy-Duty Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2109
Methanol is not a fuel typically used in compression ignition engines due to the high resistance to auto-ignition. However, conventional diesel combustion and PPC offer high engine efficiency along with low HC and CO emissions, albeit with the trade-off of increased NOx and PM emissions. This trade-off balance is mitigated in the case of methanol and other alcohol fuels, as they bring oxygen in the combustion chamber. Thus methanol compression ignition holds the potential for a clean and effective alternative fuel proposition. Most existing research on methanol is on SI engines and very little exists in the literature regarding methanol auto-ignition engine concepts. In this study, the spray characteristics of methanol inside the optically accessible cylinder of a DI-HD engine are investigated. The liquid penetration length at various injection timings is documented, ranging from typical PPC range down to conventional diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

Transition from HCCI to PPC: Investigation of the Effect of Different Injection Timing on Ignition and Combustion Characteristics in an Optical PPC Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0559
The partially premixed combustion (PPC) concept is regarded as an intermediate process between the thoroughly mixed Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion and compression ignition (CI) combustion. It’s a combination of auto-ignition mode, a fuel-rich premixed combustion mode, and a diffusion combustion mode. The concept has both high efficiency and low soot emission due to low heat losses and less stratified fuel and air mixtures compared to conventional diesel CI. The mechanisms behind the combustion process are not yet very well known. This work focuses on the efficiency and the in-cylinder process in terms of fuel distribution and the initial phase of the combustion. More specifically, double injection strategies are compared with single injection strategies to achieve different levels of stratification, ranging from HCCI to PPC like combustion as well as poor (43%) to good (49%) of gross indicated efficiency.
Technical Paper

Impact of Multiple Injection Strategies on Performance and Emissions of Methanol PPC under Low Load Operation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0556
There is growing global interest in using renewable alcohols to reduce the greenhouse gases and the reliance on conventional fossil fuels. Recent studies show that methanol combined with partially premixed combustion provide clear performance and emission benefits compared to conventional diesel diffusion combustion. Nonetheless, high unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions can be stated as the main PPC drawback in light load condition when using high octane fuel such as Methanol with single injection strategy. Thus, the present experimental study has been carried out to investigate the influence of multiple injection strategies on the performance and emissions with methanol fuel in partially premixed combustion. Specifically, the main objective is to reduce HC, CO and simultaneously increase the gross indicated efficiency compared to single injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Optical Characterization of the Combustion Process inside a Large-Bore Dual-Fuel Two-Stroke Marine Engine by Using Multiple High-Speed Cameras

2020-04-14
2020-01-0788
Dual-fuel engines for marine propulsion are gaining in importance due to operational and environmental benefits. Here the combustion in a dual-fuel marine engine operating on diesel and natural gas, is studied using a multiple high-speed camera arrangement. By recording the natural flame emission from three different directions the flame position inside the engine cylinder can be spatially mapped and tracked in time. Through space carving a rough estimate of the three-dimensional (3D) flame contour can be obtained. From this contour, properties like flame length and height, as well as ignition locations can be extracted. The multi-camera imaging is applied to a dual-fuel marine two-stroke engine, with a bore diameter of 0.5 m and a stroke of 2.2 m. Both liquid and gaseous fuels are directly injected at high pressure, using separate injection systems. Optical access is obtained using borescope inserts, resulting in a minimum disturbance to the cylinder geometry.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Assessment of Active Pre-chamber Ignition in Heavy Duty Natural Gas Stationary Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0819
Gas engines (fuelled with CNG, LNG or Biogas) for generation of power and heat are, to this date, taking up larger shares of the market with respect to diesel engines. In order to meet the limit imposed by the TA-Luft regulations on stationary engines, lean combustion represents a viable solution for achieving lower emissions as well as efficiency levels comparable with diesel engines. Leaner mixtures however affect the combustion stability as the flame propagation velocity and consequently heat release rate are slowed down. As a strategy to deliver higher ignition energy, an active pre-chamber may be used. This work focuses on assessing the performance of a pre-chamber combustion configuration in a stationary heavy-duty engine for power generation, operating at different loads, air-to-fuel ratios and spark timings.
Technical Paper

Impact of Multiple Injection Strategies on Efficiency and Combustion Characteristics in an Optical PPC Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-1131
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is a promising way to achieve high thermal efficiency and low emissions, especially by using multiple injection strategies. The mechanisms behind PPC efficiency are still to be explained and explored. In this paper, multiple injections have been used to affect the gross indicated efficiency in an optical PPC engine modified from a Volvo MD13 heavy-duty diesel engine. The aim is both to improve and impair the gross indicated efficiency to understand the differences. The combustion natural luminosity is captured by a high-speed camera, and the distribution of fuel, oxygen, and temperature during the combustion process has been further explored by CFD simulation. The results show that with the right combination of the pilot, main, and post injection the gross indicated efficiency can be improved.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of Compression Ratio for a PPC Engine running on Methanol

2019-12-19
2019-01-2168
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) has shown to produce high gross indicated efficiencies while yielding lower pollutant emissions, such as oxides of nitrogen and soot, than conventional diesel combustion. Gasoline fuels with a research octane number (RON) of 60-70 have been proposed as optimal for PPC as they balance the trade-off between ensuring good combustion stability at low engine loads and avoiding excessive peak pressure rise rates at high loads. However, measures have to be taken when optimizing the engine operating parameters to avoid soot emissions. In contrast, methanol has a much lower propensity for soot formation. However, due to a higher RON of methanol the required intake temperature is higher for the same engine compression ratio to ensure auto-ignition at an appropriate timing. Increasing the compression ratio allows a lower intake temperature and improves combustion stability as well as engine brake efficiency.
Technical Paper

Regulated Emissions and Detailed Particle Characterisation for Diesel and RME Biodiesel Fuel Combustion with Varying EGR in a Heavy-Duty Engine

2019-12-19
2019-01-2291
This study investigates particulate matter (PM) and regulated emissions from renewable rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) biodiesel in pure and blended forms and contrasts that to conventional diesel fuel. Environmental and health concerns are the major motivation for combustion engines research, especially finding sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and reducing diesel PM emissions. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), including RME, are renewable fuels commonly used from low level blends with diesel to full substitution. They strongly reduce the net carbon dioxide emissions. It is largely unknown how the emissions and characteristics of PM get altered by the combined effect of adding biodiesel to diesel and implementing modern engine concepts that reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions by exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).
Technical Paper

Literature Review on Dual-Fuel Combustion Modelling

2019-09-09
2019-24-0120
In the search for low greenhouse gas propulsion, the dual fuel engine provides a solution to use low carbon fuel at diesel-like high efficiency. Also a lower emission of NOx and particles can be achieved by replacing a substantial part of the diesel fuel by for example natural gas. Limitations can be found in excessively high heat release rate (combustion-knock), and high methane emissions. These limitations are strongly influenced by operating parameters and properties of the used (bio)-gas. To find the dominant relations between fuel properties, operating parameters and the heat release rate and methane emissions, a combustion model is beneficial. Such a model can be used for optimizing the process, or can even be used in real time control. As precursor for such a model, the current state of art of dual fuel combustion modelling is investigated in this work. The focus is on high speed dual fuel engines for heavy duty and marine applications, with a varying gas/diesel ratio.
Technical Paper

A Coupled Tabulated Kinetics and Flame Propagation Model for the Simulation of Fumigated Medium Speed Dual-Fuel Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0098
The present work describes the numerical modeling of medium-speed marine engines, operating in a fumigated dual-fuel mode, i.e. with the second fuel injected in the ports. This engine technology allows reducing engine-out emissions while maintaining the engine efficiency and can be fairly easily retrofitted from current diesel engines. The main premixed fuel that is added can be a low-carbon one and can additionally be of a renewable nature, thereby reducing or even completely removing the global warming impact. To fully optimize the operational parameters of such a large marine engine, computational fluid dynamics can be very helpful. Accurately describing the combustion process in such an engine is key, as the prediction of the heat release and the pollutant formation is crucial. Auto-ignition of the diesel fuel needs to be captured, followed by the combustion and flame propagation of the premixed fuel.
Technical Paper

Learning Based Model Predictive Control of Combustion Timing in Multi-Cylinder Partially Premixed Combustion Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0016
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has shown to be a promising advanced combustion mode for future engines in terms of efficiency and emission levels. The combustion timing should be suitably phased to realize high efficiency. However, a simple constant model based predictive controller is not sufficient for controlling the combustion during transient operation. This article proposed one learning based model predictive control (LBMPC) approach to achieve controllability and feasibility. A learning model was developed to capture combustion variation. Since PPC engines could have unacceptably high pressure-rise rates at different operation points, triple injection is applied as a solvent, with the use of two pilot fuel injections. The LBMPC controller utilizes the main injection timing to manage the combustion timing. The cylinder pressure is used as the combustion feedback. The method is validated in a multi-cylinder heavy-duty PPC engine for transient control.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of an Ignition Front in a Heavy Duty Partially Premixed Combustion Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0010
In partially premixed combustion engines high octane number fuels are injected into the cylinder during the late part of the compression cycle, giving the fuel and oxidizer enough time to mix into a desirable stratified mixture. If ignited by auto-ignition such a gas composition can react in a combustion mode dominated by ignition wave propagation. 3D-CFD modeling of such a combustion mode is challenging as the rate of fuel consumption can be dependent on both mixing history and turbulence acting on the reaction wave. This paper presents a large eddy simulation (LES) study of the effects of stratification in scalar concentration (enthalpy and reactant mass fraction) due to large scale turbulence on the propagation of reaction waves in PPC combustion engines. The studied case is a closed cycle simulation of a single cylinder of a Scania D13 engine running PRF81 (81% iso-octane and 19% n-heptane).
Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Flow Structures on Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Swirl-Supported Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0009
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to describe the effect of in-cylinder flow structures on the formation and oxidation of soot in a swirl-supported light-duty diesel engine. The focus of the paper is on the effect of swirl motion and injection pressure on late cycle soot oxidation. The structure of the flow at different swirl numbers is studied to investigate the effect of varying swirl number on the coherent flow structures. These coherent flow structures are studied to understand the mechanism that leads to efficient soot oxidation in late cycle. Effect of varying injection pressure at different swirl numbers and the interaction between spray and swirl motions are discussed. The complexity of diesel combustion, especially when soot and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Methanol Ignition Sequence in an Optical PPC Engine with Multiple Injection Strategies

2019-09-09
2019-24-0007
Methanol is a genuine candidate on the alternative fuel market for internal combustion engines, especially within the heavy-duty transportation sector. Partially premixed combustion (PPC) engine concept, known for its high efficiency and low emission rates, can be promoted further with methanol fuel due to its unique thermo-physical properties. The low stoichiometric air to fuel ratio allows to utilize late injection timings, which reduces the wall-wetting effects, and thus can lead to less unburned hydrocarbons. Moreover, combustion of methanol as an alcohol fuel, is free from soot emissions, which allows to extend the operation range of the engine. However, due to the high latent heat of vaporization, the ignition event requires a high inlet temperature to achieve ignition event. In this paper LES simulations together with experimental measurements on an heavy-duty optical engine are used to study methanol PPC engine.
Journal Article

Cylinder Pressure Based Method for In-Cycle Pilot Misfire Detection

2019-09-09
2019-24-0017
For the reduction of emissions and combustion noise in an internal combustion diesel engine, multiple injections are normally used. A pilot injection reduces the ignition delay of the main injection and hence the combustion noise. However, normal variations of the operating conditions, component tolerances, and aging may result in the lack of combustion i.e. pilot misfire. The result is a lower indicated thermal efficiency, higher emissions, and louder combustion noise. Closed-loop combustion control techniques aim to monitor in real-time these variations and act accordingly to counteract their effect. To ensure the in-cycle controllability of the main injection, the misfire diagnosis must be performed before the start of the main injection. This paper focuses on the development and evaluation of in-cycle algorithms for the pilot misfire detection. Based on in-cylinder pressure measurements, different approaches to the design of the detectors are compared.
Journal Article

Influence of Injection Strategies on Engine Efficiency for a Methanol PPC Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0116
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is one of several advanced combustion concepts for the conventional diesel engine. PPC uses a separation between end of fuel injection and start of combustion, also called ignition dwell, to increase the mixing of fuel and oxidizer. This has been shown to be beneficial for simultaneously reducing harmful emissions and fuel consumption. The ignition dwell can be increased by means of exhaust gas recirculation or lower intake temperature. However, the most effective means is to use a fuel with high research octane number (RON). Methanol has a RON of 109 and a recent study found that methanol can be used effectively in PPC mode, with multiple injections, to yield high brake efficiency. However, the early start of injection (SOI) timings in this study were noted as a potential issue due to increased combustion sensitivity. Therefore, the present study attempts to quantify the changes in engine performance for different injection strategies.
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